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Artikel

Access_open Positieve veiligheid. Een inleiding

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden state of nature, trust, empathy, care, ethics
Auteurs dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg en dr. Ronald van Steden
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Criminology has come under the spell of thinking negatively about safety and security. It’s focus merely lies on themes such as control, punishment and exclusion. Much interest therefore goes to public policing, private security, CCTV camera’s, anti-social behaviour orders, gated communities and prisons. Of course, this definition of security and security governance as the protection of citizens against crime and disorder must not be rejected out of hand. Without a minimum level of security, society would fall apart in chaos and despair. At the same time, however, we feel increasingly uncomfortable about the dominance of current negative – control and risk-oriented – approaches to (in)security as they overlook positive interpretations associated with trust, community and care. This introduction therefore provides an overview of academic literature that nuance, counter or resist hegemonic and negative meanings of security. In so doing, our aim is to introduce a positive turn in criminology’s interests and concerns regarding crime and disorder problems.


dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg
Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg is universitair docent Strafrecht en Criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

dr. Ronald van Steden
Dr. Ronald van Steden is universitair hoofddocent Bestuurswetenschappen & Politicologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Boekbespreking

‘Ik was echt zorgvuldig’

De carrière van een wetenschappelijke fraudeur

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2015
Trefwoorden Scientific misconduct, Diederik Stapel, culture of competition, questionable research procedures, ‘indifferent tolerance’
Auteurs dr. Thaddeus Müller
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article I focus on the academic environment in which social psychologist Diederik Stapel worked and developed his career as a con academic. He published over 50 articles with fabricated data in top tier journals. This article is based on interviews with Stapel himself and document analysis. Especially, I pay attention to his socialization as an academic in his years at the University of Amsterdam, where he did his PhD (1986-2000). In my description of how social psychology developed in the nineties in Amsterdam it becomes clear that there was a strong emphasis on competition and publishing articles in top tier journals. Stapel conformed to this culture of competition and published almost as much as the two leading full professors of his department during the period 1995-2000. In the early nineties Stapel discovered that the use of questionable research procedures (QRPs) was common in social psychology. He realized that without using these procedures it was hardly possible to get good results and publish frequently in top tier journals. Though Stapel resented this partly and was disenchanted by this experience, he did integrate QRPs in his daily academic practice. He actually raised the issue of QRPs in a lecture in Oxford when he received the Jos Jaspars Early Career Award of the EAESP, but there was hardly any substantive response to his presentation. The academic culture in which Stapel developed his career can be described as ‘indifferent tolerant’. Though Stapel does refer to the circumstances which influenced his academic fraud, he does state that he himself is responsible for his massive scientific misconduct.


dr. Thaddeus Müller
Dr. Thaddeus Müller is verbonden aan de sectie criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

Het kwaad

Enkele inleidende gedachten

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden evil, genocide, holocaust, criminology, malevolence
Auteurs dr. Bas van Stokkom en prof. dr. Marc Cools
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Journalists are accustomed to investigate and interpret current forms of violent conflicts and massacres. Psychologists and social scientists lag behind and seem to focus more on ‘remote’ forms of evil, often focusing on forms of authoritarian behaviour and obedience, especially related to the Holocaust. It is striking that reflections on collective violence are often ignored by criminologists. How can this ‘distance’ be explained? Why is there little incentive to study ‘evil’? In this introduction we first discuss the difficult issue of how to define ‘evil’ and we clarify its various meanings. Then we focus on the Holocaust, an oppressive theme that still instigates much debate. In particular, the thesis of the ‘banality of evil’ is controversial. This interest in appalling forms of mass destruction – by theologians, ethicists and historians – raises once again the question why criminological reflection and research of barbarity remains underdeveloped.


dr. Bas van Stokkom
Dr. B.A.M. (Bas) van Stokkom is verbonden aan de vaksectie Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen.

prof. dr. Marc Cools
Prof. dr. M. (Marc) Cools is hoogleraar bij de vakgroep strafrecht en criminologie aan de Universiteit Gent en bij de vakgroep criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Brussel.

    In this essay the nature of crime and death in opera is dealt with, focussing on a select number of operas, such as Verdi’s MacBeth, Wagner’s Die Walküre and Strauss’s Salome and Elektra. It appears that crime in opera is pervasive and appears in many different forms, as well as in a wide variety of contexts. An attempt is made to analyse the way composers manipulate the circumstances of killings – lenghtening or shortening or replacing scenes – in order to get maximum results in terms of emotional content.


Lodewijk Brunt
Prof. dr. Lodewijk Brunt is emeritus hoogleraar urbane vraagstukken aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam. E-mail: L.Brunt@upcmail.nl.
Artikel

Met de schrik vrij?

Een exploratief onderzoek naar de afschrikwekkende werking van vreemdelingendetentie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2013
Trefwoorden Irregular migrants, immigration detention, deterrence, return
Auteurs Mieke Kox MA en Dr. Arjen Leerkes
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Immigration detention is formally not a punishment, but governments do seem to use it to deter irregular migrants from staying in the territory. This study explores whether and how practices of immigration detention in the Netherlands affect detainees’ decision-making processes regarding return and result in ‘specific deterrence’. 81 unauthorized irregular migrants were interviewed in immigration detention and their casefiles were examined. We find evidence for a limited deterrence effect: a minority of the respondents indeed wanted to return to their countries of origin in order to end their (repeated) stay in immigration detention. For some respondents the detention experience contributed to a desire to migrate from the Netherlands to a different European country. We go into the relevance of these findings for the continuing societal debate on the use of immigration detention.


Mieke Kox MA
Mieke Kox MA is als wetenschappelijk docent en onderzoeker verbonden aan de sectie criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. E-mail: kox@law.eur.nl

Dr. Arjen Leerkes
Dr. Arjen Leerkes is als universitair docent verbonden aan de sectie sociologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam en onderzoeker bij het WODC/Ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie. E-mail: leerkes@fsw.eur.nl
Discussie

Intellectuele schatplichtigheid en wetenschappelijke ethiek

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 0 2011
Trefwoorden scientific conduct, intellectual property, citation- and referencing practices, scientific ethos
Auteurs Willem de Haan
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The intensification of scientific competition and the availability of scientific knowledge on the internet seem to be rendering the notion of intellectual property obsolete. Conventional citation- and referencing practices through which intellectual debt is acknowledged are increasingly being ignored or undermined. In this essay, it is argued that these conventional citation- and referencing practices represent valuable norms of scientific conduct and, therefore, are vital to the scientific ethos of free and independent scientific research. For this reason, editors and reviewers need to accept their responsibility for educating the next generation of scholars to respect conventions for acknowledging intellectual debt.


Willem de Haan
Prof. dr. Willem de Haan is emeritus hoogleraar en voorzitter van de Nederlandse Vereniging voor Criminologie NVK. Hij is verbonden aan de afdeling Strafrecht en criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam. E-mail: w.j.m.de.haan@vu.nl.
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