Zoekresultaat: 50 artikelen

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Jaar 2011 x
Artikel

De paradox van de Duitse concentratiekampen

Een criminologische duiding van de ‘plantage’ in Dachau (1937-1945)

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2011
Trefwoorden Dachau concentration camp, practices of extermination, German economic interests, organizational criminology, Vaughan
Auteurs Kenneth Hemmerechts en Prof. dr. Stephan Parmentier
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    During the Second World War, a large number of prisoners were put to work in concentration camps in order to contribute to the development of Germany. As this labour became more important in economic terms during the years 1939 to 1945, the death toll in the camps also rose during the same period. This contribution aims at providing insight into the apparent contradiction (paradox) between the practices of extermination on the one hand and the German economic interests on the other hand. Not only has historiography paid relatively little attention to this phenomenon (it is not a main topic), criminology has also remained remarkably silent during this debate. Looking at the ‘plantation’ in Dachau concentration camp (1937-1945) we develop an exploratory analysis of the subject. Using Vaughan’s organizational criminology, we discuss the paradox and address the question of the extent to which criminology can offer explanations for phenomena of this kind.


Kenneth Hemmerechts
K. Hemmerechts is wetenschappelijk medewerker bij het Centrum voor Sociologisch Onderzoek (CESO), faculteit sociale wetenschappen, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Arbeid en Organisatie, kenneth.hemmerechts@soc.kuleuven.be.

Prof. dr. Stephan Parmentier
Prof. dr. S. Parmentier is hoogleraar Sociologie van de criminaliteit, het recht en de mensenrechten aan het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie (LINC), Rechtsfaculteit, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, stephan.parmentier@law.kuleuven.be.
Artikel

De staat van de criminologie van internationale misdrijven

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2011
Trefwoorden criminology of international crimes, genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity
Auteurs Mr. dr. Roelof Haveman, Prof. dr. Alette Smeulers, Prof. dr. Stephan Parmentier e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    What do we know about the criminological aspects of international crimes? What do they entail and what are facilitating factors which can help us understand their causes and how should we respond to these crimes? Are international crimes merely a more extreme form of ordinary crimes or are they a different kind of criminality? In the past few years a growing number of scholars both at a national and at an international level have devoted their scholarly attention to this important and urgent research theme. In this special issue we aim to present a number of articles in which different perspectives on this topic are presented. By doing so we hope to enhance our knowledge of this phenomenon and to provide an impulse to further criminological research within this area in both the Netherlands and Belgium. This introductory article gives an overview of the state of the art of international crime criminology in the Netherlands and Belgium, and the rest of the world.


Mr. dr. Roelof Haveman
Mr. dr. R.H. Haveman is freelance Rule of Law-consultant en momenteel gestationeerd in Côte d’Ivoire, roelof.haveman@gmail.com.

Prof. dr. Alette Smeulers
Prof. dr. A.L. Smeulers heeft de onderzoekslijn criminologie van de internationale misdrijven aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam opgezet en is sinds 1 september 2011 tevens hoogleraar internationale criminologie aan de Universiteit van Tilburg, a.l.smeulers@tilburguniversity.edu.

Prof. dr. Stephan Parmentier
Prof. dr. S. Parmentier is hoogleraar Sociologie van de criminaliteit, het recht en de mensenrechten aan het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie (LINC), Rechtsfaculteit, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, stephan.parmentier@law.kuleuven.be.

Dr. Christianne de Poot
Dr. C.J. de Poot is senior onderzoeker bij het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum (WODC), Den Haag, en Lector Forensisch Onderzoek bij de Hogeschool van Amsterdam en de Politieacademie, c.j.de.poot@minvenj.nl.
Artikel

Over objectieve en subjectieve onveiligheid

En de (on)zin van het rationaliteitdebat

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2011
Trefwoorden fear of crime, fear victimization paradox, rationality debate
Auteurs Stefaan Pleysier
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution focuses on ‘fear of crime’ research. Departing from the classic distinction between crime and victimization as objective threats, on the one hand, and fear of crime as a subjective and emotional interpretation of that threat, on the other hand, the research tradition is confronted with the so-called fear victimization paradox. This paradox emerges from the observation that fear of crime is greater among women and elderly people, while these groups actually are less at risk of becoming a crime victim. It has immersed the research tradition in a dominant debate on the rationality of the fear of crime, with two opposing paradigms: rationalist and symbolic.Whilst both the paradox and the different paradigms in the debate offer a view at the core of fear of crime research, and illustrate how similar empirical observations can lead to differing explanations, and policy implications for that matter, we argue that the fear victimization paradox and the rationality debate surrounding this paradox, has occupied the bulk of research on fear of crime with what is essentially a nonsensical and redundant debate.


Stefaan Pleysier
Prof. dr. S. (Stefaan) Pleysier is docent Jeugdcriminologie en Methoden van onderzoek aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de K.U.Leuven, en verbonden aan het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie (LINC) waar hij co-coördinator is van de onderzoekslijn Jeugdcriminologie. E-mail: stefaan.pleysier@law.kuleuven.be
Artikel

Socio-legal Studies in a Transnational World

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2011
Auteurs Jaap Van der Kloet, Betty De Hart en Tetty Havinga
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The concept of transnationalism refers to border-crossing activities and social relations, such as family relations, migration, international trade and international organisations. It is argued that transnationalism is an important topic in the sociology of law for three reasons: the transnationalisation of law (laws travel across borders), the law under transnationalism (transnational processes affect law) and classic socio-legal themes may gain a new and exciting lease of life when used in a transnational context. Transnationalism touches on the core of the sociology of law: studying the relation between law and society and the social working of law. Socio-legal scholars should look beyond the national borders, include non-state actors in their analysis and take notice of how rules are used in different localities.


Jaap Van der Kloet
Jaap Van der Kloet is a PhD candidate at the Institute for Sociology of Law of the Radboud University Nijmegen, the Netherlands. His PhD research focuses on comparing the social working of transnational private food safety standards between local farmers in the Netherlands and Kenya. He has a Master’s degree in International Development Studies. He worked as junior researcher at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and as project leader at the Dutch NGO Fairfood.

Betty De Hart
Betty De Hart is associate professor at the Institute for Sociology of Law and the Centre for Migration Law of the Radboud University Nijmegen. She gained her PhD in 2003 with a socio-legal study of Dutch nationals with a migrant partner. She has published widely on family law, migration law and nationality law. Her interest is in the meaning of law in everyday life and in gender, ethnicity and diversity issues. In 2008, she received a personal VIDI grant for excellent researchers from the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) for the international comparative research programme ‘Transnational Families between Dutch and Islamic Family Law’.

Tetty Havinga
Tetty Havinga is associate professor of sociology of law at the Radboud University Nijmegen. She publishes on the regulation of food safety, policy implementation and law enforcement, experiences of large companies with specialised courts, equal opportunities law, and migration. She is particularly interested in relations between industry and law related to the public interest.
Artikel

Citizenship in Transnational Social Spaces

New Ways to Study Socio-legal Boundaries

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2011
Auteurs Thomas Faist
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In order to establish and evaluate the significance of changing socio-legal boundaries and how these are mirrored in citizenship, cross-border formations of the social and citizenship rules must be discussed. The first part of this paper deals with changes in social boundaries across state borders and presents three generations of transnational studies. Based on this, the second part asks how legal boundaries have changed in the case of dual citizenship and supranational social citizenship. Citizenship is a particularly important issue because it sits at the intersection of social and legal boundaries. There is a growing tolerance toward dual citizenship and the evolution of supranational citizenship, one in which migrants enjoy a transnational life that is supported by the implementation of human rights principles in national constitutions, legislation and in European Union court rulings.


Thomas Faist
Thomas Faist is professor in the Department of Sociology, Bielefeld University. His fields of interest are transnational relations, citizenship, development and migration. He held visiting professorships at Brandeis University, Malmö University and the University of Toronto. Thomas Faist serves on the editorial board of The Sociological Quarterly, Ethnic and Racial Studies, Migration Letters, and South Asian Diaspora. He recently co-edited Migration, Development and Transnationalisation: A Critical Stance (Berghahn 2010), Diaspora and Transnationalism: Concepts, Theories and Methods (Amsterdam University Press 2010) and The Migration Development Nexus: Transnational Perspectives (Palgrave Macmillan 2011).
Artikel

Transnational Supermarket Standards in Global Supply Chains

The Emergence and Evolution of GlobalGAP

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2011
Auteurs Jaap Van der Kloet
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In recent years, West European supermarkets have been playing an active role in the global regulation of food safety. They have developed several transnational food safety standards and compelled suppliers of food products around the world to acquire certification under these standards. Why and how did supermarkets do this? This article explores the emergence and evolution of transnational supermarket standards by analyzing the development of GlobalGAP, one of the most commonly implemented supermarket standards on farms throughout the world. In the literature, the emergence of transnational regulation is often attributed to one or two factors that play an important role at a particular moment in time. The main argument made in this article is that the emergence of transnational supermarket standards is best understood when it is studied as a process. The development of GlobalGAP includes four main characteristics which may be helpful in analyzing the emergence of other transnational private standards.


Jaap Van der Kloet
Jaap Van der Kloet is a PhD candidate at the Institute for Sociology of Law of the Radboud University Nijmegen, the Netherlands. His PhD research focuses on comparing the social working of transnational private food safety standards between local farmers in the Netherlands and Kenya. He has a Master’s degree in International Development Studies. He worked as junior researcher at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and as project leader at the Dutch NGO Fairfood.

    For a common market, a common patent and a common patent litigation seem self-evident. Although efforts to introduce these common market institutions in Europe started early in the history of the Economic Community, they remained unsuccessful. The reconstruction of this legal history is focused on two theoretical issues.The first concerns the question of power and influence in the EU, in particular the configuration of stakeholders responsible for the non-decision making on this policy issue. The basic mechanism underlying the lack of success of this dossier appears to be a balance of power between the two opposing groups of stakeholders (France and European institutions vs. Germany, UK, supported by their patenting industry and legal experts). This suggests that transnational rule making, proceeding under similar conditions, is likely to have a long (if not unsuccessful) ‘issue career’.The second theoretical issue concerns the agenda-setting mechanisms of recent decades. All initiatives on international or transnational patent policy have mainly been the product of ‘high politics’, although the input of patent legal experts (representatives of ‘low politics’) has increased considerably in recent decades. Further, this history would seem to defy simple schemes of agenda setting. There is no simple sequence of issue initiation, specification, expansion and entrance. At best, it is a series of such sequences.


Alex Jettinghoff
Alex Jettinghoff is a researcher at the Institute for Sociology of Law of the Radboud University Nijmegen. His main research interests are: business contracting and litigation, the role of lawyers in legal change, war and legal transformation, and the practices of intellectual property.
Praktijk

Twaalf jaar na de moord op je kind in gesprek met de dader

Aba Gayle op bezoek in Nederland

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 4 2011
Auteurs Annemieke Wolthuis
Auteursinformatie

Annemieke Wolthuis
Annemieke Wolthuis is redactielid van TvH.

    This contribution examines how the Directive 2008/52/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 May 2008 on certain aspects of mediation in civil and commercial matters is transposed in various member states of the European Union, or how the discussion about the transposition is conducted or is still ongoing in some countries. The following seven countries are examined: Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxemburg, England, France, Germany and Austria.


Herman Verbist
Prof. dr. mr. Herman Verbist is gastprofessor aan de Universiteit Gent, advocaat bij de balies te Gent en te Brussel, voormalig adviseur bij het Internationaal Hof van Arbitrage van de ICC, erkend bemiddelaar en voormalig plaatsvervangend lid van de Bijzondere Commissie voor Burgerlijke en Handelszaken van de Federale Bemiddelingscommissie in België.
Artikel

Mediation training in Russia

Past experience and latest legislative innovations

Tijdschrift Nederlands-Vlaams tijdschrift voor mediation en conflictmanagement, Aflevering 4 2011
Trefwoorden mediator training, mediation standards, legal reforms in Russia, russian mediation law
Auteurs Vadim Abolonin en Ksenia Sergeeva
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The goal of this article is to examine key problems of training standards for mediators in Russia and to identify possible solutions that may address these issues. In considering the question of mediation training in the context of mediation development in Russia, one can distinguish two periods: (1) before the enactment of the Law on mediation, or the period of private initiatives, and (2) after this Law entered into force, which can be entitled as the period of governmental regulation.During the first period, there were no special legal regulations and thus, private institutions had been offering their own diverse and numerous mediation training programs. The situation has changed due to the active force of the Federal Law on mediation by implementing provisions that require creation of a special unified training program for professional mediators and approval by the Government of the Russian Federation. This program was adopted on 14 February 2011. The approach of the Russian legislature to the establishment of a consistent educational standard for Russian mediators can be considered as the implementation of the woldwide shift toward standards unification. However, the Law itself contains some contradictions, and also contains a number of provisions that cast serious doubts upon the success of this effort.


Vadim Abolonin
Vadim Abolonin, PhD (Russia), LL.M. (Hanover, Lisbon), is Associate Professor of Civil Procedure, Ural State Law Academy (Yekaterinburg, Russia), German Chancellor Fellow (Alexander von Humboldt Foundation), Guest Researcher at the Institute of East European Law, Christian-Albrecht University of Kiel (Germany) and Executive Director of the Interregional Chamber of Mediation (Russia).

Ksenia Sergeeva
Ksenia Sergeeva is a PhD candidate (Ural State Law Academy), Master of Jurisprudence (Russian School of Private Law) and Master in Law Economics and Finance candidate (International University College of Turin).
Artikel

Access_open Islam en gedrag: naar een serieuze onderzoeksagenda voor een serieus vraagstuk?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 3 2011
Trefwoorden Islam, female circumcision, terrorism, academic research
Auteurs Marnix Croes
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    If one listens to what the authorities say about matters such as female circumcision and terrorism, Islam has nothing to do with it. These authorities are supported in this opinion by the work of many scientists. A cross section of the Dutch scientific literature on female circumcision and terrorism is discussed here. The upshot is that, regarding female circumcision, the literature is plagued with factual inaccuracies while the question of Islamic terrorism is dealt with in a one-sided and over-simplified way. The article concludes with an alternative research agenda that would help fill the gaps in our knowledge about the role of Islam in the behaviour of Islamic terrorists.


Marnix Croes
Dr. M.T. Croes werkt als onderzoeker bij het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum van het Minsterie van Veiligheid en Justitie.
Jurisprudentie

Sandd/Selekt Mail

Tijdschrift Markt & Mededinging, Aflevering 5 2011
Trefwoorden concentratie, causaliteit, failing firm, counterfactual, failing division
Auteurs Mr. B.J.H. Braeken
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Bij besluit van 8 april 2011 heeft de raad van bestuur van de NMa bepaald dat voor de totstandbrenging van de overname door Sandd B.V. van Deutsche Post Selekt Mail Nederland C.V. en Deutsche Post Mail Distribution (Netherlands) B.V. geen vergunning is vereist.De NMa komt tot dit besluit ondanks haar inschatting dat het verdwijnen van Selekt Mail van de Nederlandse markt kan leiden tot significante mededingingsbeperkende effecten. Doorslaggevend voor haar beslissing om toch geen vergunning te eisen, is de afwezigheid van causaliteit tussen de concentratie en de mededingingsbeperkende effecten. Uit een analyse van de counterfactual blijkt namelijk dat deze effecten zich vermoedelijk ook zullen voordoen in een scenario waarin Selekt Mail niet wordt overgenomen door Sandd.


Mr. B.J.H. Braeken
Mr. B.J.H. Braeken is advocaat bij Stibbe te Amsterdam.
Discussie

Access_open Horizontal Effect Revisited

A Reply to Four Comments

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 3 2011
Auteurs Gunther Teubner
Samenvatting

    In this concluding article, Gunther Teubner addresses his critics.


Gunther Teubner
Discussie

Access_open Hybrid Constitutionalism, Fundamental Rights and the State

A Response to Gunther Teubner

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 3 2011
Trefwoorden societal constitutionalism, Gunther Teubner, system theory, fundamental rights
Auteurs Gert Verschraegen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution explores how much state is necessary to make societal constitutionalism work. I first ask why the idea of a global societal constitutionalism ‘beyond the state-and-politics’ might be viewed as a significant and controversial, but nonetheless justified innovation. In the second part I discuss what Teubner calls ‘the inclusionary effects of fundamental rights’. I argue that Teubner underplays the mediating role of the state in guaranteeing inclusion or access, and in a way presupposes well-functioning states in the background. In areas of limited statehood there is a problem of enforcing fundamental rights law. It is an open question whether, and under which conditions, constitutional norms within particular global social spheres can provide enough counter-weight when state constitutional norms are lacking.


Gert Verschraegen
Gert Verschraegen is Assistant Professor of Theoretical Sociology at the University of Antwerp, Belgium.
Artikel

Access_open Transnational Fundamental Rights: Horizontal Effect?

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 3 2011
Trefwoorden fundamental rights, societal constitutionalism, inclusionary and exclusionary effects, anonymous matrix
Auteurs Gunther Teubner
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Violations of human rights by transnational corporations and by other ‘private’ global actors raise problems that signal the limits of the traditional doctrine of ‘horizontal effects’. To overcome them, constitutional law doctrine needs to be complemented by perspectives from legal theory and sociology of law. This allows new answers to the following questions: What is the validity basis of human rights in transnational ‘private’ regimes – extraterritorial effect, colère public or external pressures on autonomous law making in global regimes? Do they result in protective duties of the states or in direct human rights obligations of private transnational actors? What does it mean to generalise state-directed human rights and to respecify them for different social spheres? Are societal human rights limited to ‘negative’ rights or is institutional imagination capable of developing ‘positive’ rights – rights of inclusion and participation in various social fields? Are societal human rights directed exclusively against corporate actors or can they be extended to counteract structural violence of anonymous social processes? Can such broadened perspectives of human rights be re-translated into the practice of public interest litigation?


Gunther Teubner
Gunther Teubner is Professor of Private Law and Legal Sociology and Principal Investigator of the Excellence Cluster ‘The Formation of Normative Orders’ at the Goethe-University, Frankfurt/Main. He is also Professor at the International University College, Torino, Italy.
Redactioneel

Access_open The Normative Turn in Teubner’s Systems Theory of Law

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 3 2011
Auteurs Lyana Francot-Timmermans en Emilios Christodoulidis
Auteursinformatie

Lyana Francot-Timmermans
Lyana Francot-Timmermans is Assistant Professor in Legal Theory at Utrecht University, the Netherlands.

Emilios Christodoulidis
Emilios Christodoulidis is Professor of Legal Theory at the University of Glasgow, United Kingdom.
Artikel

Access_open Bezitloze zekerheidsrechten op roerende zaken naar Nederlands, Duits en Amerikaans recht

Is het mogelijk en wenselijk een Europees openbaar register voor bezitloze zekerheidsrechten op roerende zaken te creëren?

Tijdschrift Vermogensrechtelijke Analyses, Aflevering 2 2011
Trefwoorden pandrecht, fiduciaire eigendomsoverdracht, zekerheidsrechten, Europees vermogensrecht, goederenrecht, publiciteit
Auteurs Mr. M.A. Heilbron
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Is het mogelijk en wenselijk een Europees openbaar register voor bezitloze zekerheidsrechten op roerende zaken te creëren? Dat is de vraag die in dit artikel aan de orde komt. Zij past binnen een bestaand debat over de toekomst van het zekerhedenrecht in het Europees privaatrecht. Om tot een antwoord op deze vraag te komen worden de rechtsstelsels van drie landen op het gebied van stille zekerheidsrechten vergeleken: dat van Nederland, Duitsland en de Verenigde Staten. Deze landen kennen momenteel onderling zeer verschillende systemen voor zekerheidsrechten op roerende zaken. Er wordt nagegaan of er in de Europese Unie behoefte bestaat aan harmonisatie van (delen van) het zekerhedenrecht en zo ja, of deze zou kunnen plaatsvinden door middel van de invoering van een openbare registratie voor zekerheidsrechten. Openbare registratie heeft publieke kenbaarmaking van zekerheidsrechten tot gevolg. Er zal worden onderzocht of het goederenrechtelijke publiciteitsbeginsel voldoende rechtvaardiging biedt voor het in het leven roepen van een openbaar register voor zekerheidsrechten.
    Naar de mening van de auteur is een openbaar register voor bezitloze zekerheidsrechten de meest wenselijke keuze voor het zekerhedenrecht in de EU. Dat komt met name doordat registratie bestaande bezwaren omtrent stille zekerheidsrechten weg zal nemen en een dergelijk recht overal in de EU erkend zal worden. Dat brengt naar haar mening de meeste rechtszekerheid voor het zekerhedenrecht.


Mr. M.A. Heilbron
Mr. M.A. Heilbron is afgestudeerd aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam in het privaatrecht.
Artikel

Access_open Een discipline in transitie

Rechtswetenschappelijk onderzoek na de Commissie Koers

Tijdschrift Law and Method, 2011
Trefwoorden rechtswetenschappelijk onderzoek, peer review, ranking, methodologie, grand challenges
Auteurs Carel Stolker
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In 2010 verscheen het rapport Kwaliteit & diversiteit van de Commissie Koers die het wetenschappelijk onderzoek van negen Nederlandse juridische faculteiten beoordeelde. De conclusie van het rapport is dat het ‘goed’ gaat met het rechtswetenschappelijk onderzoek in Nederland, maar tegelijkertijd ziet de Commissie ‘een discipline in transitie’. De Commissie dringt er bij de decanen van de faculteiten op aan om veel meer te gaan samenwerken. Als uitgesproken ‘zwak’ benoemt ze het gegeven dat er binnen de discipline geen algemeen gedeelde opvatting bestaat over de wetenschappelijke kwaliteit op grond waarvan onderzoeksresultaten beoordeeld kunnen worden. In deze bijdrage blikt de auteur aan de hand van de bevindingen van de Commissie Koers terug en trekt hij lijnen naar de toekomst. Volgens hem verdient vooral de externe oriëntatie aandacht: de wetenschappelijke verantwoording (peer review, ranking, impactmeting), de steeds belangrijker wordende maatschappelijke verantwoording, en de thematisering van het juridische onderzoek (de Europese ‘grand challenges’ en de Nederlandse topsectoren).


Carel Stolker
Prof. mr. Carel Stolker was decaan van de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Leiden. Daarvoor was hij vice-decaan voor het onderzoek en directeur van het facultaire E.M. Meijers Instituut. In het academisch jaar 2011-2012 werkt hij aan een boek over rechtenfaculteiten.
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