Zoekresultaat: 22 artikelen

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Jaar 2011 x
Artikel

De paradox van de Duitse concentratiekampen

Een criminologische duiding van de ‘plantage’ in Dachau (1937-1945)

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2011
Trefwoorden Dachau concentration camp, practices of extermination, German economic interests, organizational criminology, Vaughan
Auteurs Kenneth Hemmerechts en Prof. dr. Stephan Parmentier
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    During the Second World War, a large number of prisoners were put to work in concentration camps in order to contribute to the development of Germany. As this labour became more important in economic terms during the years 1939 to 1945, the death toll in the camps also rose during the same period. This contribution aims at providing insight into the apparent contradiction (paradox) between the practices of extermination on the one hand and the German economic interests on the other hand. Not only has historiography paid relatively little attention to this phenomenon (it is not a main topic), criminology has also remained remarkably silent during this debate. Looking at the ‘plantation’ in Dachau concentration camp (1937-1945) we develop an exploratory analysis of the subject. Using Vaughan’s organizational criminology, we discuss the paradox and address the question of the extent to which criminology can offer explanations for phenomena of this kind.


Kenneth Hemmerechts
K. Hemmerechts is wetenschappelijk medewerker bij het Centrum voor Sociologisch Onderzoek (CESO), faculteit sociale wetenschappen, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Arbeid en Organisatie, kenneth.hemmerechts@soc.kuleuven.be.

Prof. dr. Stephan Parmentier
Prof. dr. S. Parmentier is hoogleraar Sociologie van de criminaliteit, het recht en de mensenrechten aan het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie (LINC), Rechtsfaculteit, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, stephan.parmentier@law.kuleuven.be.
Artikel

Over objectieve en subjectieve onveiligheid

En de (on)zin van het rationaliteitdebat

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2011
Trefwoorden fear of crime, fear victimization paradox, rationality debate
Auteurs Stefaan Pleysier
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution focuses on ‘fear of crime’ research. Departing from the classic distinction between crime and victimization as objective threats, on the one hand, and fear of crime as a subjective and emotional interpretation of that threat, on the other hand, the research tradition is confronted with the so-called fear victimization paradox. This paradox emerges from the observation that fear of crime is greater among women and elderly people, while these groups actually are less at risk of becoming a crime victim. It has immersed the research tradition in a dominant debate on the rationality of the fear of crime, with two opposing paradigms: rationalist and symbolic.Whilst both the paradox and the different paradigms in the debate offer a view at the core of fear of crime research, and illustrate how similar empirical observations can lead to differing explanations, and policy implications for that matter, we argue that the fear victimization paradox and the rationality debate surrounding this paradox, has occupied the bulk of research on fear of crime with what is essentially a nonsensical and redundant debate.


Stefaan Pleysier
Prof. dr. S. (Stefaan) Pleysier is docent Jeugdcriminologie en Methoden van onderzoek aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de K.U.Leuven, en verbonden aan het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie (LINC) waar hij co-coördinator is van de onderzoekslijn Jeugdcriminologie. E-mail: stefaan.pleysier@law.kuleuven.be
Artikel

Regulering in een hybride veiligheidszorg

Over de bewaking van een publiek goed in een deels geprivatiseerd bestel

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2011
Trefwoorden regulation, security, privatization, public good, self-regulation
Auteurs Jan Terpstra
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This paper deals with the question of how a partly privatized security sector could be regulated. A central aim of this regulation should be the control of security as a public good. Three models of regulation are analyzed. The current practice of this regulation in the Netherlands shows a serious lack of effectiveness. One of our main conclusions is that neither the state nor the private sector is able to enforce this regulation on their own. However, it is assumed that the state should have a central and integrated regulatory role in this field, with more attention paid to the practical implementation of it, with the power and will to sanction private agencies if necessary. In addition managers of private security companies should adopt a role as public managers with a public moral duty. Regulation of security is faced with a double problematic, not only the horizontal fragmentation of the field, but also the vertical fragmentation, often resulting in a serious gap between managers and those in the field, both in the public and the private sector. This implies that the regulation should not only rest on the state and on self-regulation by the sector at management level, but also on the promotion of a practical ethic for security workers to steer and regulate their daily work.


Jan Terpstra
Prof. dr. ir. J.B. (Jan) Terpstra is werkzaam bij het Criminologisch Instituut, Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Radboud Universiteit, Nijmegen. E-mail: j.terpstra@jur.ru.nl
Artikel

Transnational Divorce in Dutch-Moroccan Families

The Semi-Autonomous Social Field of Legal Aid

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2011
Auteurs Iris Sportel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In transnational Dutch-Moroccan divorce cases, spouses can come into contact with two different legal systems. Many different kinds of organisations are involved, offering social and legal advice and aid in these transnational divorces: advising and referring clients, educating spouses and professionals, and influencing policy. In this article these organisations are analysed as participants in a transnational field of legal aid, using Moore’s concept of the semi-autonomous social field. It becomes clear that these organisations share norms on transnational divorce: they frame transnational divorce as a women’s problem, and one of complex, interacting rules and regulations. These norms form the source of rules on how to handle law in transnational Dutch-Moroccan divorce cases.


Iris Sportel
Iris Sportel is a PhD candidate at the Radboud University Nijmegen. She has a BSc in Cultural Anthropology and a BA and MA in Arabic Language and Culture. Since 2008 she has been working on her PhD project ‘Transnational Divorce: between Dutch, Egyptian and Moroccan Law’. She has also done research on a pilot project on tailor-made conflict resolution at the court of Den Bosch and on Islamic saint veneration in Egypt.

    In this feature authors review recently published books on subjects of interest to readers of Recht der Werkelijkheid.


Adriaan Bedner
Adriaan Bedner is a senior lecturer at the Van Vollenhoven Institute for Law, Governance and Development of Leiden University. Most of his research has been on law in Indonesia, with a particular focus on access to justice, dispute resolution and the judiciary. He has also done work of a more theoretical and comparative nature, notable on rule of law and access to justice.

    This paper presents a reflection on the theoretical work on the social working of law of the past two decades. It is argued that early assumptions, that legal models were becoming increasingly globalised, creating an increasingly uniform body of law, have not come true. The global spread of neo-capitalism has not only given rise to de-juridification, it has also engendered juridification in which ever more sectors of social life, from small scale to global, are being colonised by law. This development is initiated from above and below in equal measure, and concerns not only the law of nation states, but also law created by other actors, including religious law of various provenance. The paper argues that great progress has been made in understanding how transnational law is generated and how law is transnationalised, but that the ways in which these processes work when actors actually use this transnationalised law in contexts of legal pluralism are not yet adequately understood. The paper presents a perspective on transnationalisation of law that is grounded in space, a perspective that may aid our understanding of the social working of law in transnational contexts. The first section provides a brief survey of some of the main academic approaches to processes of transnationalisation. The second section addresses the issue of location and considers what happens in settings where actors use transnationalising law. The conclusions discuss the value of transnational space and transnational legal space as concepts for the analysis of transnationalising law.


Keebet von Benda-Beckmann
Keebet von Benda-Beckmann is head of the Project Group Legal Pluralism at the Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology in Halle. She also holds honorary chairs in social anthropology and legal pluralism at the Universities of Leipzig and Halle. She has carried out research on dispute management, social security, natural resources in West Sumatra, the Moluccas, and in the Netherlands. She has been conducting field research on the effects of decentralisation and reforms of local government in West Sumatra since the fall of the Suharto regime. She has widely published on dispute management, resources, social security, and on theoretical issues of legal pluralism.

    For a common market, a common patent and a common patent litigation seem self-evident. Although efforts to introduce these common market institutions in Europe started early in the history of the Economic Community, they remained unsuccessful. The reconstruction of this legal history is focused on two theoretical issues.The first concerns the question of power and influence in the EU, in particular the configuration of stakeholders responsible for the non-decision making on this policy issue. The basic mechanism underlying the lack of success of this dossier appears to be a balance of power between the two opposing groups of stakeholders (France and European institutions vs. Germany, UK, supported by their patenting industry and legal experts). This suggests that transnational rule making, proceeding under similar conditions, is likely to have a long (if not unsuccessful) ‘issue career’.The second theoretical issue concerns the agenda-setting mechanisms of recent decades. All initiatives on international or transnational patent policy have mainly been the product of ‘high politics’, although the input of patent legal experts (representatives of ‘low politics’) has increased considerably in recent decades. Further, this history would seem to defy simple schemes of agenda setting. There is no simple sequence of issue initiation, specification, expansion and entrance. At best, it is a series of such sequences.


Alex Jettinghoff
Alex Jettinghoff is a researcher at the Institute for Sociology of Law of the Radboud University Nijmegen. His main research interests are: business contracting and litigation, the role of lawyers in legal change, war and legal transformation, and the practices of intellectual property.
Artikel

Mediation training in Russia

Past experience and latest legislative innovations

Tijdschrift Nederlands-Vlaams tijdschrift voor mediation en conflictmanagement, Aflevering 4 2011
Trefwoorden mediator training, mediation standards, legal reforms in Russia, russian mediation law
Auteurs Vadim Abolonin en Ksenia Sergeeva
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The goal of this article is to examine key problems of training standards for mediators in Russia and to identify possible solutions that may address these issues. In considering the question of mediation training in the context of mediation development in Russia, one can distinguish two periods: (1) before the enactment of the Law on mediation, or the period of private initiatives, and (2) after this Law entered into force, which can be entitled as the period of governmental regulation.During the first period, there were no special legal regulations and thus, private institutions had been offering their own diverse and numerous mediation training programs. The situation has changed due to the active force of the Federal Law on mediation by implementing provisions that require creation of a special unified training program for professional mediators and approval by the Government of the Russian Federation. This program was adopted on 14 February 2011. The approach of the Russian legislature to the establishment of a consistent educational standard for Russian mediators can be considered as the implementation of the woldwide shift toward standards unification. However, the Law itself contains some contradictions, and also contains a number of provisions that cast serious doubts upon the success of this effort.


Vadim Abolonin
Vadim Abolonin, PhD (Russia), LL.M. (Hanover, Lisbon), is Associate Professor of Civil Procedure, Ural State Law Academy (Yekaterinburg, Russia), German Chancellor Fellow (Alexander von Humboldt Foundation), Guest Researcher at the Institute of East European Law, Christian-Albrecht University of Kiel (Germany) and Executive Director of the Interregional Chamber of Mediation (Russia).

Ksenia Sergeeva
Ksenia Sergeeva is a PhD candidate (Ural State Law Academy), Master of Jurisprudence (Russian School of Private Law) and Master in Law Economics and Finance candidate (International University College of Turin).
Discussie

Access_open The Destruction and Reconstruction of the Tower of Babel

A Comment to Gunther Teubner’s Plea for a ‘Common Law Constitution’

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 3 2011
Trefwoorden global society, constitutionalism, social systems theory, Teubner, law and order
Auteurs Bart van Klink
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article presents some critical comments concerning the conceptual, normative and institutional foundations of Teubner’s plea for a ‘common law constitution’. My comments question the desirability of the means chosen for attaining this objective as well as their efficacy. In particular, I have difficulties with the ambivalent role that is assigned to man, either as a person or as a human being; with the reduction of social problems to problems of communication; and, finally and most importantly, with the attempt to conceive of law and politics beyond established legal and political institutions, which in my view is doomed to fail. The conclusion offers some tentative suggestions for an alternative approach.


Bart van Klink
Bart van Klink is Professor of Legal Methodology at the Faculty of Law of the VU University Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
Artikel

Access_open Approaching Law through Conflicts

Tijdschrift Law and Method, 2011
Trefwoorden Latour, modernity of law, legal procedure, proof, qualification of facts
Auteurs Niels van Dijk
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article the author presents Latour’s negative analysis of modernity and his positive ethnographical studies of the modes of existence of our modern world. I will discuss the merits and disadvantages of his specific approach on law – an institutional ethnography of the French Conseil d’Etat – within this framework. The analysis will be supplemented with the results of a conflict-based approach to a case study in patent law at a law firm.


Niels van Dijk
Niels van Dijk LL.M. is onderzoeker bij het Center for Law, Science, Technology & Society (LSTS) van de Vrije Universiteit Brussel.
Artikel

Rechtsbescherming tegen een ondeugdelijke ontslagvergunning bezien in het licht van artikel 6 EVRM

Tijdschrift Arbeidsrechtelijke Annotaties, Aflevering 2 2011
Trefwoorden ontslagrecht, arbeidsprocesrecht, artikel 6 BBA, artikel 6 EVRM, misbruik van bevoegdheid
Auteurs Mr. D.M.A. Bij de Vaate
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In de literatuur wordt aangenomen dat de werknemer die meent dat de voor de opzegging van zijn arbeidsovereenkomst afgegeven ontslagvergunning ondeugdelijk is, twee vorderingen ten dienste staan: een vordering uit onrechtmatige daad jegens het UWV en een kennelijk onredelijk ontslagprocedure tegen de werkgever. Er zijn echter voor de werknemer ook andere gerechtelijke procedures denkbaar. Allereerst kan met een beroep op het Holtrop/Smith-arrest van de Hoge Raad uit 2001 worden betoogd dat het mogelijk is om de ondeugdelijkheid van de aan de werkgever verleende ontslagvergunning aan te vechten door de nietigheid daarvan in te roepen. Ten tweede lijkt het op grond van het Van Hooff Elektra-arrest onder omstandigheden mogelijk een beroep te doen op de nietigheid van de opzegging wegens misbruik van bevoegdheid wanneer de werkgever gebruikmaakt van een ondeugdelijke ontslagvergunning. Deze twee ‘nieuwe’ procedures zijn in het kader van artikel 6 EVRM zeer gewenst. Zij voldoen, in tegenstelling tot de onrechtmatige daadsactie jegens het UWV en de kennelijk onredelijk ontslagprocedure, zowel qua toetsingsbevoegdheid als gewenste uitkomst aan de vereisten van artikel 6 EVRM, zodat deze procedures in staat zijn het gebrek dat op dit punt kleeft aan artikel 6 BBA te helen.


Mr. D.M.A. Bij de Vaate
Mr. D.M.A. Bij de Vaate is als docent sociaal recht verbonden aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Boekbespreking

De advocaat in het burgerlijk proces

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Civiele Rechtspleging, Aflevering 3 2011
Trefwoorden rechtsvergelijkend onderzoek, advocaat, advocatuur, burgerlijk proces
Auteurs Prof. mr. F.A.W. Bannier
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Bespreking van R. Verkijk, De advocaat in het burgerlijk proces.


Prof. mr. F.A.W. Bannier
Prof. mr. F.A.W. Bannier is bijzonder hoogleraar Advocatuur aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam; hij was lid van de Beoordelingscommissie.
Artikel

Zijn Nederlandse burgers écht enthousiast over de nieuwe antiterrorismemaatregelen?

Een vergelijking van attitudes en willingness to pay

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3 2011
Trefwoorden counterterrorism policy, public opinion, willingness to pay, legitimacy
Auteurs Johan van Wilsem en Maartje van der Woude
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Since 2001, the Netherlands have broadened their array of antiterrorism legislation and policies. However, there is hardly any insight into the level of public support for them. This article assesses the Dutch public opinion on four measures that were recently made effective: enhanced possibilities for stop-and-search, broadening of possibilities for special investigative resources, increased obligations for identification, and body scans in airports. Two randomly selected, comparable groups were asked different questions about these issues: attitudes or willingness to pay. The results show that respondents have positive attitudes towards newly introduced antiterrorism measures, yet simultaneously, they have low willingness to pay. Both groups were also asked how they would allocate an imaginary fixed budget to various criminal justice policies and tax rebate. These results show similar relations for both attitudes and willingness to pay, suggesting they both measure the relative importance assigned to antiterrorism policies. A right political orientation predicts both positive attitudes and high willingness to pay. Furthermore, people with high income have higher willingness to pay. The results underline the necessity to pay attention to the subtleties underlying public opinion on crime control.


Johan van Wilsem
Dr. J.A. (Johan) van Wilsem is universitair hoofddocent criminologie bij het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden. E-mail: J.A.van.Wilsem@law.leidenuniv.nl.

Maartje van der Woude
Mr. dr. M.A.H. (Maartje) van der Woude is universitair docent criminologie bij het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden. E-mail: m.a.h.vanderwoude@law.leidenuniv.nl.
Artikel

De leeftijdsgrenzen in het jeugdstrafrecht en het jongvolwassenenstrafrecht

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 4 2011
Trefwoorden juvenile justice, adolescent justice, age limits, neurobiological and psychological development
Auteurs Mr. Marjolein Herweijer
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Recent scientific studies have shown that a major part of juvenile delinquency is due to the incomplete development of adolescents and will stop before the age of 23. The Convention on the Rights of the Child and the accompanying General Comment Children’s rights in juvenile justice give detailed guidelines about juvenile justice. This article focuses on an advice of the Council for the Administration of Criminal Justice and Protection of Juveniles, according to which both of these developments require adjustment of the lower and upper age limit of criminal responsibility for juvenile offenders and justify a special criminal law for adolescents.


Mr. Marjolein Herweijer
Mr. Marjolein Herweijer is adviseur en secretaris van de sectie Jeugd van de Raad voor Strafrechtstoepassing en Jeugdbescherming.

    In this article, I will plead two 'new' proceedings against an inferior permission to terminate employment: (1) an appeal to the nullity of the permission to terminate employment and (2) an appeal to the nullity of the withdrawal. These procedures offer the employee an adequate remedy in the light of article 6 ECHR, in contrast with the claims for unfair dismissal (in Dutch: kennelijk onredelijk ontslag) and wrongful government act.


mr. Vivian mrs. Bij de Vaate
Artikel

Het actuele veiligheidsdebat in Frankrijk

Een toneelstuk in meerdere bedrijven

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2011
Trefwoorden security policy, security discourse, Sarkozysm, battle of criminologists
Auteurs Marc Cools
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this contribution the current security debate in France is dissected as if it were a play in different acts. President Sarkozy, the political producer, has launched a public ‘schizophrenic’ discussion in which criminologists/sociologists act and quarrel on the edge of a knife. This debate can only be understood in reference to French criminological history, politics, structures and scientific particularities. The contents of this criminological theatre of war can enrich criminological discussion in the Netherlands and Belgium.


Marc Cools
Prof. Marc Cools is professor in de vakgroep criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Brussel en in de vakgroep strafrecht en criminologie aan de Universiteit Gent. E-mail: Marc.Cools@vub.ac.be, Marc.Cools@UGent.be.
Artikel

The procedural role of courts in solving cross-border insolvency cases

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Civiele Rechtspleging, Aflevering 2 2011
Trefwoorden grensoverschrijdende samenwerking tussen rechters, soft law, internationaal procesrecht, voorontwerp Insolventiewet, EU-Insolventieverordening
Auteurs Prof. mr. B. Wessels
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Als onderdeel van lopend internationaal onderzoek wordt ingegaan op de instrumenten die rechters ten dienste staan voor het tot stand brengen en bevorderen van rechterlijke grensoverschrijdende samenwerking in internationale faillissementen. Wetgeving in onder meer de Verenigde Staten, Canada, het Verenigd Koninkrijk en Duitsland (ontwerp) biedt wettelijke steun voor deze samenwerking. De Nederlandse en Europese wetgever zouden moeten volgen, opdat grensoverschrijdende faillissementsafwikkeling effectief gecoördineerd kan worden.


Prof. mr. B. Wessels
Prof. mr. B. Wessels is independent legal counsel, Dordrecht and Professor of International Insolvency Law at Leiden Law School.

Jonas Ebbesson
Professor of environmental law at Stockholm University, and Chairperson of the Aarhus Convention Compliance Committee. The views in this article are those of the author personally and are not intended to represent those of the Aarhus Convention Compliance Committee.
Artikel

Samenwerking in de criminaliteitsbestrijding

Kwalitatief onderzoek naar de integrale aanpak van illegale hennepteelt

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2011
Trefwoorden criminaliteitsbestrijding, hennepteelt, integrale aanpak, publiek-private samenwerking
Auteurs Marc Schuilenburg en Wytske van der Wagen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The fight against organized cannabis cultivation is an important topic within Dutch law enforcement. No longer the sole responsibility of the police, the current trend is for the police to work alongside local government, companies providing energy, housing associations and the Inland Revenue. Together they unite their strengths to deal more effectively and resolutely with the problem. Although different studies have been conducted concerning the (effectiveness of) the fight against cannabis cultivation, there is not much known regarding the way actors experience the fight from ‘within’, that is: the interactions, perceptions and transformations of agreements and premises which are enacted on the ‘molecular level’ of the cooperation. In two large Dutch cities, we have researched, on the basis of semi-structured interviews and observation, how parties implement their role within the integral fight against cannabis cultivation. The results reveal that the execution is more complex and uncontrollable than previously considered. The cooperation turns out not to be deductive, structured and ‘organized’; but rather flexible, dynamic and ‘self organizing’ in character.


Marc Schuilenburg
Marc Schuilenburg doceert aan de afdeling Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam. Zijn website is www.marcschuilenburg.nl. E-mail: m.b.schuilenburg@vu.nl.

Wytske van der Wagen
Wytske van der Wagen is criminologe. E-mail: wytskevdwagen@gmail.com.
Redactioneel

Integraal lokaal veiligheidsbeleid

Tussen retoriek en realiteit

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2011
Trefwoorden integraal, lokaal, veiligheidsbeleid
Auteurs Ronald van Steden

Ronald van Steden
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