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Artikel

Access_open Een stok in het duister: boetes voor niet-tijdige inburgering en rechtszekerheid

Tijdschrift Crimmigratie & Recht, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden Integration policy, The Netherlands, Court of Justice of the European Union, P. and S.
Auteurs Mr. Jeremy Bierbach
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Since 2007, a statute has been in force in the Netherlands (the Wet inburgering or Act on Civic Integration) that provides for a system of fines that can be imposed on certain classes of immigrants for not passing the ‘civic integration exam’, testing knowledge of Dutch language and culture, by a certain deadline. However, the way in which the statute defines the precise obligations on immigrants, which classes of immigrants have those obligations, what the exact deadline is and when it can be extended leaves much to be desired in terms of legal certainty, especially considering the frequent changes that the legislature of the Netherlands makes to the statute. Morever, since a fine is imposed as a penalty for what is effectively a ‘criminal charge’ (in the sense of article 6 of the European Convention on Human Rights), what role does the establishment in a fair trial of the immigrant’s culpability play in the imposition of such a fine? For a completely different perspective on integration policy, the author discusses the 2015 decision P. and S. of the Court of Justice of the European Union, in which he was the legal representative of the plaintiffs. When an immigrant is a beneficiary of an EU directive providing for immigration rights for third-country nationals, the Court holds that it is permissible to impose fines in order to stimulate the immigrant’s integration in the society of the host member state, but that such a penalty may not go so far as to actively endanger the goal of aiding integration. In general, the Court is highly sceptical of the effectiveness and fairness of the system of fines provided for by the Act on Civic Integration. The author concludes that the Act, with its clear emphasis on punishment rather than promotion of civic integration, ultimately has the effect of criminalising entire classes of immigrants to the Netherlands.


Mr. Jeremy Bierbach
Mr. J.B. Bierbach is attorney/advocaat bij Franssen Advocaten te Amsterdam.
Artikel

Preventieve politiecontroles en interne grenscontroles in het Schengengebied

Tijdschrift Crimmigratie & Recht, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden Grenscontrole, Profileren, Schengen
Auteurs Prof. dr. mr. Peter Rodrigues en Prof. mr. dr. Maartje van der Woude
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Ever since the 2015 start of what is now often referred to as the European ‘migration crisis’, European member states have been struggling with one of the key fundaments of the European Union and in particular the Schengen Agreement: the principle of free movement. Whereas this principle entails that people should be able to move freely within the Schengen Area, as a result of the ongoing securitization and politicization of migration, Member States are exploring the different opportunities the Schengen Border Code allows them to monitor intra-Schengen cross-border mobility. In doing so, countries seem to have two options: either to temporarily reintroduce border controls or to – permanently – carry out police or immigration controls in an area around the border. In this article we explore and critically assess the choices various countries have made and what seems to be the position of the European Commission in all this.


Prof. dr. mr. Peter Rodrigues
Prof. dr. mr. P.R. Rodrigues is Hoogleraar Immigratierecht en voorzitter van het Instituut voor Immigratierecht. Hij is verbonden aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Leiden en lid van de redactie van Crimmigratie & Recht.

Prof. mr. dr. Maartje van der Woude
Prof. mr. dr. M.A.H. van der Woude is Hoogleraar Rechtssociologie bij het Van Vollenhoven Instituut voor Recht, Bestuur & Samenleving. Zij is verbonden aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Leiden en lid van de redactie van Crimmigratie & Recht.
Artikel

Access_open Discriminatie van IS en Al-Nusra-strijders bij intrekking Nederlanderschap in Unierechtelijk perspectief

Tijdschrift Crimmigratie & Recht, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden Rijkswet op het Nederlanderschap, intrekking naturalisatie, terrorisme, openbare orde
Auteurs Mr. Florimond Wassenaar
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In its efforts in making effective counter terrorism legislation the Dutch government has introduced the possibility to deprive its own nationals of their Dutch nationality. The competence to revoke Dutch citizenship may arise in case of conducting behaviour abroad that can be labelled as terrorism or facilitating terrorism. Dutch citizenship can only be rescinded by the immigration authorities when such acts are performed outside the Dutch borders in certain appointed areas for certain appointed organisations. This is currently the case for the area of Syria and the organisations IS and Al-Nusra. However given the obligations within the Convention on the reduction of statelessness only Dutch nationals with dual citizenship fall within the scope of this newly introduced legislation. This article focusses on the question whether in EU-law perspective the distinction made between Dutch with dual citizenship and Dutch without a second foreign nationality is against the principle of equal treatment. By discussing the Council Directive 2000/43/EC, case law of the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) and the preparatory documents of the convention on the reduction of statelessness the argument is developed that the convention serves as a trump card to enhance and justify the newly introduced legislation. Given CJEU case law the question of loyalty towards the member state of origin may lead to deprivation of EU-nationality. The aforementioned distinction made in Dutch nationality law would only be justified if it can be successfully be proven that dual citizenship raises an ipso facto loyalty issue toward member states by dual nationality holders. Since evidence of that nature is non existent it is concluded that the newly introduced counter terrorism provisions on deprivation of Dutch citizenship are discriminatory and advances second class nationality in The Netherlands.


Mr. Florimond Wassenaar
Mr. C.F. Wassenaar is advocaat bij Inigo advocaten te Rotterdam.
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