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Article

Access_open The Child’s Contact with Grandparents

Tijdschrift Family & Law, september 2021
Trefwoorden Family life, Best interest of the child, Contact rights, Grandchildren, Grandparents
Auteurs prof. M. Holdgaard
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Grandparents hand down their experiences, knowledge, traditions and values to their grandchildren. As a high level of grandparental involvement may play an important role in a child’s well-being, legal protection of that family relation may be in the best interest of a given child. There is a continuing interaction between family law, cultural and social norms of what constitutes a family and how family life should be, and actual family practices and structures. Due to changing family patterns combined with an increasing number of divorces and cohabiting couples with children splitting up grandparents now play an increasing role in their grandchildren’s lives. Children become members within other types of family structures, e.g. single parents (raising half-siblings), families with yours and/or mine (and joint) children etc. When a child’s family includes a step-parent with children and step-grandparents – as well as the biological parents and grandparents – a potential risk of conflict among the family members is high. Grandparents, therefore, risk losing contact or having less contact than they had previously. At first glance, there might appear to be little reason for society to regulate the practices of grandparents as providers of non-formalized childcare or to protect the rights of children in these relationships. However, due to the changing family practices and social norms, one could argue that the legal protection of contact between grandparents and grandchildren is an important legal topic in domestic law and in academic discussions in the coming years. This article articulates these issues by framing three articles that together create a thematic map in this journal on Spanish and Catalan law, and Scandinavian law as well as the grandparents’ right to maintain contact with their grandchildren under the European Convention on Human Rights seen in a context of the best interest of the child.


prof. M. Holdgaard
Marianne Holdgaard is Professor in family and inheritance law at the School of Law, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Aalborg
Artikel

Access_open Enhanced Contact Rights for Grandparents? A Critical View from Spanish and Catalan Laws

Tijdschrift Family & Law, september 2021
Trefwoorden Contact with grandchildren, Best interest of the child, Parental responsibilities
Auteurs prof. dr. J. Ribot Igualada
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article examines how Spanish and Catalan laws deal with claims of grandparents who seek contact with their grandchildren against the will of one or both parents, and the scope given to their rights. It starts by explaining the content and the goals of the legal reforms enacted in Spain at the beginning of the 21st century to promote grandparents’ interests. Then, it presents the case law developed in the interpretation of the relevant legal rules. The resulting state of the law is assessed, taking into account the interests of all the parties involved (parents, grandparents, and grandchildren). The experience of more than twenty years of application of the specific provisions concerning grandparents’ contact rights sheds light on the impact of giving grandparents stronger legal rights. However, it also prompts the question of whether this legislative choice might have brought about useless and potentially harmful litigation.


prof. dr. J. Ribot Igualada
Jordi Ribot Igualada is Professor of Civil Law at the Institute of European and Comparative Law and Director of the Institute of European and Comparative Private Law (University of Girona).
Milieu

De Europese strijd tegen vervuilende single use plastics

Tijdschrift Nederlands tijdschrift voor Europees recht, Aflevering 5-6 2021
Trefwoorden milieu, Single use plastic richtlijn
Auteurs Mr. dr. J.H.M. Huijts
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Op 5 juni 2019 werd de Richtlijn betreffende de vermindering van de effecten van bepaalde kunststofproducten op het milieu vastgesteld. De auteur onderzoekt in deze bijdrage welke verplichtingen deze richtlijn in het leven roept en hoe daaraan gehoor wordt gegeven in Nederland.
    Richtlijn (EU) 2019/904 van het Europees Parlement en de Raad van 5 juni 2019 betreffende de vermindering van de effecten van bepaalde kunststofproducten op het milieu (PbEU 2019, L 155/1-19).


Mr. dr. J.H.M. Huijts
Mr. dr. J.H.M. (Jonathan) Huijts is universitair docent aan de afdeling Staats- en bestuursrecht van de Universiteit Leiden. Hij verrichtte daar onder andere een postdoconderzoek naar de regulering van single use plastics. Het daaruit voortgekomen onderzoeksrapport is te raadplegen op www.universiteitleiden.nl/medewerkers/jonathan-huijts#tab-1.

    This year, 2021, TMD has reached a milestone: its 25th volume. To celebrate this event, the issues to be published this year will highlight what has been achieved over the past 25 years, in mediation practice, and in respect of scientific knowledge on the various modes of dispute resolution. The question which targets to set for the future, will equally be addressed.
    Geographically, the focus of this first issue is on the Netherlands, whereas the third issue will be addressing developments in Belgium. The fourth issue this year will highlight international developments, ranging from the USA to China. The second issue will be a special surprise for our subscribers.
    The present issue, dealing with the Netherlands, starts with a tribute to the pioneer of family mediation in this country, the late professor Peter Hoefnagels. His original article, published in the very first volume of TMD (1997) and reproduced here in its entirety, describes his own experience when pioneering divorce mediation from 1974 onwards. In 1997, the year of original publication, mediation was not yet widely acknowledged nor embraced. Brigitte Chin-A-Fat responds to Peter Hoefnagels through a personal letter following his article, reassuring the great pioneer that 25 years further on, mediation has become well established in the family domain.
    The issue continues with three interviews, organized by editors Roger Ritzen and/or Rob Jagtenberg, with individuals who have (sometimes inadvertently) become leading authorities in the field.
    Steve Whittaker, an English solicitor who moved to the Netherlands in 1988 to work in the construction industry and became inspired by the use of ADR in Hongkong, became the founder of the Netherlands Mediation Institute (NMI), in the mid 1990s. For 20 years, NMI was the umbrella structure for (almost) all mediators in the Netherlands and the interface between the mediation community and government. Compared with those early years, today, interests seem to diverge increasingly, at the risk of fragmentation.
    The second interview is with former President of the Court of Appeal in Arnhem, Ms. Machteld Pel. For many years, she spearheaded the Dutch national research program on court-referred mediation, thereby acting as the trait-d’union between the judiciary and the mediation community. Judges who were sceptics at first, often became interested after having taken the special training courses co-designed by Machteld Pel. Her book ‘Referral to Mediation’, which is packed with checklists and practical tips for formulating questions, has become a genuine classic.
    The interview with Fred Schonewille takes the reader to the past decade in particular. Fred Schonewille has been the driving force behind various proposals for mediation legislation, aiming to secure a more prominent place for mediation, while improving professional quality standards. The Netherlands and Belgium constitute contrasting cases, where in the Netherlands legislation proposals were hitherto torpedoed, whereas Belgium has comprehensive legislation in place for some time now.
    Fred Schonewille has also pioneered premarital mediation and new varieties of mediation in the domain of family-owned companies. Some fascinating insights gained in these areas are also shared in this third interview.
    This first issue in the special year 2021 is concluded by two smaller contributions; in the first of these, Médiation à la française, Paris-based Dutch lawyer-mediators Marinka Schillings and Thom Verkuilen provide an overview of recent developments in France. Legislative action as well as some recent research outcomes are addressed. The second of the smaller contributions highlights a conference organized by a professorial team from the Radboud University in Nijmegen, addressing the position of the judge vis-a-vis various modes of dispute resolution. The proceedings of the conference will be published as a book later this year.


Annie de Roo
Annie de Roo is associate professor of ADR and comparative law at Erasmus University Law School in Rotterdam, editor-in-chief of TMD, and vice chair of the exams committee of the Mediators Federation of the Netherlands MFN. She has published extensively on mediation and has inter alia been a Rapporteur three times for the European Commission on the use of mediation in employment disputes.

Lukas van den Berge
Lukas van den Berge is assistent professor of legal theory at Utrecht University.
Artikel

Access_open De werkplek thuis, bezien in het licht van COVID-19

Breekt nood wet of maken we van de nood een deugd? De werkplek thuis is niet voor iedereen een vreugd

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Ontslagrecht, Aflevering 3 2021
Trefwoorden werkplek, COVID, corona, thuiswerken, arbeidsplaats
Auteurs mr. Simone Drost en mr. Willemijn Bosman
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    De auteurs staan stil bij het door de coronacrisis noodgedwongen thuiswerken. Het wetsvoorstel Werken waar je wilt en ontslagrechtelijke aspecten worden behandeld.


mr. Simone Drost
Simone Drost is Senior Legal Counsel Arbeidsrecht bij ABN Amro.

mr. Willemijn Bosman
Willemijn Bosman is Senior Legal Counsel Arbeidsrecht bij ABN Amro.
Artikel

Access_open Crisis in het profvoetbal

Verlagen van het salaris: een (no-)go?

Tijdschrift Voetbal- & Sportjuridische Zaken, Aflevering 1 2021
Trefwoorden akkoord salarisverlaging, eenzijdige wijziging arbeidsvoorwaarden, inleveren salaris voetballers, arbeidsvoorwaardenoverleg, voetbal
Auteurs Tim Wilms en Niels Jansen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Deze bijdrage bespreekt of, en zo ja, in welke mate voetbalclubs in crisistijd van hun voetballers kunnen verlangen dat zij genoegen nemen met salarisvermindering. Specifieke aandacht wordt besteed aan de verhouding tussen wijzigingen van arbeidsvoorwaarden die steun vinden in sectorale collectieve afspraken en wijzigingen die deze steun ontberen.


Tim Wilms
Mr. T.A. (Tim) Wilms is advocaat arbeidsrecht en sport bij Kennedy Van der Laan.

Niels Jansen
Mr. dr. N. (Niels) Jansen is universitair docent arbeidsrecht aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam.
Pending Cases

Case C-199/21, Social Insurance, Pension

DN – v – Finanzamt Österreich, reference lodged by the Bundesfinanzgericht (Austria) on 30 March 2021

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden Social Insurance, Pension

    The Supreme Court (SC) has unanimously decided that drivers engaged by Uber are workers rather than independent contractors. It also decided that drivers are working when they are signed in to the Uber app and ready to work.


Colin Leckey
Colin Leckey is a partner at Lewis Silkin LLP.

    In the case of a ‘service provision change’ under the Transfer of Undertakings (Protection of Employment) Regulations 2006 (TUPE), where a service is outsourced or re-tendered, the Employment Appeal Tribunal (EAT) has ruled that an employee’s contract can be split so they go from working full-time for one employer to working part-time for two or more employers.


Amy Cooper
Amy Cooper is an associate at Lewis Silkin LLP.
Artikel

The Belgian debate on restitution since 2018

A perspective on the political acts shaping

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden restitution of cultural heritage, Belgium, decolonisation, return
Auteurs Yasmina Zian
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article analyses political discourses in the light of the vocabulary and suggestions contained in the parliamentary resolutions proposed in 2019 dealing with the restitution. It appears that the discourses are committed but the developed suggestions are mild. This apparent contradiction can be explained through Hanna Pitkin’s work on political representation. Using this analysis, two reflections are proposed in the conclusion: one on the Belgian case with regards to the European context and the other on the current expectations of society.


Yasmina Zian
Dr. Yasmina Zian is postdoctoral onderzoekster in de Faculté de Philosophie et Sciences sociales, Centre interdisciplinaire d’études des réligions et de la laïcité aan de Université Libre de Bruxelles en in het Swiss Forum for Migration aan de Université de Neuchâtel.
Artikel

Access_open Professional Ethics for Judges – Lessons Learned from the Past. Dialogue as Didactics to Develop Moral Leadership for Judges

Special Issue on Education in (Professional) Legal Ethics, ­Emanuel van Dongen & Jet Tigchelaar (eds.)

Tijdschrift Law and Method, juli 2021
Trefwoorden professional ethics, ethical dilemmas, judiciary, independence
Auteurs Alex Brenninkmeijer en Didel Bish
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    There is an intimate link between good conduct by judges and the rule of law. The quintessence of their role is that judges shape a trustworthy and fair legal system from case to case. Ethical trading is not carved in granite, and judges must determine their course on different levels. First, it concerns personal conduct and requires integrity and reliability. On the second level, the challenge is to achieve proper adjudication by conducting a fair trial in accordance with professional standards. Third, judges exercise discretion, in which normative considerations run the risk of becoming political. They should act independently as one of the players in the trias politica. A triptych of past cases illustrate moral dilemmas judges may encounter in their profession. Calibrating the ethical compass is not an abstract or academic exercise. A dialogue at the micro (internal), meso (deliberation in chambers) and macro levels (court in constitutional framework) could be incorporated in the legal reasoning as a didactic framework to make future judges aware of their ethical challenges.


Alex Brenninkmeijer
A.F.M. Brenninkmeijer, PhD is Member of the European Court of Auditors, Luxembourg. Professor of Institutional Aspects of the Rule of Law at Utrecht University.

Didel Bish
D.A. Bish, LLM is a trainee at the European Court of Auditors, Luxembourg.
Artikel

Access_open Contractuele vaccinatieplichten, coronaclausules en wijziging van overeenkomsten

Contractsvrijheid in tijden van corona

Tijdschrift Maandblad voor Vermogensrecht, Aflevering 6 2021
Trefwoorden COVID-19, testverplichting, privileges, pandemieclausule, onvoorziene omstandigheden
Auteurs Prof. mr. H.N. Schelhaas
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In deze bijdrage staat vanuit het perspectief van de contractsvrijheid de invloed van coronamaatregelen op contracten centraal. Ingegaan wordt op de vraag of contractuele vaccinatie- of testverplichtingen kunnen worden afgedwongen, of en in hoeverre contracten kunnen worden aangepast op grond van onvoorziene coronaomstandigheden, en of in coronaclausules de gevolgen van coronamaatregelen kunnen worden vastgesteld.


Prof. mr. H.N. Schelhaas
Prof. mr. H.N. Schelhaas is hoogleraar privaatrecht aan de Erasmus School of Law, Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, en redacteur van dit tijdschrift.
Artikel

Pleitbezorgers van flexwerk

Tijdschrift Advocatenblad, Aflevering 6 2021
Auteurs Erik Jan Bolsius en Erik van der Burgt
Auteursinformatie

Erik Jan Bolsius

Erik van der Burgt
Beeld
Article

Access_open Invisible before the law

The legal position of persons with intellectual disabilities under the Dutch Care and Compulsion Act (Wzd) in light of Article 12 of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD)

Tijdschrift Family & Law, juni 2021
Trefwoorden dicrimination, guardianship, incapacitated adults, legal (in)capacity
Auteurs F. Schuthof LLM
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the Netherlands, the use of involuntary treatment in the mental health care sector is governed by the Dutch Care and Compulsion Act (Wzd). This study examines the legal position of persons with intellectual disabilities under this Act. The Wzd is analyzed in light of the human rights standards of Article 12 of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD). The findings of this study show that the Wzd does not meet the standards of Article 12 in several cases. The Wzd does not recognize the legal capacity of persons with intellectual disabilities, it continues to allow for substituted decision-making and support measures are not complemented by adequate safeguards. From a theoretical point of view, an imbalance between the protection of and the respect for the autonomy of persons with intellectual disabilities can be observed. This article formulates several recommendations in order to restore this balance.
    ---
    De Nederlandse Wet zorg en dwang (Wzd) ziet toe op de rechten van mensen met een verstandelijke beperking bij onvrijwillige zorg of onvrijwillige opname. Dit artikel onderzoekt de juridische positie van mensen met een verstandelijke beperking ten aanzien van deze wet. De Wzd wordt geanalyseerd in relatie tot artikel 12 van het Verdrag inzake de Rechten van Personen met een Handicap (VRPH). De bevindingen van dit onderzoek laten zien dat de Wzd in verschillende gevallen niet voldoet aan de normen van artikel 12 VRPH. Zo wordt onder andere de handelingsbekwaamheid, ofwel ‘legal capacity’, van mensen met een verstandelijke beperking niet erkend en blijft plaatsvervangende besluitvorming mogelijk. Vanuit theoretisch oogpunt is er sprake van een disbalans tussen de bescherming van en het respect voor de autonomie van mensen met een verstandelijke beperking. Dit artikel doet daarom meerdere aanbevelingen om dit evenwicht te herstellen.


F. Schuthof LLM
Fiore Schuthof conducts research into better empowerment and protection of the elderly as a PhD student at Utrecht University (UU).
Artikel

Access_open We need to talk to Martha

Or: The desirability of introducing simple adoption as an option for long-term foster children in The Netherlands

Tijdschrift Family & Law, juni 2021
Trefwoorden Adoption, foster care, guardianship, parental responsibility, supervision orders for minors
Auteurs mr. dr. M.J. Vonk en dr. G.C.A.M. Ruitenberg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article you will be introduced to Martha. Martha will turn eighteen in a couple of weeks and is afraid of losing her foster family when she becomes an adult (I). You will be taken on a journey through the Dutch child protection system and recent research on the desirability of forging an additional legal instrument, such as the introduction of simple adoption, for children like Martha and her two families. The following questions will be answered: How do children like Martha end up in a foster family (II)? Who is responsible or who makes decisions about Martha’s care and future and what problems may occur? Five possible situations in long-term foster care will be discussed in this context on the basis of current law and research (III). Would simple adoption (eenvoudige adoptie) solve some of the problems discussed in the earlier section and thus be a feasible and desirable option for long-term foster children and their foster parents (IV)? At the end of this journey you will be invited to take a brief glance into the future in the hope that Martha’s voice will be heard (V).
    ---
    In dit artikel stellen we u voor aan Martha. Martha wordt over een paar weken achttien en is bang haar pleeggezin kwijt te raken als ze meerderjarig wordt. Aan de hand van het verhaal van Martha nemen we u mee op een reis langs het Nederlandse jeugdbeschermingsstelstel en langs recent onderzoek naar de wenselijkheid van de introductie van een nieuwe juridische mogelijkheid waarmee een band tussen Martha en haar beide families kan worden gevestigd: eenvoudige adoptie. De volgende vragen worden daarbij beantwoord: Hoe komen kinderen zoals Martha in een pleeggezin terecht? Wie is verantwoordelijk voor of mag beslissingen nemen over Martha’s opvoeding en toekomst en wat voor problemen kunnen zich daarbij voordoen? Zou eenvoudige adoptie een oplossing bieden voor een aantal van de problemen die worden besproken en daarmee een wenselijke oplossing zijn voor langdurige pleegkinderen en hun pleeggezinnen? Aan het einde van deze reis werpen we een korte blik op de toekomst in de hoop dat de stem van Martha gehoord zal worden.


mr. dr. M.J. Vonk
Machteld Vonk is associate professor at the Amsterdam Center for Family Law of the Private Law Department at VU University Amsterdam.

dr. G.C.A.M. Ruitenberg
Geeske Ruitenberg is assistant professor at the Amsterdam Center for Family Law of the Private Law Department at the VU University Amsterdam.
Artikel

Access_open Het classicistische politieke denken van Van Hogendorp

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 1 2021
Trefwoorden classicistisch politiek denken, constitutie, Van Hogendorp, Grondwet, politieke filosofie
Auteurs Alban Mik
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Gijsbert Karel van Hogendorp is the auctor intellectualis of the 1818 Dutch constitution. It was his sketch for a new constitution that was used as a starting point for the deliberations of its original drafting committee. Van Hogendorp justifies his constitution as a restoration of the Burgundian constitution that applied before the Dutch Republic. In recent literature Van Hogendorp’s restorational argument is presented as an invention of tradition. In this article an alternative explanation is presented, namely that it is part of a form of classicist political thought that was common during the ancien régime. Van Hogendorp describes his constitution as a moderate monarchy, in which the three principles of monarchy, aristocracy and democracy are properly balanced. And he mainly defends this mixed regime by pointing out that it is a restoration of the old Burgundian constitution of the Netherlands. This way of reasoning is, as will be shown, typically classicistic.


Alban Mik
Alban Mik is onderzoeker aan de Afdeling Metajuridica, vakgroep Rechtsfilosofie van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Access_open What does it mean to be ‘illiberal’?

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 1 2021
Trefwoorden Liberalism, Illiberalism, Illiberal practices, Extremism, Discrimination
Auteurs Bouke de Vries
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    ‘Illiberal’ is an adjective that is commonly used by scholars. For example, they might speak of ‘illiberal cultures’, ‘illiberal groups’, ‘illiberal states’, ‘illiberal democracies’, ‘illiberal beliefs’, and ‘illiberal practices’. Yet despite its widespread usage, no in-depth discussions exist of exactly what it means for someone or something to be illiberal, or might mean. This article fills this lacuna by providing a conceptual analysis of the term ‘illiberal practices’, which I argue is basic in that other bearers of the property of being illiberal can be understood by reference to it. Specifically, I identify five ways in which a practice can be illiberal based on the different ways in which this term is employed within both scholarly and political discourses. The main value of this disaggregation lies in the fact that it helps to prevent confusions that arise when people use the adjective ‘illiberal’ in different ways, as is not uncommon.


Bouke de Vries
Bouke de Vries is a postdoctoral research fellow at Umeå University and the KU Leuven.
Redactioneel

Access_open Where Were the Law Schools?

On Legal Education as Training for Justice and the Rule of Law (Against the ‘Dark Sides of Legality’)

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 1 2021
Auteurs Iris van Domselaar
Auteursinformatie

Iris van Domselaar
Iris van Domselaar is associate professor in legal philosophy and legal ethics at the Amsterdam Law School, University of Amsterdam.
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