Zoekresultaat: 7 artikelen

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Jaar 2016 x
Editorial

Access_open Legal Control on Social Control of Sex Offenders in the Community: A European Comparative and Human Rights Perspective

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 2 2016
Trefwoorden social control, folk devils, moral panic, dangerousness, sex offenders
Auteurs Michiel van der Wolf (Issue Editor)
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This paper provides first of all the introduction to this special issue on ‘Legal constraints on the indeterminate control of “dangerous” sex offenders in the community: A European comparative and human rights perspective’. The issue is the outcome of a study that aims at finding the way legal control can not only be an instrument but also be a controller of social control. It is explained what social control is and how the concept of moral panic plays a part in the fact that sex offenders seem to be the folk devils of our time and subsequently pre-eminently the target group of social control at its strongest. Further elaboration of the methodology reveals why focussing on post-sentence (indeterminate) supervision is relevant, as there are hardly any legal constraints in place in comparison with measures of preventive detention. Therefore, a comparative approach within Europe is taken on the basis of country reports from England and Wales, France, Germany, The Netherlands and Spain. In the second part of the paper, the comparative analysis is presented. Similar shifts in attitudes towards sex offenders have led to legislation concerning frameworks of supervision in all countries but in different ways. Legal constraints on these frameworks are searched for in legal (sentencing) theory, the principles of proportionality and least intrusive means, and human rights, mainly as provided in the European Convention on Human Rights to which all the studied countries are subject. Finally, it is discussed what legal constraints on the control of sex offenders in the community are (to be) in place in European jurisdictions, based on the analysis of commonalities and differences found in the comparison.


Michiel van der Wolf (Issue Editor)
Ph.D., LL.M, M.Sc., Reader in Criminal Law (Theory) and Forensic Psychiatry at the Erasmus School of Law; Member of the Editorial Board of the Erasmus Law Review.
Article

Access_open Legal Constraints on the Indeterminate Control of ‘Dangerous’ Sex Offenders in the Community: The French Perspective

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 2 2016
Trefwoorden Preventive detention, mandatory supervision, sex offenders, retrospective penal laws, legality principle
Auteurs Martine Herzog-Evans
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    France literally ‘discovered’ sexual abuse following neighbour Belgium’s Dutroux case in the late 1990s. Since then, sex offenders have been the focus of politicians, media and law-makers’ attention. Further law reforms have aimed at imposing mandatory supervision and treatment, and in rare cases, preventive detention. The legal framework for mandatory supervision and detention is rather complex, ranging from a mixed sentence (custodial and mandatory supervision and treatment upon release or as a stand-alone sentence) to so-called ‘safety measures’, which supposedly do not aim at punishing an offence, but at protecting society. The difference between the concepts of sentences and safety measures is nevertheless rather blurry. In practice, however, courts have used safety measures quite sparingly and have preferred mandatory supervision as attached to a sentence, notably because it is compatible with cardinal legal principles. Procedural constraints have also contributed to this limited use. Moreover, the type of supervision and treatment that can thus be imposed is virtually identical to that of ordinary probation. It is, however, noteworthy that a higher number of offenders with mental health issues who are deemed ‘dangerous’ are placed in special psychiatric units, something that has not drawn much attention on the part of human rights lawyers.


Martine Herzog-Evans
Martine H-Evans, PhD, is a Professor at the Department of Law, Universite de Reims Champagne-Ardenne.

    The Employment Appeal Tribunal has upheld an appeal against the finding that a committed Christian teacher who refused to separate from her husband following his conviction for sexual offences would have been dismissed regardless of her faith and therefore such a dismissal was not indirectly discriminatory. The EAT found instead that the Claimant was presented with the choice of having to separate from her husband or be dismissed which subjected people who have a faith-based commitment to marriage to a particular disadvantage.


Laurence Mills
Laurence Mills is an associate at Lewis Silkin LLP: www.lewissilkin.com.
Artikel

De EU-Richtlijn procedurele waarborgen minderjarige verdachten en het Nederlandse jeugdstrafprocesrecht

Tijdschrift Nederlands tijdschrift voor Europees recht, Aflevering 7 2016
Trefwoorden jeugdstrafproces, minderjarige verdachten, procedurele waarborgen, EU-Richtlijn, Europese Commissie
Auteurs Mr. M.A.H. Kempen en Mr.dr. J. uit Beijerse
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Op 11 mei 2016 is de Richtlijn betreffende procedurele waarborgen voor kinderen die verdachte of beklaagde zijn in een strafprocedure vastgesteld. Het in november 2013 gepresenteerde richtlijnvoorstel had geen zachte landing. De regering beoordeelde de proportionaliteit negatief en de Tweede Kamer liet de Europese Commissie weten het voorstel ook nog strijdig te achten met het beginsel van subsidiariteit. In deze bijdrage zullen de voornaamste punten van discussie in het Nederlandse parlement en in Brussel worden geïnventariseerd en worden bezien hoe daaraan tegemoet is gekomen. De auteurs concluderen dat de richtlijn zoals deze er nu ligt, niet alleen toegevoegde waarde kan hebben bij de internationale samenwerking maar vooral ook voor de inrichting van het Nederlandse jeugdstrafprocesrecht.
    Richtlijn (EU) 2016/800 van 11 mei 2016, PbEU 2016, L 132.


Mr. M.A.H. Kempen
Mr. M.A.H. (Maurice) Kempen is wetgevingsjurist bij het Ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie en was namens Nederland betrokken bij de onderhandelingen in Brussel. De bijdrage is op persoonlijke titel geschreven.

Mr.dr. J. uit Beijerse
Mr. dr. J. (Jolande) uit Beijerse is universitair hoofddocent straf(proces)recht aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

Huurachterstand, huisuitzetting en rechterlijke besluitvorming

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 2 2016
Trefwoorden Eviction, rent arrears, home interests, systematic content analysis
Auteurs Michel Vols en Nathalie Minkjan
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Recent developments in the field of housing law have led to a renewed interest in eviction and the legal protection against homelessness. Because of European case law, courts need to apply a contextual approach in which tenants’ home interests and personal circumstances are taken into account more seriously. This paper explores the ways in which home interests and personal circumstances play a role in Dutch litigation concerning eviction because of rent arrears. Based on a quantitative systematic content analysis of nearly 100 written judgments of courts of first instance, it is found that tenants frequently advance various types of proportionality defences and refer to home interests and personal circumstances. Although Dutch courts do take these defences, home interests and personal circumstances into account, the vast majority of landlords’ claims are allowed. In one third of the analysed cases, the court dismisses the landlord’s claim and most of the time minimises the breach of the lease or refers to the disproportional effects of eviction or a tenant’s promise to change his behaviour.


Michel Vols
Michel Vols is adjunct hoogleraar Openbare-orderecht aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen en verbonden aan het Centrum voor Openbare Orde en Veiligheid. Hij doet onder meer onderzoek naar de bescherming van het recht op respect voor de woning en de aanpak van huisjesmelkerij en overlast. Hij is coördinator van de Housing Law Working Group binnen het European Network for Housing Research.

Nathalie Minkjan
Nathalie Minkjan is student aan de Togamaster en het Honours College aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen. Zij was tussen 2015 en 2016 als onderzoeksassistent verbonden aan het Centrum voor Openbare Orde en Veiligheid.

    In Zwitserland had elk kanton eigen procesrecht, totdat op 1 januari 2011 een landelijk geldend wetboek van burgerlijke rechtsvordering in werking is getreden. Dit artikel biedt informatie over de regels die sindsdien gelden voor de civiele procedure in Zwitserland en over de wijze waarop in Zwitserland wordt gewerkt aan rechtseenheid in de toepassing van die regels. Ingegaan wordt onder meer op de schikking in de preprocessuele fase, de procedure in eerste aanleg, de regiefunctie van de rechter en het hoger beroep


Prof. dr. T. Domej
Prof. dr. T. Domej is Professor of Civil Procedure, Private Law, Private International Law and Comparative Law at the University of Zurich, Faculty of Law.
Artikel

Jeugdige op bureau: houd het kindvriendelijk

Tijdschrift Advocatenblad, Aflevering 5 2016
Auteurs Alrik de Haas en Viviënne van de Port

Alrik de Haas

Viviënne van de Port
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