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Artikel

Integratief seksindustriebeleid in Nieuw-Zeeland

Succes voor een unieke sociale beweging

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden sekswerk, Nieuw-Zeeland, decriminalisering, sociale beweging, beleidsverandering
Auteurs Dr. Joep Rottier
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Contrary to its allies in other countries, the sex industry decriminalization movement in New Zealand, embodied by the New Zealand Prostitutes Collective (NZPC), achieved its goal in 2003. This article explores the reform of the sex industry policy in this country on the basis of a Social Movement Concept. Apart from the specific New Zealand culture, particularly the interaction between three social political aspects – awareness, political opportunities, and a strong social movement organisation – can be identified as crucial factors in realizing a decriminalized sex industry environment. The enactment of the Prostitution Reform Act 2003 meant a unique and huge success for a small sex workers movement.


Dr. Joep Rottier
Dr. Joep Rottier, onderzoeker, promoveerde in december 2018 aan de Universiteit Utrecht op de effecten van het seksindustrie decriminaliseringbeleid in Nieuw-Zeeland. Hij is bestuurslid van het Platform SekswerkExpertise Nederland.
Artikel

Significante denkers en hun oeuvre

Betekenissen, controverses en digitale uitholling

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden significant others, classical authors, digital revolution
Auteurs Dr. Tom Daems en Dr. Bas van Stokkom
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article Tom Daems and Bas van Stokkom reflect upon what it means to argue that an author or text is ‘significant’ and the role and function the study of classical or significant texts can have in our current times.


Dr. Tom Daems
Dr. Tom Daems is hoofddocent bij het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie (LINC), KU Leuven.

Dr. Bas van Stokkom
Dr. Bas van Stokkom is senior onderzoeker bij de Vaksectie Strafrecht & Criminologie, Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen.
Artikel

Gevallen helden van bedrijfsleven en openbaar bestuur

De ‘fall from grace’ van witteboordencriminaliteit

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden white-collar crime, status degradation, sanctioning, executives, punishment
Auteurs Prof. dr. Wim Huisman en Drs. Dennis Lesmeister
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In criminology, it is generally assumed that the high social status of white-collar offenders prevents them of being targeted by criminal law enforcement. But when they do, they suffer greater social and economic damage because of this high social status. Empirical research on the consequences of criminal law enforcement and conviction for white-collar offenders is scarce, and limited to the US and the UK. This paper used biographies of convicted former executives in business and public office in the Netherlands, to analyse these consequences and the process of the ‘fall from grace’ of white-collar offenders. The consequences are described in four life-domains: health, the private sphere, the occupational sphere and the social sphere. The results show that Dutch executives, in line with findings for the Anglo-American white-collar offenders, experience status degradation and suffer much collateral damage of criminal law enforcement. After the initial horror of imprisonment, they endure prison life fairly well. Individual competences and remaining social and economic capital enable them to return to normal life, although they cannot return to pre-conviction levels of social status.


Prof. dr. Wim Huisman
Prof. dr. Wim Huisman is hoogleraar criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Drs. Dennis Lesmeister
Drs. Dennis Lesmeister is veroordeeld in de Klimop-zaak en is geassocieerd onderzoeker aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

Een inkijk in het leiderschap van Cannabis Social Clubs in België: criminelen, activisten, modelburgers?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden Cannabis, Cannabis Social Club, Leadership, Cannabis movement, Stigma
Auteurs Dr. Mafalda Pardal
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article, Cannabis Social Clubs (CSCs) are understood as being social movement organizations advocating for the legalization of a closed, cooperative and non-profit model for cannabis supply among adult users. Drawing on qualitative data collected in Belgium, this paper analyses how one becomes a leader of a CSC as well as the functional role assumed by those individuals. It further unveils how Belgian CSC leaders’ engagement in those organizations and in the wider cannabis movement is perceived. We identify and discuss the techniques employed by those key activists to manage cannabis-related stigma drawing on a framework developed by Lindblom and Jacobsson’s (2014). While CSCs might contribute to normalizing cannabis use and supply, our analysis suggests that CSC leaders face some degree of stigmatization, shifting between conformist and confrontational techniques to manage the perceived cannabis-related stigma. Building on the case of Belgian CSC leaders, this paper makes a contribution to the understanding of an under-researched movement, and the role of the leaders within it, expanding also the application of Lindblom and Jacobsson’s (2014) framework to a novel area of activism.


Dr. Mafalda Pardal
Mafalda Pardal Postdoctorale onderzoeker BOF, Universiteit Gent mafalda.pardal@ugent.be
Artikel

De anomie van machtsillusies

Onbegrensde ambities in de ‘risk and win’-zakenwereld

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden anomie, illusion of control, corporate crime, competition, entitlement
Auteurs dr. Bas van Stokkom
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Generally, large listed companies and banks immersed in a ‘risk and win’-culture do not have to deal with ‘deprivation of resources’ which may trigger violations of the law. The anomie-theory of Merton does not seem to fit in this context. It is more obvious that the pressure to realize lofty ambitions is the trigger for potential violations of the law. I therefore work out a ‘post-Mertonian’ anomie-concept using the ‘European Durkheim’ to examine some excessive tendencies of an originally American ‘risk and win’-culture. The aim is to work towards an anomie-theory of power illusions that makes sense in the context of corporate crime. The leading question is: which anomic attitudes prevail in an over-ambitious corporate culture and which aspirations and rationalizations can be distinguished? It is argued that an approach focused on CEO-personality traits is too limited and that the sociological approaches of Durkheim and Shover offer many points of departure to construct a plausible anomie-theory. The dimensions of that theory have been taken from studies which focus at two criminogenic norm-systems: an ‘ethos of winning at any price’ and an ‘ethos of entitlement’.


dr. Bas van Stokkom
Dr. Bas van Stokkom is verbonden aan de vaksectie Strafrecht & Criminologie, Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen. E-mail: b.vanstokkom@jur.ru.nl.
Diversen

Access_open Theo van Boven

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2017
Auteurs dr. mr. Roland Moerland en prof. dr. Hans Nelen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The two editors of this issue conducted an interview with professor emeritus International law and Human Rights Theo van Boven. Van Boven was UN Special Rapporteur against Torture and he served as Director of Human Rights of the United Nations. In these and his other positions, Van Boven fought for the rights of victims of gross human rights violations and throughout his career he experienced first-hand how regimes try to cover up and deny their crimes. The interview focuses on his experiences with the former military junta in Argentina. Van Boven notes that in comparison to other regimes, the junta had developed the most sophisticated strategy of denial. Van Boven reflects on the regime’s vocabulary of denial, the political dimensions of denial and the implications for the victims. He is open and sincere about his experiences as Director of Human Rights of the United Nations and explains how victim rights, such as the right to truth, can clash with the bureaucratic and political reality within the United Nations.


dr. mr. Roland Moerland
Dr. mr. Roland Moerland is universitair docent criminologie aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Universiteit Maastricht.

prof. dr. Hans Nelen
Prof. dr. Hans Nelen is hoogleraar criminologie aan de Universiteit Maastricht.
Artikel

Alsof zij nooit geboren waren …

Herinnering, ontkenning en de oude Jodenbuurt in Amsterdam

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2017
Trefwoorden memorialisation, Holocaust, Amsterdam, memory, social construction
Auteurs prof. mr. Chrisje Brants
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    After catastrophic events, memorialisation is part of coming to terms with the past and rebuilding the future. It is also part of the social construction of the past – a struggle between conflicting representations of past events by different groups in society, with different memories, interests and degrees of power to influence which version of history is eventually recognized as correct and which is denied. In Western Europe, we tend to study such processes in parts of the world far removed from our own, forgetting that the major genocide of the 20th century, took place in our own cities, and that a process of memorialisation was ongoing there for many years after the war. The Jewish quarter in the centre of Amsterdam has many monuments, buildings and museums connected to the history of the Jews of Amsterdam, the majority of whom died in the death camps of the Shoa. The memory landscape of the Jewish quarter is dynamic, a reflection of a culture of remembrance and denial concerning the Second World War, in which events and people are remembered, but others forgotten. What can the urban landscape of Amsterdam tell us about this culture and its relationship to social and political events during and after the war? What/who are remembered and what/who forgotten, by whom, and why? How has that changed over time?


prof. mr. Chrisje Brants
Prof. mr. Chrisje Brants is emeritus hoogleraar straf(proces)recht bij het Willem Pompe Instituut, Universiteit Utrecht, en professor of law bij Northumbria University, Newcastle, Verenigd Koninkrijk.
Artikel

Hoe IS-glossy Dabiq harten van westerse moslims wint

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2017
Trefwoorden jihadism, radicalization, propaganda, denial, Dabiq
Auteurs Dr. mr. Fiore Geelhoed, Layla van Wieringen MSc., Kyra van den Akker BSc. e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    IS propaganda is assumed to contribute to radicalization of Western Muslims. How IS propaganda reaches the hearts and minds of Western Muslims and consequently fuels radicalization is nonetheless an understudied topic. Through content analysis of all fifteen issues of IS-glossy Dabiq this article demonstrates how IS propaganda works in Dabiq. First, IS attunes in Dabiq to factors that foster radicalization according to the literature. IS does so by its discussion in Dabiq of injustice done to Muslims worldwide, the image of the Western enemy, and its positive presentation of the individual and group identity of IS fighters. Second, in Dabiq IS paves the way for embracing violent means, such as terrorist attacks on Western civilians through a discourse of ‘denial’.


Dr. mr. Fiore Geelhoed
Dr. mr. Fiore Geelhoed werkt als universitair docent bij de sectie Criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. Zij verricht onderzoek naar radicalisering en in het bijzonder de betekenis die radicalisering heeft voor geradicaliseerde moslims, levensverhalen, subculturen en de betrokkenheid van bekeerlingen bij jihadistische groeperingen.

Layla van Wieringen MSc.
Layla van Wieringen, BSc., is werkzaam bij de Hulplijn Radicalisering in Utrecht. Eerder heeft zij de bacheloropleiding Criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit afgerond. Verder heeft zij de master Investigative and Legal Psychology aan het United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute gevolgd.

Kyra van den Akker BSc.
Kyra van den Akker, BSc., volgt in aansluiting op de bacheloropleiding Criminologie de master Opsporingscriminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit.

Fleur Crolla BSc.
Fleur Crolla, BSc., volgt de master Crisis and Security Management aan de Universiteit Leiden en de master Opsporingscriminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit. Daarvoor heeft zij de bacheloropleiding Criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit afgerond.

Irene Senatori MSc.
Irene Senatori, MSc., heeft de bachelor- en masteropleiding Criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit afgerond.
Artikel

Superdiversiteit, wijken van aankomst en conflicten. Een inleiding

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2017
Trefwoorden superdiversity, immigration, conflicts, ethnic segregation, conviviality
Auteurs prof. dr. Richard Staring en Dr. Bas van Stokkom
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Many big cities in Europe have adopted the contours of superdiversity: in many districts, the original population has become just one of the many minorities. This new urban reality is often perceived as threatening. Immigration has become symbolic for the disturbance of community, the undermining of the national identity and a lost sense of feeling at home. Although the concept of superdiversity has controversial meanings, it also functions as an inspiring analytical concept that encourages further reflections on the value and potential implications of living together in cities of arrival. The concept also creates space for multifocal perspectives on socioeconomic, religious, transnational and political differences instead of reducing the urban reality to mere ethnic or cultural differences.


prof. dr. Richard Staring
Prof. dr. Richard Staring werkt als bijzonder hoogleraar bij de sectie Criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. Hij is tevens redacteur van het Tijdschrift over Cultuur en Criminaliteit.

Dr. Bas van Stokkom
Dr. Bas van Stokkom is verbonden aan de vaksectie Strafrecht & Criminologie, Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen. Hij verricht onderzoek op het grensvlak van ethiek, criminologie en de sociale wetenschappen. Tot de thema’s die in zijn onderzoek aan bod komen behoren politie, burgerschap en lokale veiligheidszorg, straftheorieën en herstelrecht. Hij is hoofdredacteur van het Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht; www.basvanstokkom.nl.
Artikel

Superdiversiteit en de informele stad

Verborgen en tijdelijke stadsbewoners als deel van complexiteit

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2017
Trefwoorden Superdiversity, (trans)migration, undocumented migrants, majority-minority-cities
Auteurs dr. Dirk Geldof
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The main cities in the Netherlands and Belgium are becoming superdiverse majority-minority cities. This implies more than increasing diversity, but involves an increasing diversification of diversity and (contested) processes of normalization of diversity. The article explores the increase of temporary citizens and undocumented migrants as part of this transition. The rise of intra-EU-migration and transmigration contributes to an increase of temporary citizens. Using the case of Antwerp (Belgium), the article analyses the presence of undocumented migrants, using data of the collective regularization in Belgium in 2009, and of transmigrants, building upon an explorative research in Antwerp & Brussels in 2015.


dr. Dirk Geldof
Dirk Geldof is doctor in de Politieke en Sociale Wetenschappen. Hij is docent aan de Faculteit Ontwerpwetenschappen van de Universiteit Antwerpen, lector aan de opleiding Sociaal Werk van de Karel de Grote-Hogeschool Antwerpen, lector aan de opleiding Gezinswetenschappen (Odisee) en onderzoeker aan het Kenniscentrum Gezinswetenschappen. Hij is auteur van Superdiversiteit. Hoe migratie onze samenleving verandert (Acco, 6de druk 2016) en co-auteur van Transmigratie. Hulp verlenen in een wereld van superdiversiteit (Acco, 2015).
Artikel

De Marokkanenpaniek: de sociale constructie van ‘Marokkanen’ als folk devils

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden moral panic, folk devils, othering, ethnicity, Moroccans
Auteurs Abdessamad Bouabid MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Since the nineties, the ‘Moroccan community’ experiences a negative group-image based on a small group of male youths who ‘stand out’ in social problems such as nuisance, crime and Islamic radicalisation. This negative group image is largely constructed through negative societal reactions in the media on incidents in which Moroccan Dutch youngsters play a prominent role. This article examines such negative societal reactions in the media on three recent incidents: the 2007 Slotervaart riots, the 2008 Gouda ‘bus incident’ and the 2010 Culemborg riots. It concludes that the societal reactions to these incidents in the media, are exaggerated, symbolise ‘the Moroccans’ as folk devils and construct them as moral and cultural Others. Finally, it concludes that these negative societal reactions to ‘Moroccans’ in Dutch media can be seen as a disproportional and misplaced, but natural reaction of a dominant cultural majority to a threat to their cultural and moral hegemony, by ‘the Moroccans’ as a social deviant minor­ity.


Abdessamad Bouabid MSc
Abdessamad Bouabid, MSc is PhD-kandidaat en docent bij de sectie criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

‘Boeven vangen’

Het spel tussen politieagenten en de Ander

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden ethnic profiling, policing, othering, proactive stop
Auteurs dr. Lianne Kleijer-Kool en dr. Wouter Landman
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article is based on ethnographic research over recent years in eight Dutch police teams. It focuses on the othering process in which police officers define ‘crooks’ as the Other and chase, catch and arrest them. Catching crooks is perceived as an assignment as well as a game. Street cops construct detailed subcategories of the crook which influence their daily practices. They select crooks by recognition (the permanent suspects), by abnormalization (out of placeness) and by profiling (regardless of place). In addition to the discussion on ethnic profiling, we argue that profiling is a contextual practice. The contents of the profiles depend on the demographic characteristics of the district in which a police team operates. Interacting mediaframes of both the crook and the police reinforce the mutual caricatures and tense relationships.


dr. Lianne Kleijer-Kool
Dr. Lianne Kleijer-Kool is cultureel antropoloog en criminoloog en werkzaam als onderzoeker/docent bij Hogeschool Utrecht.

dr. Wouter Landman
Dr. Wouter Landman is bestuurskundige en werkzaam als onderzoeker/adviseur bij Twynstra Gudde.
Artikel

Vervolg je reis en struikel niet: antropologie van dood en taboe

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2015
Trefwoorden Death, denial, taboo, anthropology, Suriname
Auteurs dr. ir. Yvon van der Pijl
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article explores the relation between death, the fear and denial of it, and the appeal of mortuary rites attempting to transcend senses of mortality. It aims to show how our Own death, as a shamefull and solitary characteristic of modernity, has become a taboo and how it simultaneously continues to spur our imagination of the way Others die. Building on research in Suriname, it argues that both colonial compulsion and anthropological gazing have contributed to distorted and ambiguious attitudes toward death cross-culturally. As such, the article seeks to advance discussions on death and taboo as a perpetuum mobile of dread and everlasting enchantment.


dr. ir. Yvon van der Pijl
Dr. ir. Yvon van der Pijl is werkzaam bij de afdeling culturele antropologie, Universiteit Utrecht.
Discussie

Satire en politiek incorrecte taal: de premie op taboe-doorbreken

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2015
Trefwoorden satire, taboo, political correctness, free speech, the right to insult
Auteurs Dr. Bas van Stokkom
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This essay argues that the breaking of taboos is an effective means to increase one’s definition-power and discredit the establishment. But rhetorical warfare and satire may also turn into its opposite: strengthening fanaticism. First, the author discusses the controversy surrounding the cartoons of Charlie Hebdo and the militant pleas for maximum artistic freedom, articulated by Salman Rushdie and others. In the second part of this essay the author argues that advocates of an inviolable right to freedom of expression, including the right to insult, may create their own taboos. Within the tabloid press and the outrage industry this ‘right’ gets more aggressive functions. Finally, some ambiguities about political correctness and the racism-taboo are discussed.


Dr. Bas van Stokkom
Dr. Bas van Stokkom is verbonden aan de vaksectie Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen.
Redactioneel

Varia

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2015
Auteurs Prof. dr. Tom Decorte en Prof. dr. em. Pieter Spierenburg
Auteursinformatie

Prof. dr. Tom Decorte
Prof. dr. Tom Decorte is antropoloog en hoogleraar criminologie aan de Universiteit Gent, en directeur van het Instituut voor Sociaal Drugsonderzoek (ISD). E-mail: tom.decorte@ugent.be

Prof. dr. em. Pieter Spierenburg
Prof. dr. em. Pieter Spierenburg is emeritus hoogleraar historische criminologie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

Academische cultuur en wetenschappelijk wangedrag – en wat de relatie daartussen is

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2015
Trefwoorden Academic culture, Scientific misconduct, Output-driven research
Auteurs Prof. dr. Kristel Beyens en Prof. dr. René van Swaaningen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article, the questions why scientific misconduct has become a subject of criminological research and how scientific misconduct relates to a production-oriented academic culture are examined. It is argued that the current academic career path produces an anomic academic culture. The authors further examine the slippery notion of the term ‘scientific misconduct’ and conclude that questions about the prevalence or increase of scientific misconduct are hardly answerable. They also point at a number of undesirable side-effects of the emerging culture of distrust and control in academia, amongst which socially disengaged, highly predictable and little innovative research. They end with a plea to recapture a truly academic culture.


Prof. dr. Kristel Beyens
Prof. dr. Kristel Beyens is hoogleraar penologie en criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Brussel.

Prof. dr. René van Swaaningen
Prof. dr. René van Swaaningen is hoogleraar internationale en comparatieve criminologie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam en voorzitter van de Nederlandse Vereniging voor Criminologie.
Boekbespreking

‘Ik was echt zorgvuldig’

De carrière van een wetenschappelijke fraudeur

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2015
Trefwoorden Scientific misconduct, Diederik Stapel, culture of competition, questionable research procedures, ‘indifferent tolerance’
Auteurs dr. Thaddeus Müller
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article I focus on the academic environment in which social psychologist Diederik Stapel worked and developed his career as a con academic. He published over 50 articles with fabricated data in top tier journals. This article is based on interviews with Stapel himself and document analysis. Especially, I pay attention to his socialization as an academic in his years at the University of Amsterdam, where he did his PhD (1986-2000). In my description of how social psychology developed in the nineties in Amsterdam it becomes clear that there was a strong emphasis on competition and publishing articles in top tier journals. Stapel conformed to this culture of competition and published almost as much as the two leading full professors of his department during the period 1995-2000. In the early nineties Stapel discovered that the use of questionable research procedures (QRPs) was common in social psychology. He realized that without using these procedures it was hardly possible to get good results and publish frequently in top tier journals. Though Stapel resented this partly and was disenchanted by this experience, he did integrate QRPs in his daily academic practice. He actually raised the issue of QRPs in a lecture in Oxford when he received the Jos Jaspars Early Career Award of the EAESP, but there was hardly any substantive response to his presentation. The academic culture in which Stapel developed his career can be described as ‘indifferent tolerant’. Though Stapel does refer to the circumstances which influenced his academic fraud, he does state that he himself is responsible for his massive scientific misconduct.


dr. Thaddeus Müller
Dr. Thaddeus Müller is verbonden aan de sectie criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Discussie

Nooit meer thuis in deze wereld

Jean Améry’s verlangen naar herstel na Auschwitz

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden Holocaust, resentment, forgiveness, recovery, victims
Auteurs prof. dr. Theo de Wit
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The author examines the thoughts of the originally Austrian author Jean Améry. After his concentration camp experiences Améry publicly acclaimed that he continued to resent the Germans. He felt abandoned and deeply overwhelmed and never recovered from these feelings. He refused to forgive and forget and practiced moral and physical rebellion.


prof. dr. Theo de Wit
prof. dr. T.W.A. (Theo) de Wit is werkzaam aan de Faculteit Katholieke Theologie van de Universiteit van Tilburg en is tevens bijzonder hoogleraar Vraagstukken geestelijke verzorging in justitiële inrichtingen.
Artikel

De seriemoordenaar als moreel verantwoordelijke actor

Christelijke, Sadeaanse en Nietzscheaanse perspectieven op het kwaad

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden evil, free will, responsibility, punishment, Sade, Nietzsche, serial killers
Auteurs Dr. Jean-Marc Piret
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article is about the ability of human beings to make a deliberate choice to do evil. Punishing evildoers according to penal law presupposes that they are responsible for their acts, i.e. that they acted out of free will. In the first part I recall the origins of the classical nexus between free will, responsibility and punishment in Christian theology and scholastic philosophy. Then I analyze the philosophies of Sade and Nietzsche in order to demonstrate how the traditional conception of good and evil can be inverted. Sades extreme moral relativism and Nietzsches radical perspectivism open the gates for a justification of moral evil. In the final part I look at the serial killer as an actor who deliberately chooses to do evil. The personality disorder (psychopathy) of most serial killers probably affects their inhibition to harm others. But although their lack of empathy can lower the threshold for harming others, this (mostly) does not annihilate their moral responsibility. Such can be exemplified by the fact that many serial killers are acting in an extremely strategic, opportunistic and deceitful way in order to ensure the persistence of their deliberate choice to do evil. Moreover, some serial killers, when justifying their behavior, engage in arguments putting into perspective ‘good’ and ‘evil’ in a way that is reminiscent of Sade and Nietzsche.


Dr. Jean-Marc Piret
Dr. J.V.A.G. (Jean-Marc) Piret is universitair hoofddocent rechtsfilosofie aan de juridische faculteiten van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam en de Vrije Universiteit Brussel.
Artikel

Drie paradigma’s van het menselijke kwaad

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden evil, banality, ideology, responsibility
Auteurs Mr. dr. Klaas Rozemond
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Classical Paradigm considers evil intentions as a necessary element of human evil, for instance the Holocaust. The Obedience Paradigm states that the main motive of the perpetrators of this evil was obedience to authority. The Ideology Paradigm argues that ideological motives were the main element. This paper tries to show that it is impossible to separate obedience and ideology in the motives of perpetrators like Adolf Eichmann and Otto Ohlendorf. These perpetrators were also conscious of the fact that they violated moral and legal norms. In that sense they had evil intentions and can be held responsible for their crimes.


Mr. dr. Klaas Rozemond
Mr. dr. N. (Klaas) Rozemond is universitair hoofddocent strafrecht aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
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