Zoekresultaat: 48 artikelen

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Jaar 2014 x
Artikel

Prevalentie van ernstige misdrijven bij slachtoffer-daderbemiddeling

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 4 2014
Trefwoorden seriousness, offenses, mediation, range of cases, outcome
Auteurs Wendy Schreurs, Sven Zebel en Elze Ufkes
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    A debate exists in the literature about the question whether (different forms of) mediated contact between victims and offenders occur and are appropriate only after minor offenses. This contribution therefore examines whether a relationship exists between the seriousness of offenses and the degree to which in practice cases result in mediated contact, in the Dutch context. More specifically, we report the first findings of a study aimed to (a) examine the seriousness of cases that were registered at the foundation Slachtoffer in Beeld (Victim in Focus; responsible for the execution of mediated contacts between victims and offenders in the Netherlands), and (b) compare the seriousness of cases at this foundation that resulted in different forms of mediated contact (including cases in which no contact emerged). To this end, we sampled 200 cases from the data system of Victim in Focus in a random manner; consequently, the seriousness of each of these cases was coded. The mean duration of incarceration sentenced for specific offenses in the Netherlands was used as an (as objective as possible) indication of the seriousness of the offenses in these cases. The results indicated that the cases registered at Victim in Focus do not consist exclusively of minor offenses. A substantial part consists of more serious offenses, especially when this is compared to the prevalence of all (minor and serious) offenses in the Netherlands. In addition, we observed no relationship between the seriousness of cases and the form of mediated contact (or no contact) that emerged at Victim in Focus; mediated contact arose to the same degree for serious compared to minor offenses. The implications of these results for the debate mentioned above are discussed, taking into account the manner in which victim-offender mediation is organized in the Netherlands.


Wendy Schreurs
Wendy Schreurs is afgestudeerd aan de vakgroep Psychologie van Conflict, Risico en Veiligheid aan de Universiteit Twente, op onderzoek naar de ontwikkeling van een ernstmonitor in de context van slachtoffer-daderbemiddeling. Ze werkt nu als PhD student op een project over de inzet van burgers bij politiewerk en interventies om die inzet te verbeteren.

Sven Zebel
Sven Zebel is universitair docent aan de vakgroep Psychologie van Conflict, Risico en Veiligheid van de Universiteit Twente. Hij houdt zich bezig met de psychologische reacties op wangedrag, conflicten en misdrijven, en de impact van interventies die trachten te herstellen en de kans op recidive te verkleinen (e.g. bemiddeling, reclasseringstoezicht, toekomstverbeelding).

Elze Ufkes
Elze Ufkes is universitair docent aan de vakgroep Psychologie van Conflict, Risico en Veiligheid aan de Universiteit Twente. Hij richt zich in zijn onderzoek op hoe groepsprocessen zoals groepslidmaatschap en stereotypering conflictgedrag van mensen beïnvloedt.
Artikel

De diagnostische waarde van bewijs

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2014
Trefwoorden Bayesian analysis, Diagnostic value, Evidence evaluation, Alternative scenarios
Auteurs Prof. mr. dr. Eric Rassin
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Traditionally, the Dutch penal judge needs to determine whether the suspect has committed the crime for which he is being prosecuted. This is generally done by accumulating incriminating evidence. Recently, it has been argued that this accumulation fosters the risk of a miscarriage of justice. Alternatively, the judge may want to rely on a Bayesians analysis of the evidence. Particularly, diagnostic values for each piece of evidence must be established. Therefore, it must be investigated how well the evidence fits in the primary and in alternative scenarios. This approach is discussed in this contribution.


Prof. mr. dr. Eric Rassin
Prof. mr. dr. Eric Rassin is werkzaam bij de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

Mediëren verhoortechnieken de verandering in verklaringsbereidheid van verdachten?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2014
Trefwoorden effectiveness of interrogations, interrogation tactics, suspects’ statement, Structural Equation Modeling
Auteurs Dr. Willem-Jan Verhoeven
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This study aims to provide more knowledge on the extent to which criminal investigators are able to influence suspects’ statement. For this purpose, 166 observed interrogations covering the whole interrogation were analyzed. Based on these longitudinal data Structural Equation Modeling was used to examine the extent to which interrogation tactics mediate the changing statement between the start and the end of the interrogation. The results show that particularly suspects who give a statement on personal affairs at the beginning of the interrogation change their statement. Manipulating techniques are used more often when suspects are silent and confrontational techniques are used more often when suspects declare about the crime. Only confrontational techniques seem to contribute to changes in suspects’ statement. Accusatory interrogation tactics do not mediate the relationship between the statement given at the beginning of the interrogation and the change in statement. It can be concluded that suspects who are silent at the beginning of the interrogation or who declare about the crime in most cases don’t change their statement and that with using accusatory interrogation techniques criminal investigators seem to be unable to influence their statement.


Dr. Willem-Jan Verhoeven
Dr. W.J. Verhoeven is universitair docent criminologie bij de sectie Criminologie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

Acute dreigingen, vage geruchten

Opsporing van terroristische misdrijven en de handelingsruimte van politie- en justitiefunctionarissen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2014
Trefwoorden criminal investigation, terrorism, discretionary authority, street-level bureaucrats
Auteurs Dr. Barbra van Gestel en Dr. Christianne de Poot
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Since 2007 the police and the public prosecution service in the Netherlands can apply special investigative powers in case of ‘indications’ of a terrorist offense. To investigate signs of terrorism, a suspicion is no longer needed. The underlying assumption behind this extension is that the ‘old’ legislation offers insufficient opportunities to investigate signs of terrorism in an early phase. In this article we examine this assumption about the action space of investigating officers. For the period 2007-2011, we examined how investigating officers responded to signs of terrorism in practice, what investigative powers they used, and how they – as street level bureaucrats – handled their discretionary authority. The research shows that police and judiciary officials are very well able to investigate signs of terrorism with the already existing powers, and that they have made little use of the new ‘indications’ criterion


Dr. Barbra van Gestel
Dr. B. van Gestel is socioloog en is als onderzoeker werkzaam voor het WODC.

Dr. Christianne de Poot
Dr. C.J. de Poot is senior onderzoeker bij het WODC en tevens lector Forensisch Onderzoek bij de Hogeschool van Amsterdam en de Politieacademie.
Artikel

Hoe beelden eren: zoektocht naar betekenisgeving

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 6 2014
Trefwoorden Beeldmateriaal, Betekenisgeving, Visuele analyse
Auteurs Dr. Gabry Vanderveen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Images can honour and dishonour people. But they only do so when that specific meaning is assigned to the image. This article shows that the meaning of images is dynamic and subjective in nature, using three analytical dimensions: content, format and context. These three dimensions are explored in two series of images: painted portraits of deceased American soldiers and photographs of posters of Palestinian suicide bombers. Whether these images are honouring or dishonouring the people portrayed depends on the viewer who constructs their meaning. This not only gives the creator and distributor a (moral) responsibility, but the viewer as well.


Dr. Gabry Vanderveen
Dr. Gabry Vanderveen is eigenaar van Recht op Beeld, een bureau dat onderzoek, training en advies verzorgt op het gebied van visuele data en methoden in de criminologie in het algemeen en beeldmateriaal in de strafrechtsketen in het bijzonder.

Prof. mr. dr. Jeroen ten Voorde
Prof. mr. dr. Jeroen ten Voorde is universitair hoofddocent Straf(proces)recht aan de Universiteit Leiden en bijzonder hoogleraar Strafrechtsfilosofie, leerstoel Leo Polak, aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen. Hij is tevens rechter-plaatsvervanger bij de Rechtbank Noord-Holland en redactielid van PROCES.
Redactioneel

De vele gezichten van eer

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 6 2014
Auteurs Dr. Janine Janssen
Auteursinformatie

Dr. Janine Janssen
Dr. Janine Janssen is hoofd onderzoek van het Landelijk Expertise Centrum Eer Gerelateerd Geweld (LEC EGG) van de Nederlandse politie, universitair docent bij de vakgroep Strafrecht & Criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en tevens redacteur van PROCES.
Artikel

Jihadgang naar Syrië: een wetenschappelijke benadering

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2014
Trefwoorden Jihad, Foreign fighters, Syria, radicalisation
Auteurs Nick Platje Msc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article describes a qualitative inquiry into Dutch people going to Syria for participating in Jihad. The inquiry compares theoretical findings with empirical facts, based on a content analysis and a document analysis, completed with ten depth-interviews. The results show that a combination of scientific findings on radicalisation and foreign fighters explains the jihad movement to Syria partly. The results also show that some factors, which have not recently be examined scientificly, are crucial for the character and extent of the movement towards Jihad.


Nick Platje Msc
Nick Platje (Msc) is werkzaam bij het ministerie van Defensie.

    Euthanasie; zorgvuldigheidseisen; onvoldoende onderbouwing ondraaglijk lijden

Artikel

Access_open De problematie van strafbaarheid van hulp bij zelfdoding door een niet-medicus

De zaak Heringa en de maatschappelijke roep om zelfbeschikking

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden Wet toetsing levensbeëindiging op verzoek en hulp bij zelfdoding (2001), Hulp bij zelfdoding door een niet-arts, Zelfbeschikking, Zaak Heringa
Auteurs Mr. Marjolein Rikmenspoel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Recently there’s a lot of debate within the Netherlands about the criminality of assistance by someone who’s not a doctor towards the death of a loved one. In the Heringa lawsuit a son has helped his (step)mother who wished to no longer live (considered her life to be ‘completed’) to die at an age of 99. The helper non-doctor risks criminal pursuit and punishment. The central argument of the lobby to establish a more humane approach towards the persevered need is personal autonomy. This article aims to clarify the debate and to stimulate another way of thinking towards the situation of, mostly, elderly who want to decide and act independently regarding their death.


Mr. Marjolein Rikmenspoel
Mr. M.J.H.T. Rikmenspoel MA is geestelijk verzorger, auteur van twee boeken over spirituele intelligentie en publiciste.
Artikel

Access_open Religieuze voorgangers tussen Schrift en recht

Botsing van godsdienstvrijheid en het gelijkheidsbeginsel in Nederland

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden Religieuze voorgangers, Godsdienstvrijheid, Discriminatie, Afwegingsprincipes
Auteurs Kirsten Smeets en Carl Sterkens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    What freedom of speech do religious leaders have when their religious speech discriminates others? Freedom of religion and freedom of expression may collide with the right to equality (including the principle of non-discrimination). Religious plurality and social polarization in Dutch society induce conflict between these fundamental rights.
    This article reviews two legal cases where an imam and a minister were accused of discrimination of homosexuals. From this jurisprudence the authors deduce three principles in judicial decisions weighing freedom of religion and freedom of speech against equality rights: interpretative reluctance, cautiousness and the position of the religious leader.


Kirsten Smeets
K.I.M. Smeets, MA Religiewetenschappen en BA Theologie, is voorganger van de Orde der Transformanten en masterstudent theologie aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen. E-mail: KirstenSmeets@student.ru.nl

Carl Sterkens
Dr. C.J.A. Sterkens is universitair hoofddocent Empirische religiewetenschappen aan de faculteit der Filosofie, Theologie en Religiewetenschappen van de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen. E-mail: C.Sterkens@ftr.ru.nl

Ben Koolen
Dr. G.M.J.M. Koolen legt zich na zijn pensionering als ambtenaar van het ministerie van Justitie toe op de bestudering van de verhouding tussen overheden en levensovertuigingen in de negentiende en twintigste eeuw. Hij is redactielid van het Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid.

Dr. Carla Zoethout
Dr. C.M. Zoethout is universitair hoofddocent Staatsrecht aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam. Zij is redactielid van het Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid.
Boekbespreking

De gespleten persoonlijkheid van de massamoordenaar

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden genocide, moral and legal responsibility, self-selection, identification, war criminals
Auteurs dr. Bas van Stokkom
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Compartmentalization refers to a process by which groups of people are put apart from others. In these compartments violent acts could be committed with complete impunity. Although many genocidal periods are discussed, this book is actually about the Holocaust and what the author calls ‘compartmentalization of the personality’. How can it be explained that Nazis felt no regret or guilt? What are the personality traits of these mass murderers? What are their personal motives? According to the author these criminals cannot be termed ‘ordinary people’ who were brought to killings by the situation they were in or pressure exerted on them. Individual choice and self-selection play a role.


dr. Bas van Stokkom
Dr. B.A.M. (Bas) van Stokkom is verbonden aan de vaksectie Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen.
Artikel

Het kwaad

Enkele inleidende gedachten

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden evil, genocide, holocaust, criminology, malevolence
Auteurs dr. Bas van Stokkom en prof. dr. Marc Cools
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Journalists are accustomed to investigate and interpret current forms of violent conflicts and massacres. Psychologists and social scientists lag behind and seem to focus more on ‘remote’ forms of evil, often focusing on forms of authoritarian behaviour and obedience, especially related to the Holocaust. It is striking that reflections on collective violence are often ignored by criminologists. How can this ‘distance’ be explained? Why is there little incentive to study ‘evil’? In this introduction we first discuss the difficult issue of how to define ‘evil’ and we clarify its various meanings. Then we focus on the Holocaust, an oppressive theme that still instigates much debate. In particular, the thesis of the ‘banality of evil’ is controversial. This interest in appalling forms of mass destruction – by theologians, ethicists and historians – raises once again the question why criminological reflection and research of barbarity remains underdeveloped.


dr. Bas van Stokkom
Dr. B.A.M. (Bas) van Stokkom is verbonden aan de vaksectie Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen.

prof. dr. Marc Cools
Prof. dr. M. (Marc) Cools is hoogleraar bij de vakgroep strafrecht en criminologie aan de Universiteit Gent en bij de vakgroep criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Brussel.
Discussie

Nooit meer thuis in deze wereld

Jean Améry’s verlangen naar herstel na Auschwitz

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden Holocaust, resentment, forgiveness, recovery, victims
Auteurs prof. dr. Theo de Wit
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The author examines the thoughts of the originally Austrian author Jean Améry. After his concentration camp experiences Améry publicly acclaimed that he continued to resent the Germans. He felt abandoned and deeply overwhelmed and never recovered from these feelings. He refused to forgive and forget and practiced moral and physical rebellion.


prof. dr. Theo de Wit
prof. dr. T.W.A. (Theo) de Wit is werkzaam aan de Faculteit Katholieke Theologie van de Universiteit van Tilburg en is tevens bijzonder hoogleraar Vraagstukken geestelijke verzorging in justitiële inrichtingen.
Discussie

Het kwaad in het daglicht

Geschiedenis in de rechtszaal

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden tribunals, war criminals, post-conflict context, impunity, public censure
Auteurs prof. mr. dr. Harmen van der Wilt
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The author points out that tribunals against war criminals are characterized by investigations of the broader military and social developments. By outlining the historical context of the violence the public is in a better position to make informed and balanced judgments. Criminal tribunals have a communicative character and great educational potential; they make clear why the Great Evil cannot be accepted and has to be punished.


prof. mr. dr. Harmen van der Wilt
Prof. dr. H.G. (Harmen) van der Wilt is hoogleraar internationaal strafrecht aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam.
Artikel

De seriemoordenaar als moreel verantwoordelijke actor

Christelijke, Sadeaanse en Nietzscheaanse perspectieven op het kwaad

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden evil, free will, responsibility, punishment, Sade, Nietzsche, serial killers
Auteurs Dr. Jean-Marc Piret
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article is about the ability of human beings to make a deliberate choice to do evil. Punishing evildoers according to penal law presupposes that they are responsible for their acts, i.e. that they acted out of free will. In the first part I recall the origins of the classical nexus between free will, responsibility and punishment in Christian theology and scholastic philosophy. Then I analyze the philosophies of Sade and Nietzsche in order to demonstrate how the traditional conception of good and evil can be inverted. Sades extreme moral relativism and Nietzsches radical perspectivism open the gates for a justification of moral evil. In the final part I look at the serial killer as an actor who deliberately chooses to do evil. The personality disorder (psychopathy) of most serial killers probably affects their inhibition to harm others. But although their lack of empathy can lower the threshold for harming others, this (mostly) does not annihilate their moral responsibility. Such can be exemplified by the fact that many serial killers are acting in an extremely strategic, opportunistic and deceitful way in order to ensure the persistence of their deliberate choice to do evil. Moreover, some serial killers, when justifying their behavior, engage in arguments putting into perspective ‘good’ and ‘evil’ in a way that is reminiscent of Sade and Nietzsche.


Dr. Jean-Marc Piret
Dr. J.V.A.G. (Jean-Marc) Piret is universitair hoofddocent rechtsfilosofie aan de juridische faculteiten van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam en de Vrije Universiteit Brussel.
Artikel

Drie paradigma’s van het menselijke kwaad

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden evil, banality, ideology, responsibility
Auteurs Mr. dr. Klaas Rozemond
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Classical Paradigm considers evil intentions as a necessary element of human evil, for instance the Holocaust. The Obedience Paradigm states that the main motive of the perpetrators of this evil was obedience to authority. The Ideology Paradigm argues that ideological motives were the main element. This paper tries to show that it is impossible to separate obedience and ideology in the motives of perpetrators like Adolf Eichmann and Otto Ohlendorf. These perpetrators were also conscious of the fact that they violated moral and legal norms. In that sense they had evil intentions and can be held responsible for their crimes.


Mr. dr. Klaas Rozemond
Mr. dr. N. (Klaas) Rozemond is universitair hoofddocent strafrecht aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

De rol van DNA bij het vinden van een dader

Het succesverhaal rond DNA als opsporingsmiddel in perspectief

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden Forensic process, Crime Scene, Scene of Crime Officer, DNA-typing, DNA-database
Auteurs Anna Mapes Msc, Dr. Christianne de Poot en Prof. dr. Ate Kloosterman
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Current statistics are unclear about the contribution of DNA as a crime-fighting tool. To obtain an objective view on the effectiveness to use DNA as intelligence information we analyzed all forensic reports from serious (N=116) and high volume crime cases (N=2791) over the year 2011 at one police region in the Netherlands. DNA-profile results show that 38 percent of the serious crime traces (N=384) and 17 percent of the high volume crime traces (N=386) did not result in a DNA-profile. Turnaround times of these DNA-traces from crime scene to DNA-report were relatively long; for serious crimes 66 days and for high volume crimes 44 days. Based on these results a suspect was truly identified through a match with the Offender DNA-database of the Netherlands in 3 percent of the serious crime cases and in 1 percent of the high volume crime cases. Insight in DNA-results and adjustments in the analysis process could benefit the use of DNA as a crime-fighting tool.


Anna Mapes Msc
A.A. Mapes, MSc Forensic Science is promovendus forensisch onderzoek aan de Hogeschool van Amsterdam.

Dr. Christianne de Poot
Dr. C.J. de Poot is lector forensisch onderzoek aan de Hogeschool van Amsterdam en de Politieacademie.

Prof. dr. Ate Kloosterman
Prof. dr. A.D. Kloosterman is DNA-deskundige op het Nederlands Forensisch Instituut en bijzonder hoogleraar forensische biologie aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam.
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