Zoekresultaat: 21 artikelen

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Jaar 2009 x

    Many actors have been blamed for the financial crisis: Greenspan, banks, rating agencies, careless mortgage takers and incompetent mainstream economists. This paper however focusses on other explanations for the crisis which are usually neglected in mainstream economics. The imbalances in the income and wealth distribution worldwide have become so large, that the poor cannot buy the goods produced by rich countries anymore, while the rich have become so rich that they cannot spend all their income anymore in the real sector. This lack of demand for goods has artificially been filled by unsecured debts given to the poor, but eventually led to a taking off of financial markets, and to a crisis. When imbalances are too large, this backfires. Government packages aimed at stabilizing the economy should therefore not forget the income and wealth distribution in order to be successful in the long run.


B. Unger
Prof. dr. Brigitte Unger is hoogleraar economie van de publieke sector bij de Utrecht School of Economics.
Artikel

Tenure security in de informele stad in Latijns Amerika

Wanneer recht en realiteit uit elkaar lopen

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 01 2009
Auteurs Jean-Louis van Gelder
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    By the end of 2007, the world’s urban population had outnumbered the amount of people living in rural areas. Urbanization is expected to increase strongly in the developing world over the coming years, most of it through informal ways of accessing land and housing. In the initiatives of governments and donor organizations to deal with these developments, the concept of tenure security features increasingly prominently. It is inter alia expected to encourage investment in housing improvement, facilitate access to public services such as gas, water and electricity and also to make formal credit available. There is, however, no consensus as to what tenure security exactly means or how it is to be established. In the present paper, development policy based on establishing tenure security through land titling is critically examined and with the emphasis on urban informality in Latin America, an alternative concept of tenure security is proposed.


Jean-Louis van Gelder
Jean-Louis van Gelder studeerde Arbeids- & Organisatiepsychologie en Nederlands Recht aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam. Beide achtergronden werden vervolgens gecombineerd in een dissertatie getiteld “The Law and Psychology of Land Tenure Security: Evidence from Buenos Aires”. Sinds maart 2009 is hij als onderzoeker verbonden aan het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR). Naast informaliteit liggen zijn onderzoeksinteresses op het gebied van Law & Development, rechtstheorie, risicoperceptie en –gedrag en de effectiviteit van voorwaardelijke straffen.
Boekbespreking

Beheer en gebruik van grond in voorstedelijke gebieden in Ghana

Lokaal gewoonterecht en traditionele hoofden in een veranderende rechtswerkelijkheid

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 01 2009
Auteurs Els Baerends
Auteursinformatie

Els Baerends
Els Baerends is antropoloog met specialisatie rechtsantropologie. Zij deed in de jaren zeventig van de vorige eeuw uitgebreid rechtsantropologisch onderzoek bij de Anufom (Noord Togo, West Afrika) en promoveerde op een studie van huwelijksuitwisseling en schuldrelaties bij de Anufom. Van 1983-2008 werkte zij als UHD bij de vakgroep Rechtstheorie van de RUGroningen. Sinds 1999 is zij betrokken bij de Masters opleiding in Humanitarian Action (NOHA) aan de RUGroningen. Haar interessegebieden zijn exchange theory, human ethology, kinship and gender en grondenrecht.

Janine Ubink
Janine Ubink (j.m.ubink@law.leidenuniv.nl) is senior researcher law and governance in Africa at the Van Vollenhoven Institute of the law faculty of Leiden University. In 2007 she published her dissertation In the Land of the Chiefs: Customary law, land conflicts, and the role of the state in peri-urban Ghana. She was furthermore involved as researcher and editor in a project comparing land tenure legalisations in eight countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Currently she is conducting research on the possibilities of legal empowerment through engagement with customary law, with a special focus on Namibia.

Karin Nijenhuis
Karin Nijenhuis (nijenhuis@ascleiden.nl) is a human geographer and environmental jurist. She is doing her PhD on the mobility of farmers and conflicts over access to land in Mali at the African Studies Centre, Leiden. In addition she is working as a senior project manager at the Center for International Legal Cooperation (CILC) in The Hague.

Michiel Köhne
Michiel Köhne (michiel.kohne@wur.nl) is assistant professor at Law and Governance, Wageningen University. His main topic of interest is the relationships between law and development. He is presently working on two different topics. The first regards rights of indigenous peoples to land and self governance. The second concerns transnational regulation of tropical commodity chains in which western conglomerates of multinationals and NGOs make rules with regard to agrarian production in developing countries.
Redactioneel

Voorwoord

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2009
Auteurs M.B. Schuilenburg en M.P.C. Scheepmaker
Auteursinformatie

M.B. Schuilenburg
Gastredacteur en redactieraadlid mr. drs. Marc Schuilenburg is als docent verbonden aan de vakgroep criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.

M.P.C. Scheepmaker
Drs. Marit Scheepmaker is hoofdredacteur van Justitiële verkenningen.
Artikel

Onder de mensen

De aanpak van transportcriminaliteit door politie, verzekeraars en schade-experts

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2009
Auteurs M.B. Schuilenburg, A. Coenraads en P. Van Calster
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article discusses what is left aside in the perspective of nodal governance: namely the adaptability and dynamics of social reality itself. The challenge is to research ‘what actually happens’ without reducing it to collective structures or specific frameworks in advance. Previous to specific structures (‘teams’) and frameworks (‘meetings’, ‘contracts’) there is constant change, movement and difference. By using the work of the French sociologist Gabriel Tarde (1843-1904) the authors research how the nodes police, insurers and loss adjusters cooperate in the fight against transport criminality and how interactions between these nodes take content and shape. Consequently, their cooperation is not interpreted as a static theme, but rather as a dynamic process that requires constant interpretation in terms of relationships, unexpected events, adaptations and coincidences. On the basis of fifteen in-depth interviews the authors show in which way a ‘new language’ with ‘new mechanisms’ originates within the cooperation. As a consequence, ‘informal contacts’, ‘goals and interests’, ‘mutual confidence’ and ‘information-exchange’, which play an important role between the nodes, are constantly re-defined.


M.B. Schuilenburg
Mr. drs. Marc Schuilenburg doceert aan de vakgroep Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.

A. Coenraads
Annerieke Coenraads MSc studeerde criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam. Ze heeft op persoonlijke titel meegeschreven aan deze bijdrage.

P. Van Calster
Dr. Patrick Van Calster is als universitair hoofddocent verbonden aan het departement Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Burgerparticipatie in lokale veiligheidsnetwerken

Over ‘nodale sturing’ en ‘verankerd pluralisme’

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2009
Auteurs R. van Steden
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Safety and security are increasingly provided by public-private partnerships. In this respect, commentators claim that we are witnessing a shift from ‘government’ (a hierarchically organized state) to ‘governance’ (a hybrid network of organizations) in the fight against crime and disorder. Criminologist Clifford Shearing interprets interactions within hybrid - public and private - networks in terms of nodal governance, implying that state coordination of partnerships is not given a priori significance. The state is but one actor among many. Ian Loader and Neil Walker criticize his position, taking the diametrically opposed view that the state is indispensable for the democratic regulation of public-private networks (anchored pluralism). Despite this fundamental disagreement, the perspectives of Shearing and Loader and Walker share an appreciation of citizen participation in local safety networks. However, at least for the Netherlands, it is hardly imaginable how such participation could flourish without any state interference.


R. van Steden
Dr. Ronald van Steden is als onderzoeker verbonden aan de leerstoel Veiligheid & Burgerschap en als docent aan de Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam

    This paper advances a ‘nodal governance’ perspective, which understands the delivery of security as being accomplished through the thinking and practices of various ‘nodes’ or entities characterized by ways of thinking about problems and influencing events. In this light, policing should be understood sociologically as involving the activities of state and non-state entities (e.g. corporations and well-resourced communities) as well as the public police. The authors argue that it is essential for police to recognize the nodal world within which they live and to locate themselves within ‘nodal assemblages’ for the delivery of security. As illustrations, the paper discusses two practical projects devoted to exploring nodal security governance arrangements in the country contexts of South Africa and Australia. The authors add that the question of what precisely nodal policing can or should look like in concrete terms is an empirical matter to be resolved within site-specific contexts.


J. Wood
Prof. Jennifer Wood is als hoogleraar verbonden aan het Department of Criminal Justice van de Australische Temple University.

C.D. Shearing
Prof. Clifford Shearing is hoogleraar bij het Centre of Criminology van de University of Cape Town, Zuid-Afrika.

    This article focuses on the question whether the nodal governance perspective is a useful and insightful instrument to analyse the growing involvement and responsibilities of a multitude of public and private actors in creating public safety and security. Subsequently the author applies the basics of nodal governance to experiences with local security networks in the Netherlands. His conclusion is that the nodal governance perspective has a number of shortcomings. One of these is an underestimation of the crucial role of the police in local security networks. Also, important obstacles to civilian participation in security networks are overlooked. Moreover, the nodal governance thinking doesn't deal with the problem of democratic control of private actors involved in security networks and the absence of guarantees that they will pursue security not only for themselves but for the community as a whole.


J. Terpstra
Dr. Jan Terpstra is verbonden aan het Criminologisch Instituut van de Radboud Universiteit in Nijmegen.

    Since the last decennium, the government has stopped being the only organizer and executor of issues of safety and security. After all, as a result of developments on a social, cultural, economical and geographical level, the way of coping with problems of danger and insecurity changed. These new developments and ways of coping can not be grasped in terms of a devaluation of government competence. Instead, new ways of governance came into existence, with their own dynamics and autonomy. In this contribution, we will elaborate on the concept of ‘Burgernet’, that is a hybrid network in which civilians, the police and the municipalities come together for tackling problems of insecurity. The concept of nodal governance will turn out to be a helpful tool in the analyses.


P. Van Calster
Dr. Patrick Van Calster is universitair hoofddocent aan het departement Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

M.B. Schuilenburg
Mr. drs. Marc Schuilenburg doceert aan de afdeling Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

    The upsurge in the use of economic sanctions in the post-Cold War era has prompted much scholarly and policy debate over their effectiveness and humanitarian consequences. Remarkably little attention, however, has been devoted to their criminalizing consequences and legacy for the post-sanctions period. In this article, the author develops an analytical framework identifying and categorizing the potential criminalizing effects of sanctions across place (within and around the targeted country) and time (during and after the sanctions period). This framework is applied and evaluated through an in-depth examination of the case of Yugoslavia. For comparative leverage and to assess the applicability of the argument beyond the Yugoslavia case, the analysis is briefly extended to Croatia. The article suggests that sanctions can unintentionally contribute to the criminalization of the state, economy, and civil society of both the targeted country and its immediate neighbors, fostering a symbiosis between political leaders, organized crime, and transnational smuggling networks. This symbiosis, in turn, can persist beyond the lifting of sanctions, contributing to corruption and crime and undermining the rule of law.


Peter Andreas
Prof. Peter Andreas is als assistent-hoogleraar Internationale Betrekkingen verbonden aan de Brown University, Rhode Island, Providence, USA.
Artikel

De verdrijving van Hulanda

De Sabanen en hun toekomst als BES-eilanders

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2009
Auteurs F. Guadeloupe
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the ongoing effort to create a post-imperial Dutch Kingdom, one in which colonial categories have no place, preparations are underway to reorganize this transatlantic political entity. The BES islands, Bonaire, Sint Eustatius, and Saba, will be granted the status of overseas municipalities of the Netherlands. Such welcoming efforts by mandarins in The Hague must however be based upon a sound understanding of how the cultural sensibilities of many Caribbean Dutch continue to be impacted by the lingering memories of the colonialism. Throughout the Dutch Caribbean isles, these lingering memories have given rise to Hulanda, a collection of fantastic spectres supposedly representing the benevolent and malevolent mindsets of the European Dutch to whom the future allegedly belongs. By specifically focusing on Saban imaginings of Hulanda, as well as offering modes to exorcize these specific spectres, this essay seeks to contribute to the process of mutual recognition within the Dutch Kingdom.


F. Guadeloupe
Dr. Francio Guadeloupe is verbonden aan de afdeling Culturele Antropologie en Ontwikkelingsstudies van de Faculteit Sociale Wetenschappen van de Radboud Universiteit.

    The concept of risk and the practice of financial risk management are important factors in the present-day financial world. Handbooks explain this focus on risk as a reaction to increased volatility of prices, interest rates and exchange rates since the early 1970s. Financial economists have developed mathematical models and quantitative techniques to hedge the risks of financial transactions. The financial innovations developed in this process, so-called derivatives, are derived from older forms of intertemporal transactions, such as options, futures, forwards and warrants. The use of derivatives has grown rapidly since the early 1970s. A number of authors has pointed out that the widespread use of these financial instruments to hedge risks at the level of banks and corporations has increased systemic risk at the macro-level. Some authors think that risk management is principally impossible, as uncertainty reigns the world. Others have pointed out that financial organizations have used derivatives not only for risk management, but also for other less lofty organizational purposes, such as creating excessive credit and taking highly leveraged positions. While this criticism is generally valid, it should be realized that the use of quantitative techniques and the practice of derivatives cannot be banned from the present-day financial world.


W.G. Wolters
Prof. dr. Willem Wolters is als emeritus hoogleraar economische antropologie verbonden aan de Radboud Universiteit in Nijmegen.
Artikel

Achtergronden en determinanten van radicalisering en terrorisme

Een overzicht

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2009
Trefwoorden radicalisme, terrorisme, radicaliseringsproces
Auteurs Wim Koomen en Joop van der Pligt
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article presents an overview of the main determinants of radicalization and terrorism. Experienced discrimination plays an important role, and can be seen as threatening. This could amplify the importance of ideology and religious convictions, and these both unify the group and direct the behavior of the group. Perceived threats also result in emphasizing group identity and increases the cohesiveness of the threatened group. This may lead to polarization between groups and radicalization. This radicalization is also affected by cognitions, such as perceived inequity and injustice, as well as emotions such as anger and contempt. In a later phase of radicalization group processes, such as groupthink, and support from the wider social group may further strengthen radicalization. Justification processes, like dehumanizing the opponent, are also likely to play a role. Finally, the transition from radicalization to terrorism is discussed.


Wim Koomen
Dr. W. Koomen is werkzaam bij de faculteit sociale psychologie van de Universiteit van Amsterdam, w.koomen@uva.nl.

Joop van der Pligt
Prof. dr. J. van der Pligt is hoogleraar sociale psychologie aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam, J.vanderPligt@uva.nl
Artikel

EU-burgerschap en de reikwijdte van het verbod van discriminatie op grond van nationaliteit

Tijdschrift Nederlands tijdschrift voor Europees recht, Aflevering 8-9 2009
Trefwoorden EU-burgerschap, gelijke Behandeling, directe Discriminatie, omgekeerde Discriminatie, derdelanders
Auteurs Mr. A.P. van der Mei
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Dit artikel analyseert de rechtspraak van het Hof betreffende artikel 12 EG-Verdrag. Geconcludeerd wordt dat EU-burgers zich in andere lidstaten op artikel 12 EG-Verdrag kunnen beroepen in relatie tot in beginsel ieder recht of voordeel, ongeacht het beleidsterrein waaruit dit voortvloeit en ongeacht het antwoord op de vraag of het genot van dit recht of voordeel het vrij verkeer kan bevorderen. Deze ontwikkeling in de rechtspraak is te verwelkomen, maar roept wel een reeks van nieuwe vragen op aangaande onder meer directe discriminatie op grond van nationaliteit en zogenoemde ‘omgekeerde discriminatie’.


Mr. A.P. van der Mei
Mr. A.P. van der Mei is Universitair Docent, capaciteitsgroep Internationaal & Europees Recht, Universiteit Maastricht.
Artikel

De Collectieve Winkelontzegging

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2009
Trefwoorden winkelontzegging, overlast, (on)veiligheid, voorzorgsprincipe
Auteurs Loes Wesselink, Marc Schuilenburg en Patrick Van Calster
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Public Private Partnerships (PPS) are becoming one of the most popular answers to problems of crime and disorder. In this contribution, the authors research the Collective Shop Ban, maybe the most successful form of Public Private Partnerships currently operating in the Netherlands. A Collective Shop Ban is a civil measure bestowed upon a person by the shop owner, when s/he displays ‘unwanted behaviour’. As a consequence entry can be denied for every shop assembled in the association of entrepreneurs. In 2007 almost 900 people have been denied access to over 450 shops in the city centre of The Hague. This new form of collaboration between police, public prosecution service and entrepreneurs has already been rewarded with the Regional Crime Control Platform ‘safety award’. However, the authors question the effects of this collaboration. They argue that the Collective Shop Ban creates its own public of ‘unwanted shoppers’, that can be banned from a shopping area by devising new terms of exclusion. This ‘public’ is subjected to new means of power, to be applied by private security guards and shop owners. While entrepreneurs celebrate the possibilities of this civil measure, the authors warn for the juridical and ethical consequences of this measure.


Loes Wesselink
Loes Wesselink is criminologe en werkt als junior onderzoeker bij het COT Instituut voor Veiligheids- en Crisismanagement in Den Haag. E-mail: wesselink.loes@gmail.com.

Marc Schuilenburg
Marc Schuilenburg doceert aan de vakgroep Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam. E-mail: m.b.schuilenburg@rechten.vu.nl.

Patrick Van Calster
Patrick Van Calster is universitair hoofddocent aan het departement strafrecht en criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden. E-mail: p.j.v..van.calster@law.leidenuniv.nl.

    In this contribution the focus is on whether mediation, as it is practiced today, can be regarded as a profession and if so, whether it belongs to the ‘new’ or ‘old’ professions. In an attempt to answer this question the structure of the body of knowledge and the predictability of the outcomes of the application of that body of knowledge are discussed.


Ad Kil
Ad Kil is director of study van de masteropleiding Conflictmanagement aan de Universiteit Maastricht en professor Human Resource Development in Law Firms aan de Nottingham Law School.
Artikel

Fusies van ziekenhuizen

Het beoordelingskader van de NMa

Tijdschrift Markt & Mededinging, Aflevering 2 2009
Trefwoorden fusies, ziekenhuiszorg, NMa, concentratiecontrole, marktafbakening
Auteurs Prof. dr. M.C.W. Janssen, Drs. K. Schep en Prof. dr. J. van Sinderen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Dit artikel bevat een overzicht van de NMa-besluiten met betrekking tot fusies tussen ziekenhuizen. Het plaatst de besluiten en de commentaren daarop in perspectief van de ontwikkeling van het denken binnen de NMa. Het artikel besteedt aandacht aan wat wel en niet mogelijk is binnen het toetsingskader van de Mededingingswet. Alleen dan wanneer er sprake is van marktmacht op de relevante markt kan de NMa aspecten van kwaliteit van de zorg en efficiency voordelen mee laten wegen. In haar besluiten houdt de NMa sterk rekening met het feit dat marktwerking in de zorgmarkt nog in een pril stadium verkeert.


Prof. dr. M.C.W. Janssen
Prof. dr. M.C.W. Janssen is raadsadviseur van de NMa ten behoeve van de zorgsector, Competition Economists Group (CEG-Europe) en hoogleraar Ersamus Universiteit Rotterdam.

Drs. K. Schep
Drs. K. Schep is senior medewerker bij de NMa, cluster zorg.

Prof. dr. J. van Sinderen
Prof. dr. J. van Sinderen is Chief Economist, NMa en hoogleraar Economische Politiek, Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
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