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Diversen

Lokale oplossingen voor problemen in asielopvang: de ‘vluchtelingencrisis’ als window of opportunity

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2017
Trefwoorden asylum reception, local turn, Plan Einstein, experimental governance
Auteurs dr. Karin Geuijen, dr. Rianne Dekker en dr. Caroline Oliver
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    During the recent ‘refugee crisis’, governments have been confronted with various problems concerning asylum reception. In several locations in the Netherlands, as well as elsewhere in Europe and beyond, new local forms of experimenting around the issue of asylum reception have begun. One example is Utrecht’s ‘Plan Einstein’. In Overvecht, a district of the city, an office building has been converted into an asylum shelter, where 400 asylum seekers live together with 38 non-refugee youngsters from Utrecht. The Centre runs courses and activities, offered to both asylum seekers (including those who do not yet have a residence status) and local residents. Employing the concepts of ‘multilevel governance’ and ‘experimental governance’, this article indicates why this initiative was able to be realized at this location and at this time.


dr. Karin Geuijen
Dr. Karin Geuijen is als universitair docent verbonden aan het departement bestuurs- en organisatiewetenschap, Universiteit Utrecht. E-mail: k.geuijen@uu.nl.

dr. Rianne Dekker
Dr. Rianne Dekker is als universitair docent verbonden aan het departement bestuurs- en organisatiewetenschap, Universiteit Utrecht. E-mail: r.dekker1@uu.nl.

dr. Caroline Oliver
Dr. Caroline Oliver is senior lecturer bij het department of social sciences,University of Roehampton, Londen. E-mail: caroline.oliver@roehampton.ac.uk.
Artikel

Safe havens voor onrechtmatig in Nederland verblijvende vreemdelingen

Veiligheid en het toezicht op irreguliere migratie via hulpverleningsorganisaties

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden unauthorized migrants, civil society, safety, migration control, policing non-citizens, NGOs
Auteurs prof. dr. Richard Staring en Mieke Kox MA
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) within Dutch civil society provide material and immaterial assistance to unauthorized migrants in the Netherlands. Based on long-term qualitative fieldwork in the life worlds of unauthorized migrants, the authors describe how the migrants experience these NGOs as a safe haven where they feel at home and secure for the risks of apprehension and deportation. We argue that these safe havens are also beneficial for the society at large. These NGOs contribute to preventing unauthorized migrants from sleeping in public places and employing illegitimate survival strategies. In addition, the NGOs’ empowerment of these migrants is advantageous for their willingness to access healthcare and employ legal rights. Recent attempts of the Dutch government to restrict the number of these NGOs, lead amongst other things to NGOs who are increasingly focusing on the unauthorized migrants’ return. We argue that these governmental efforts of controlling unauthorized migration through NGOs, will result in unauthorized migrants loosing trust in these safe havens. Ultimately, this governmental control through NGOs will have a negative impact on feelings of security in the society at large as it fundamentally diminishes the significance of these NGOs in civil society for unauthorized migrants without offering an alternative.


prof. dr. Richard Staring
Prof. dr. Richard Staring is bijzonder hoogleraar mobiliteit, toezicht en criminaliteit aanp de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

Mieke Kox MA
Mieke Kox, MA, is PhD kandidaat bij de sectie criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

Othering refugees: exclusion, containment and spaces of hope

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden refugee camp, space, foreigner dispositif, fieldwork
Auteurs Lynn Musiol MA
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The article examines mechanisms of othering the refugees illustrated on one refugee camp in Germany. Based on the theoretical strand of the foreigner dispositif, I analyze spatial and architectural compositions of the camp to outline the differentiation of ‘we’ (nation state) and ‘others’ (refugees). In the process of othering space excludes, controls and identifies refugees as ‘others’. However, being identified as the other, space can also be conceived as a specific space of hope. The findings shed some light on the link between othering, space and identity.


Lynn Musiol MA
Lynn Musiol is a master student Interna­tional Criminology at the University of Hamburg.
Artikel

Can I sit?

The use of public space and the ‘other’

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden public space, built environment, other, social control
Auteurs CalvinJohn Smiley PhD
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Newark Penn Station is the most frequented train station in New Jersey, United States. Two distinct groups occupy this public space. First are the commuters who travel by the trains to reach destinations for work or pleasure. Second are the transient who do not use the trains but instead remain in and around the station for various reasons, otherwise known as the ‘other.’ The latter population is closely monitored and controlled by law enforcement through a variety of written and unwritten laws and codes of conduct, which are based on broken windows theory and crime prevention through environment design (CPTED). The primary focus is how the ‘other’ seemingly navigates and occupies public space. Through ethnographic research, this paper reflects and reveals the ways in which the station is a living social organism that simultaneously marginalizes and incorporates those defined as the ‘other’ into this space. This complex and contradictory dynamic illustrates the interactions between public spaces and its occupiers and regulators.


CalvinJohn Smiley PhD
Dr CalvinJohn Smiley is currently working at the Sociology Department of Hunter College at the City University of New York.
Artikel

Met de schrik vrij?

Een exploratief onderzoek naar de afschrikwekkende werking van vreemdelingendetentie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2013
Trefwoorden Irregular migrants, immigration detention, deterrence, return
Auteurs Mieke Kox MA en Dr. Arjen Leerkes
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Immigration detention is formally not a punishment, but governments do seem to use it to deter irregular migrants from staying in the territory. This study explores whether and how practices of immigration detention in the Netherlands affect detainees’ decision-making processes regarding return and result in ‘specific deterrence’. 81 unauthorized irregular migrants were interviewed in immigration detention and their casefiles were examined. We find evidence for a limited deterrence effect: a minority of the respondents indeed wanted to return to their countries of origin in order to end their (repeated) stay in immigration detention. For some respondents the detention experience contributed to a desire to migrate from the Netherlands to a different European country. We go into the relevance of these findings for the continuing societal debate on the use of immigration detention.


Mieke Kox MA
Mieke Kox MA is als wetenschappelijk docent en onderzoeker verbonden aan de sectie criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. E-mail: kox@law.eur.nl

Dr. Arjen Leerkes
Dr. Arjen Leerkes is als universitair docent verbonden aan de sectie sociologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam en onderzoeker bij het WODC/Ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie. E-mail: leerkes@fsw.eur.nl
Diversen

Is the peer ethnographic approach a suitable method for researching lives of undocumented migrants?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2013
Trefwoorden peer methods, undocumented, ethnographic, research
Auteurs Latefa Narriman Guemar en Helen Hintjens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article reflects on some of the qualities and strengths, as well as some potential weaknesses, of a research methodology used to study ‘hard-to-reach’ groups, such as the undocumented. This approach, known as the PEER (Participatory Ethnographic Evaluation and Research) approach, is introduced in terms of its key elements of trust, anonymity, in-depth data and flexibility. Its suitability for sensitive, or ‘liminal’ research issues, involving groups of vulnerable informants, is explained. The method is based on relations of trust, which are maintained through anonymity in data collection, and extend from social researchers to informants, through the intermediation of trained community-based peer researchers. It is they who interview others in their own social networks; since trust is the key ingredient in making this ethically-informed methodology work well, trust must be invested also in the peer researchers, who form part of the research team.


Latefa Narriman Guemar
Latefa Narriman Guemar is als PhD-student verbonden aan het Centre for Migration Policy Research, Swansea University. Tevens is ze verbonden aan de London School of Economics in London. E-mail: guemarn@yahoo.fr

Helen Hintjens
Dr. Helen Hintjens is universitair docent Development and Social Justice bij het International Institute of Social Studies te Den Haag (onderdeel van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam). E-mail: hintjens@iss.nl
Artikel

Verbanning en brandmerking in de 21ste eeuw?

De toepassing van artikel 1F Vluchtelingenverdrag in combinatie met de ongewenstverklaring

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2013
Trefwoorden Asylum, war crimes, 1F, banishment
Auteurs Dr. Joris van Wijk en Drs. Joke Reijven
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    On the basis of article 1F Refugee Convention alleged perpetrators of serious crimes can be excluded from refugee protection. Under certain circumstances this exclusion can be regarded a unique type of contemporary banishment and branding. The rationale to exclude is primarily motivated by moral arguments, rather than security related arguments. In case Dutch government cannot deport the excluded persons, the exclusion is not limited to a certain place but (de facto) universal in nature. When the banished alleged perpetrators are declared undesirable aliens they are ‘branded’ as actual perpetrators.


Dr. Joris van Wijk
Dr. Joris van Wijk is universitair hoofddocent bij het Center for International Criminal Justice van de afdeling Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam (www.cicj.org). E-mail: j.van.wijk@vu.nl

Drs. Joke Reijven
Drs. Joke Reijven is onderzoeker bij het Center for International Criminal Justice van de afdeling strafrecht en criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam (www.cicj.org). E-mail: j.e.p.reijven@vu.nl
Redactioneel

Irreguliere migratie en illegaal verblijf: beleid, conflicten en contradicties

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2013
Trefwoorden Illegal stay, The Netherlands, criminalization, immigration laws and policies
Auteurs Richard Staring en René van Swaaningen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The current phase in which Dutch government increasingly criminalizes the illegal residence of migrants is simultaneously characterized by decreasing numbers of illegal migrants in this country. In the process of crimmigration, some newly developed policies indirectly influence daily lives of specific groups of illegal migrants while other policies and laws more directly try to hinder illegal stay. These policies that aim to exclude and ban illegal migrants are continued even though they are increasingly criticized by academics and divergent (inter)national actors. These policies and laws can be contradictory, sometimes conflict with international treaties, and lead to unforeseen and undesirable outcomes in which human dignity is challenged.


Richard Staring
Prof. dr. Richard Staring is bijzonder hoogleraar mobiliteit, toezicht en criminaliteit aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. E-mail: staring@law.uu.nl

René van Swaaningen
Prof. dr. René van Swaaningen is hoogleraar internationale en comparatieve criminologie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, directeur van de Erasmus Graduate School of Law en voorzitter van de Nederlandse Vereniging voor Criminologie (NVK). E-mail: vanswaaningen@law.eur.nl
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