Zoekresultaat: 14 artikelen

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Jaar 2014 x
Hoofdartikel

The Challenge of Empirical Method to Labour Law Theory and Practice

Tijdschrift Arbeidsrechtelijke Annotaties, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden Empirical research, Shaping of labour law, Methodology
Auteurs Simon F. Deakin
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The aim of the paper is to consider the significance for labour law theory and practice of empirical research into the operation and effects of this branch of law. It will be argued that empirical research has an important role to play in the methodology of labour law, even if it is ancillary, much of the time, to doctrinal approaches. Secondly, and relatedly, the paper will address the historical role of empirical research in the shaping of labour law as a field distinct from both private law and public law, and, in particular, as transcending the categories of property and contract that were inherited from the individualist private law of the nineteenth century. The third and last theme of the paper is that of the role of empirical research in addressing contemporary issues of labour law doctrine and policy.


Simon F. Deakin
Simon F. Deakin is prof. of law at the University of Cambridge.
Artikel

Access_open Religieuze voorgangers tussen Schrift en recht

Botsing van godsdienstvrijheid en het gelijkheidsbeginsel in Nederland

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden Religieuze voorgangers, Godsdienstvrijheid, Discriminatie, Afwegingsprincipes
Auteurs Kirsten Smeets en Carl Sterkens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    What freedom of speech do religious leaders have when their religious speech discriminates others? Freedom of religion and freedom of expression may collide with the right to equality (including the principle of non-discrimination). Religious plurality and social polarization in Dutch society induce conflict between these fundamental rights.
    This article reviews two legal cases where an imam and a minister were accused of discrimination of homosexuals. From this jurisprudence the authors deduce three principles in judicial decisions weighing freedom of religion and freedom of speech against equality rights: interpretative reluctance, cautiousness and the position of the religious leader.


Kirsten Smeets
K.I.M. Smeets, MA Religiewetenschappen en BA Theologie, is voorganger van de Orde der Transformanten en masterstudent theologie aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen. E-mail: KirstenSmeets@student.ru.nl

Carl Sterkens
Dr. C.J.A. Sterkens is universitair hoofddocent Empirische religiewetenschappen aan de faculteit der Filosofie, Theologie en Religiewetenschappen van de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen. E-mail: C.Sterkens@ftr.ru.nl
Article

Access_open Global Citizens and Family Relations

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden global governance, family relations, nationality, habitual residence, party autonomy
Auteurs Professor Yuko Nishitani Ph.D.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    As globalisation progresses, cross-border movements of people are becoming dynamic and multilateral. The existence of different groups and minorities within the community renders the society multiethnic and multicultural. As individuals acquire new affiliation and belonging, the conventional conflict of laws methods may no longer be viable and should be subject to a thorough re-examination. Against this background, this paper analyses appropriate conflicts rules in international family relations to reflect an individual’s identity. Furthermore, in light of the contemporary law fragmentation, this study also analyses interactions between state law and non-state cultural, religious or customary norms.


Professor Yuko Nishitani Ph.D.
Professor at Kyushu University Faculty of Law, Japan. This work was supported by the JSPS Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C) (Grant Number 26380063). The author sincerely thanks Professor Carol Lawson (Nagoya University) and Ms. Nettie Dekker for their devoted editing work.
Article

Access_open Private International Law: An Appropriate Means to Regulate Transnational Employment in the European Union?

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden private international law, applicable law, overriding mandatory provisions, transnational employment relations, posting of workers
Auteurs Prof.dr. Aukje A.H. Ms van Hoek
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The regulation of transnational employment in the European Union operates at the crossroads between private international law and internal market rules. The private international law rules are currently laid down in the Rome I Regulation. This regulation is complemented by the Posted Workers Directive, a directive based on the competences of the EU in the field of free movement of services. The current contribution first describes the rules which determine the law applicable to the employment contract under Article 8 Rome I Regulation and the way these rules are interpreted by the CJEU before critically analysing these rules and the reasoning that seems to lie behind the court’s interpretation (section 2). The law applying to the contract is, however, only of limited relevance for the protection of posted workers. This is due inter alia to the mandatory application of certain rules of the country to which the workers are posted, even if a different law governs their contract. This application of host state law is based on Article 9 Rome I Regulation in conjunction with the Posted Workers Directive. Section 3 describes the content of these rules and the – to some extent still undecided – interaction between the Rome I Regulation and the PWD. The conclusion will be that there is an uneasy match between the interests informing private international law and the interests of the internal market, which is not likely to be resolved in the near future.


Prof.dr. Aukje A.H. Ms van Hoek
Aukje van Hoek is Professor at the University of Amsterdam.
Artikel

National variations in the implementation and enforcement of European food hygiene regulations

Comparing the structure of food controls and regulations between Scotland and the Netherlands

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden food regulation, official controls, EU food law, implementation, enforcement
Auteurs Tetty Havinga
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Over the course of time the European Union has increased its powers considerably. Currently, almost all food safety regulations in the member states rest on European law. Despite this common legal base, several differences between member states still exist. This article compares the way Scottish and Dutch authorities deal with a particular item of European food law: the development of national guides to good practice for hygiene and for the application of HACCP principles by the food industry. The results of this investigation are consistent with the conclusion of Falkner et al. that the implementation of EU law in both the Netherlands and the UK depends on domestic issues. The dominant issue in Scotland (and the UK) is the FSA objective to bring consistent food controls and independency from industry which results in the development of governmental guidance. The prevailing issue in the Netherlands is making industry responsible for food safety which helps explain the extensive use of industry guides. This study shows that in order to understand what happens on the ground it is important to look beyond transposition or direct effect and also to investigate the implementation of regulations and to dig deeper than just their transposition.


Tetty Havinga
Tetty Havinga is Associate Professor at the Institute for the Sociology of Law, Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands. She has published on the regulation of food safety, policy implementation and law enforcement, equal opportunities law, asylum migration and migrant workers. Her recent research projects deal with the development and effects of private regulation of food safety, oversight and official controls in the food industry, and the experiences of large companies with Dutch special courts. She is co-editor of The Changing Landscape of Food Governance (to be published by Edward Elgar, 2015).
Artikel

Een kansloze minderheid in de marge?

De sociaaleconomische en politieke positie van de Roma in Europa

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2014
Trefwoorden Roma, social inclusion, political participation, minority activism, equal citizenship
Auteurs Prof. dr. P. Vermeersch
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article provides an overview of the current socio-economic and political situation of the Roma in Europe, the continent's largest and most marginalized minority. While a host of new regulations and initiatives on different levels of government have been issued in order to foster the social inclusion of the Roma in various areas of life, the situation on the ground remains far from hopeful. Poverty and discrimination continue to be huge problems in most of the countries where Roma live. New avenues for political and social mobilization have become available to Roma activists and politicians. Yet also in this area important challenges remain. The recent popularity of extreme right-wing populist responses to Roma mobilization and migration has created important obstacles to the full participation and equal citizenship of Roma in our contemporary societies.


Prof. dr. P. Vermeersch
Prof. dr. Peter Vermeersch is als hoogleraar politieke wetenschappen verbonden aan de KU Leuven (www.petervermeersch.net).
Artikel

Risicogericht toezicht, profiling en Big Data

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Toezicht, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden Big Data, profiling, risicoprofielen
Auteurs Mr. dr. Ir. Bart Custers
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In deze bijdrage wordt uiteengezet hoe Big Data en risicoprofilering kunnen bijdragen aan de verdere ontwikkeling van risicogericht toezicht houden. Door de aard, omvang en structuur van Big Data schiet menselijke intuïtie tekort om inzicht en overzicht te krijgen. Met behulp van zoekalgoritmen kunnen zonder hypothese of vraagstelling patronen worden gezocht. Dat kan bruikbare risicoprofielen opleveren voor toezichthouders en biedt kansen als selectie-, detectie- of evaluatie-instrument. Er zijn evenwel beperkingen om rekening mee te houden, zoals gevoeligheid voor foutmarges, self-fulfilling prophecies en houdbaarheidsduur van profielen. Menselijke intuïtie, kennis en ervaring zouden daarom een duidelijk rol moeten krijgen in het gebruik van Big Data en risicoprofielen.


Mr. dr. Ir. Bart Custers
Mr. dr. ir. B.H.M. Custers is hoofd van de onderzoeksafdeling Criminaliteit, Rechtshandhaving en Sancties van het WODC. Daarnaast is hij als onderzoeksleider verbonden aan eLaw, het centrum voor recht in de informatiemaatschappij van de Universiteit Leiden.

Roland Pierik PhD
Artikel

Criminele bendes of hardwerkende arbeidsmigranten?

Het mediadiscours ten aanzien van Midden- en Oost-Europeanen in Nederland

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden Midden- en Oost-Europeanen, media discoursanalyse, interviews, verhard klimaat
Auteurs Flore van Rosmalen BSc en Anne van Es BSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The population of Central and East European immigrants in the Netherlands has increased following the eastward expansion of the European Union. Over the past years, a lot of media and political attention seems to focus on problems with crime and disorder relating to this immigrant group. This article describes a two-step study on this matter. First, by undertaking a media discourse analysis, we assess to what extent we can speak of a ‘hardened climate’ regarding Central and East Europeans in the Netherlands between 2007 and 2013. Second, we have conducted qualitative interviews with Central and East Europeans in the Netherlands, to explore their perceptions of the Dutch media and political discourse. The results show that this group is often connected with crime and disorder in the media, and that many of our respondents experience this negative framing. Dangers of this trend regarding feelings of discrimination, scapegoating, and self-fulfilling prophecies, are discussed.


Flore van Rosmalen BSc
Flore van Rosmalen BSc is masterstudent Criminal Justice aan de Universiteit Leiden en student-assistent aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie, Universiteit Leiden.

Anne van Es BSc
Anne van Es BSc is masterstudent Criminal Justice aan de Universiteit Leiden en student-assistent aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie, Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Access_open Racial Profiling and the Presumption of Innocence

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden racial profiling, stop-and-frisk, presumption of innocence, communicative theories of criminal law, social inequality and criminal law
Auteurs Peter DeAngelis
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    I argue that a compelling way to articulate what is wrong with racial profiling in policing is to view racial profiling as a violation of the presumption of innocence. I discuss the communicative nature of the presumption of innocence as an expression of social trust and a protection against the social condemnation of being undeservingly investigated, prosecuted, and convicted for committing a crime. I argue that, given its communicative dimension, failures to extend the presumption of innocence are an expression of disrespect. I take the New York Police Department’s stop-and-frisk policy as an example of racial profiling and argue that its use of race-based forms of suspicion as reasons for making stops is a violation of the presumption of innocence. I maintain that this systemic failure to extend the presumption of innocence to profiled groups reveals the essentially disrespectful nature of the NYPD policy.


Peter DeAngelis
Peter DeAngelis is Ph.D. Candidate in Philosophy at Villanova University.
Artikel

Access_open What Makes Age Discrimination Special? A Philosophical Look at the ECJ Case Law

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden age discrimination, intergenerational justice, complete-life view, statistical discrimination, anti-discrimination law
Auteurs Axel Gosseries
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This paper provides an account of what makes age discrimination special, going through a set of possible justifications. In the end, it turns out that a full understanding of the specialness of age-based differential treatment requires that we consider together the ‘reliable proxy,’ the ‘complete-life neutrality,’ the ‘sequence efficiency’ and the ‘affirmative egalitarian’ accounts. Depending on the specific age criteria, all four accounts may apply or only some of them. This is the first key message of this paper. The second message of the paper has to do with the age group/birth cohort distinction. All measures that have a differential impact on different cohorts also tend to have a differential impact on various age groups during the transition. The paper points at the practical implications of anti-age-discrimination law for differential treatment between birth cohorts. The whole argument is confronted all along with ECJ cases.


Axel Gosseries
Axel Gosseries is a permanent research fellow at the Belgian FRS-FNRS and a Professor at the University of Louvain (UCL, Belgium) where he is based at the Hoover Chair in Economic and Social Ethics.
Artikel

‘Staring at the felony forest’

De complexiteit van risicoprofilering nader in kaart gebracht

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden profileren, discretionaire bevoegdheden, etniciteit, selectie
Auteurs Tim Dekkers MSc en Mr. dr. Maartje van der Woude
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the Netherlands, the debate around police profiling has been rather low key – until recently. Now it has turned into a heated discussion with a clear focus on ethnic profiling. This extensive international literature review aims to show that there is more to profiling than just ethnicity. Factors such as behavior and the vehicle someone is driving can be just as important as a person’s looks. The results of this study put profiling in perspective and level the playing field of the debate, in which the side of the organizations using profiling has not gotten enough attention until now.


Tim Dekkers MSc
Tim Dekkers MSc is junior onderzoeker bij het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Mr. dr. Maartje van der Woude
Mr. dr. Maartje van der Woude ishoofddocent Straf- en strafprocesrecht aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie te Leiden. Zij is tevens redactielid van PROCES.
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