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Access_open Nut en noodzaak van een algemene codificatie van bestuursrecht

Tijdschrift Netherlands Administrative Law Library, februari 2014
Auteurs Rolf Ortlep, Willemien den Ouden, Ymre dr. Schuurmans Ph.D. e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article on the usefulness of a general codification of administrative law forms the closing contribution of a NALL-special. In this special, various authors have reflected on the successfulness of a broad codification process in 1998, which introduced rules on the notification of decisions, policy rules, subsidies, enforcement and supervision of administrative authorities in the Dutch General Administrative Law Act (GALA). The editors asked the contributors whether the objectives of the rules introduced were met and how the rules turned out to function in practice. In this overarching article, the NALL-editors reflect on the general lessons to be learned for the GALA-legislator. In these lessons they also take into consideration the initiatives for a law of administrative procedure of the European Union.


Rolf Ortlep
Rolf Ortlep (UU), Willemien den Ouden en Ymre Schuurmans (beide UL), Albertjan Tollenaar en Gerrit van der Veen (beiden RUG) en Johan Wolswinkel (VU) vormen de NALL redactie. Zij bedanken redactiesecretaris Alke Metselaar (UL), zonder wie deze bijdrage en special niet in de huidige vorm zou hebben kunnen verschijnen.

Willemien den Ouden
NALL redactie

Ymre dr. Schuurmans Ph.D.
NALL redactie

Albertjan Tollenaar
NALL redactie

Gerrit van der Veen
NALL redactie

Johan Wolswinkel
NALL redactie

    In the case of Byankov the Court of Justice ruled as follows: EU law must be interpreted as precluding legislation under which an administrative procedure that has resulted in the adoption of a prohibition on leaving the territory, which has become final and has not been contested before the courts, may be reopened - in the event of the prohibition being clearly contrary to EU law - only in circumstances such as those exhaustively listed in Article 99 of the Code of Administrative Procedure, despite the fact that such a prohibition continues to produce legal effects with regard to its addressee. This study discusses how the ruling can be placed in the case law of the Court that in accordance with the principle of legal certainty, EU law does not require that administrative authorities be placed under an obligation to re-examine a national final administrative decision.


Rolf Ortlep
Rolf Ortlep is verbonden aan het Instituut voor Staats- en Bestuursrecht van de Universiteit Utrecht.

    This article examines the actual application of European administrative soft law in light of the Dutch principle of legality. European administrative soft law is not legally binding. However, European administrative soft law can generate judicial binding effects for the Member States on the basis of the jurisprudence of the Court of Justice. Moreover, the research on the actual application of administratice soft law in the field of European subsidies shows that it can also have a 'de facto' binding effect for the Member Sates.

    The (legal and actual) binding effects of European administrative soft law are problematic in light of the principle of legality, according to which binding norms must be laid down in hard law. The article argues that with the application of administrative soft law, three functions of the principle of legality (the principle provides legal certainty and legitimacy and serves as a safeguard against public authorities) are not sufficiently met. Several possible solutions that may resolve this tension are proposed.


Claartje van Dam
Claartje van Dam is masterstudent Staats- en Bestuursrecht aan de Universiteit Leiden.

    This article examines the impact of the introduction of the Schutznorm-principle (relativiteitsvereiste) in the Dutch General Administrative Law Act on the private enforcement of state aid law. This principle prohibits the administrative courts to annul a decision if the ground manifestly does not protect the complainants interests. Court decisions are examined to research the role of individuals in the private enforcement of state aid law. These individuals often have no competitive relation with the (alleged) beneficiary of the aid. However, presumably the Schutznorm-principle will not hinder them from annulling the decision because the Schutznorm-principle requires clarity regarding the scope of the provision invoked. Article 108 TFEU lacks this clarity. Based on possibilities of appeal against Commissions decisions and case law of the EU CoJ on this matter, the author argues that not every individual needs to be able to invoke state aid provisions.


Matthijs Baart
Matthijs Baart LLM is onderzoek- en onderwijsmedewerker aan de Universiteit Leiden

    In its Betfair judgment, the Court of Justice ruled that the exclusive license system with respect to games of chance under Dutch law breaches Article 49 of the EC, now: Article 56 of the TFEU, concerning the free movement of services, and in particular the principle of equal treatment and the obligation of transparency. This article addresses the lessons which can be drawn from this judgement and which Dutch legal concepts could be applied to this 'European' obligation of transparency. According to the judgement, this is not only the case for 'public contracts'and 'concessions', but also to licenses under public law. This article addresses the meaning of these legal concepts and discusses to what extent this 'European' obligation of transparency applies to the relevant Dutch legal concepts.


Annemarie Drahmann
Annemarie Drahmann is promovenda aan de afdeling staats- en bestuursrecht van de Universiteit Leiden en senior Professional Support Lawyer bij Stibbe.
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