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Artikel

Superdiversiteit en hipsterificatie

Neoliberalisme, ongelijkheid en sociale mix in het Rabot te Gent

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2017
Trefwoorden Ethnographic Linguistic Landscape Analysis, gentrification, micro-populations, politics, hipster
Auteurs Dr. Ico Maly
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Superdiverse neighborhoods are understood as challenges; as potential ghetto’s in need for a better social mix. In this paper, ethnographic linguistic landscape analysis (ELLA) is used to study the effects of the public-private city renewal policies. ELLA not only enables a distributional image of ‘het Rabot’, a small neighborhood in the pheriphery of Ghent in Belgium, but also to sketch a stratigraphy. The ideology of social mix, in combination with the inter-urban competition for tourists and middle class inhabitants results in the hipsterification of the neighborhood. The net effect, is a disruptive influx of a creative class.


Dr. Ico Maly
Dr. Ico Maly is docent ‘New media & politics’ en ‘Knowledge in the digital world’ aan Tilburg University, Culture Studies. Hij is auteur van verschillende boeken waaronder N-VA. Analyse van een politieke ideologie, De beschavingsmachine. Wij en de islam en Superdiversiteit in Oostende. Hij is co-auteur van Superdiversiteit en democratie en editor van Cultu(u)rENpolitiek. Media, globalisering en culturele identiteiten. Hij is tevens hoofdredacteur van Diggit Magazine (www.diggitmagazine.com).
Diversen

(Super)diversiteit en onveiligheidsgevoelens

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2017
Trefwoorden ethnic diversity, super diversity, fear of crime
Auteurs dr. Erik Snel en Iris Glas
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Contemporary cities are increasingly characterised by ‘super diversity’. As Putnam’s thesis about the negative social consequences of ethnic diversity is correct, we may assume that growing diversity also negatively affects crime and fear of crime in cities. After all: the more diversity, the less social cohesion and the less collective efficacy, ultimately resulting in higher crime rates. More diversity also implies less (public) familiarity in neighbourhoods and more fear of crime. On the other hand, some qualitative studies show that particularly residents of relatively homogeneous districts perceive migrants as threatening. Migrants are seen as less threatening when neighbourhood residents are familiarized with ‘the other’ and when there are more interethnic contacts. Various foreign and Dutch studies show an independent effect of ethnic diversity in the neighbourhood on fear of crime. However, this effect disappears when other resident characteristics are included into the analysis. Residents of ethnically diverse and deprived districts are generally less satisfied with their neighbourhood, have less trust in the government and are more often victimized. Precisely these perceptions and experiences explain why they more often feel unsafe in their own neighbourhood.


dr. Erik Snel
Dr. Erik Snel is als universitair docent en onderzoeker verbonden aan het Department of Public Administration and Sociology (DPAS) van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

Iris Glas
Iris Glas promoveert in de sociologie en is verbonden aan het Department of Public Administration and Sociology (DPAS) van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

Positieve veiligheid en positieve vrijheid

Meningen van wijkbewoners in Rotterdam-Zuid over Buurt Bestuurt

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden Big Society, Isaiah Berlin, Charles Taylor, positive liberty, security management
Auteurs dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The article is an ethnographical study of Rotterdam’s experience with a program called ‘Community Governs’ (Buurt Bestuurt). Community Governs, a Dutch version of the Chicago Alternative Policing Strategy (CAPS), is a community-based program which goal is to solve neighbourhood crime and disorder problems. Community commitment and involvement are a main component of this program. The article emphasizes the effects that this program had on three levels of trust (performances, intentions and skills) of the residents in police officers and municipal service agencies as partners in the fight against crime and disorder. The results indicate that a ‘positive exercise’ of liberty through political participation of civilians is difficult to realise in poor, inner city, neighbourhoods.


dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg
Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg is universitair docent Strafrecht en Criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

Over warmte, gezelligheid en ontspanning: positieve veiligheid in stedelijke uitgaansgebieden

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden positive criminology, experienced safety, assemblage, nightlife areas
Auteurs dr. Jelle Brands
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    From a geographical perspective, this article explores positive images of safety in the context of nightlife areas. It also considers the ways by which nightlife visitors’ experienced safety might be nurtured, as an alternative to how experienced lack of safety might be ‘prevented’. From our interviews, we find safety to emerge from interactions between many (im)material elements, and the nightlife consumers themselves. We argue that positive safety can be understood as something that envelopes and at the same time is reworked by individuals, but that does not necessarily require a conscious understanding. From this finding, we offer a different logic and rhetoric regarding safety in nightlife spaces.


dr. Jelle Brands
Dr. Jelle Brands is werkzaam bij het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie, Universiteit Leiden.
Discussie

Access_open Positief veiligheidsbeleid ook mogelijk met oorlogstaal?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden role models, responsivity, gang prevention, desistance, applied science
Auteurs dr. Jan Dirk de Jong
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    How could positive security policies take shape? On what kind of empirical research should these policies be based? And what sort of concepts would we need for this development? If the starting point is to understand safety as a positive notion, it seems wise to avoid the terms of war that are prevailing in current policy programs on security and public safety (fighting, frontline and city-marines). On the other hand some type of decisive jargon might be unavoidable when one sets out to have an actual impact on youth crime policies and policy makers. Is it possible to keep using some type of military terminology in research benefitting the development of positive security policies and still emphasize a positive composition? This dilemma has arisen in recent research activities on positive, street-oriented role models in response to Dutch problematic youth groups and youth at risk. De Jong argues that with the sensitizing concept of the ‘liaison officer’ it might be possible to encourage a positive change through applied social science.


dr. Jan Dirk de Jong
Dr. Jan Dirk de Jong is lector Aanpak Jeugdcriminaliteit, Cluster Social Work & Toegepaste Psychologie aan de Hogeschool Leiden, en wetenschappelijk onderzoeker bij de sectie Criminologie, Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

Onveiligheid als stedelijkheidsfobie

Angst en onmacht in de hygiënische stad

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2013
Trefwoorden disorder, perception of crime and disorder, urbanism, public familiarity
Auteurs Bas van Stokkom
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article suggests that fears and concerns about disorder and crime are connected with urbanophobia, i.e. a low willingness to identify with public space and a certain incapacity to recognize deviancy and give it a place in one’s mind map. For this reason many citizens may not develop public familiarity. At the same time it is argued that tackling urban disorder is often necessary but not for reasons that proponents of repression and zero tolerance think. Current crime and disorder policies bring forth many counterproductive results, including increased fear and powerlessness. It seems more reasonable to combat disorder to undo the ‘situational normality’ of persistent forms of anti-social behaviour. For many citizens this signals a restoration of expected peaceful interaction.


Bas van Stokkom
Dr. Bas van Stokkom is verbonden aan het Criminologisch Instituut van de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Radboud Universiteit en aan de afdeling bestuurswetenschap & politicologie van de Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam. Email: b.a.m.van.stokkom@vu.nl
Boekbespreking

‘Panta rhei!’ Een dynamisch perspectief op verandering in veiligheidszorg

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2013
Trefwoorden security, Foucault, Deleuze, assemblage
Auteurs Prof. dr. Willem de Haan
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Order in Security. A Dynamic Perspective (Schuilenburg 2012) is a theoretical and empirical study of self-organizing processes of change taking place within what the author calls ‘security assemblages’. In this review, the study is favorably evaluated as a form of empirical philosophy and praised for usefully introducing French philosophy into the field of security studies. In terms of empirical sociological research, however, the study is more critically reviewed as offering little insight into the perceptions, emotions, interpretations and meanings that actors assign to their conduct in this field.


Prof. dr. Willem de Haan
Prof. dr. Willem de Haan is als senior research fellow verbonden aan de afdeling strafrecht & criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. E-mail: w.j.m.de.haan@vu.nl.
Redactioneel

Irreguliere migratie en illegaal verblijf: beleid, conflicten en contradicties

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2013
Trefwoorden Illegal stay, The Netherlands, criminalization, immigration laws and policies
Auteurs Richard Staring en René van Swaaningen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The current phase in which Dutch government increasingly criminalizes the illegal residence of migrants is simultaneously characterized by decreasing numbers of illegal migrants in this country. In the process of crimmigration, some newly developed policies indirectly influence daily lives of specific groups of illegal migrants while other policies and laws more directly try to hinder illegal stay. These policies that aim to exclude and ban illegal migrants are continued even though they are increasingly criticized by academics and divergent (inter)national actors. These policies and laws can be contradictory, sometimes conflict with international treaties, and lead to unforeseen and undesirable outcomes in which human dignity is challenged.


Richard Staring
Prof. dr. Richard Staring is bijzonder hoogleraar mobiliteit, toezicht en criminaliteit aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. E-mail: staring@law.uu.nl

René van Swaaningen
Prof. dr. René van Swaaningen is hoogleraar internationale en comparatieve criminologie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, directeur van de Erasmus Graduate School of Law en voorzitter van de Nederlandse Vereniging voor Criminologie (NVK). E-mail: vanswaaningen@law.eur.nl
Artikel

Onveiligheidsgevoelens bij blanke middenklassers in Kaapstad

Op zoek naar een comfortzone in een ongelijk land

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2012
Trefwoorden fear of crime, inequality, in-depth interviews, South Africa
Auteurs Nick Schuermans
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Drawing on in-depth interviews with more than forty White South Africans in a middle class neighborhood of Cape Town, this paper looks at the motivations to secure South African houses and neighbourhoods with perimeter walls, security initiatives and neighbourhood watches. The discourses of the residents make it clear that seemingly banal actions to secure the residential environment are motivated as much by the fear of falling property prices and the fear of losing psychological comfort as they are driven by the high levels of crime and fear of crime.


Nick Schuermans
Dr. Nick Schuermans is werkzaam bij het Laboratorium voor Educatie en Samenleving van de Katholieke Universiteit Leuven. E-mail: Nick.Schuermans@ped.kuleuven.be.
Artikel

Herkenbaar, overzichtelijk en geborgen

Een verkenning van de maatschappelijke achtergronden van afgeschermde woondomeinen in Nederland

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2012
Trefwoorden enclosed residential domains, privatisation, polarisation, unsafety
Auteurs David Hamers en Manon van Middelkoop
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the Netherlands the discussion on the recent increase in residential domains with some sort of enclosure is fuelled by references to foreign examples (gated communities). However, large scale gated communities are absent in the Netherlands. Rather, we speak of enclosed residential domains. This article analyses the societal forces behind their popularity. Trends facilitating the further development of enclosed residential domains appear to be stronger than those impeding it. The growing need for shelter and a living environment that is predictable and familiar is especially important. Lack of safety, however, cannot directly be regarded as a prominent factor.


David Hamers
Dr. David Hamers is senior onderzoeker stedelijk gebied bij het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving te Den Haag, en lector Stad en Land, afdeling Man and Public Space bij Design Academy Eindhoven. E-mail: david.hamers@pbl.nl.

Manon van Middelkoop
Dr. ir. Manon van Middelkoop is onderzoeker wonen en demografie bij het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving te Den Haag. E-mail: manon.vanmiddelkoop@pbl.nl.
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