Zoekresultaat: 45 artikelen

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Jaar 2009 x

    This paper focuses on how organized crime in Bulgaria uses political corruption to achieve its goals. It focuses, though, on one specific type of criminal structures, the ones controlled by former security officers. More specifically it analyzes the criminal careers of two well known Bulgarian crime figures and former security officers. The way they use the instrument of corruption changes though the years when they evolve from relatively unimportant racketeers into powerful local oligarchs.


P. Gounev
Philip Gounev (philip.gounev@online.bg) is als research fellow verbonden aan het Center for the Study of Democracy in Londen. De auteurs bedanken Ruth van Leeuwen voor de vertaling van dit artikel en voor haar bijdrage aan het onderzoek.

T. Bezlov
Tihomir Bezlov (tiho@online.bg) is als senior analyst verbonden aan het Center for the Study of Democracy in Londen.
Artikel

Veelplegers terug bij af?

De ISD in retrospectief

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2009
Auteurs M. van Ooyen-Houben en M. Goderie
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Act introducing the Institution for Persistent Offenders Committal Order (ISD Order) took effect on 1 October 2004. The origins of the ISD Order are in safety policy. The order had a strong focus on imprisonment of persistent offenders. It can be seen as an exponent of the risk-oriented attitude towards safety, which has been predominant in recent years. At the start treatment of persistent offenders was of secundary importance and was only available for those who were motivated. But the ISD measure has had to deal with major problems in practice. The imprisoned ISD population proved to be one with complex problems like addiction, psychiatric illnesses and sometimes low intellectual abilities. The ISD institutions are ill-equipped for handling these people. The problems led to a slightly different attitude which is more oriented towards resocialization. Improvements are going on now, a process facilitated by a considerably improved co-operation between agencies around the ISD.


M. van Ooyen-Houben
Dr. Marianne van Ooyen-Houben is projectbegeleider bij het WODC en universitair docent bij de sectie Criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

M. Goderie
Drs. Marjolein Goderie is onderzoeker bij het Verwey-Jonker Instituut.
Artikel

Aantallen civiele rechtszaken in Nederland en elders

Een vergelijking in de tijd en in Europa

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2009
Auteurs E. Niemeijer en C.M. Klein Haarhuis
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Academic perceptions of litigation rates are dispersed: they vary from observations of a ‘litigation explosion’ to empirical accounts of ‘vanishing trials’. In this article the authors study whether civil trials are increasing or vanishing in the Netherlands. To find out, the authors studied trends in the number of civil cases in the Dutch courts. First, they observed developments in the filings as well as the dispositions of civil cases over the past 25 years, taking into account the trial-likeness of the procedures. Second, they put the Dutch figures - including other indicators of legal activity - in a European perspective. The findings show that the number of court cases in the Netherlands is on the rise. This does not automatically imply, however, that the Netherlands are a highly litigious society. ‘Light’ versions of trials are predominant, as is efficiency in the management of cases. Moreover, the number of lawyers and judges is rather small compared to other European countries.


E. Niemeijer
Prof. dr. mr. Bert Niemeijer is werkzaam bij de directie Algemene Justitiële Strategie van het ministerie van Justitie en is tevens als hoogleraar empirische rechtssociologie verbonden aan de Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam.

C.M. Klein Haarhuis
Dr. Carolien Klein Haarhuis is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het WODC.

    Many actors have been blamed for the financial crisis: Greenspan, banks, rating agencies, careless mortgage takers and incompetent mainstream economists. This paper however focusses on other explanations for the crisis which are usually neglected in mainstream economics. The imbalances in the income and wealth distribution worldwide have become so large, that the poor cannot buy the goods produced by rich countries anymore, while the rich have become so rich that they cannot spend all their income anymore in the real sector. This lack of demand for goods has artificially been filled by unsecured debts given to the poor, but eventually led to a taking off of financial markets, and to a crisis. When imbalances are too large, this backfires. Government packages aimed at stabilizing the economy should therefore not forget the income and wealth distribution in order to be successful in the long run.


B. Unger
Prof. dr. Brigitte Unger is hoogleraar economie van de publieke sector bij de Utrecht School of Economics.

Friso Kulk
Friso Kulkstudeerde in 2003 cum laude af in Arabische Taal en Cultuur aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam. Daarna studeerde hij de tweejarige master Staats- en Bestuursrecht, eveneens aan de UvA. Hij werkte onder meer als juridisch adviseur bij Vluchtelingenwerk, vertaler en docent Arabisch. Zijn promotieonderzoek gaat over de familierechtelijke relatie tussen ouders en kinderen in Egyptisch-Nederlandse en Marokkaans-Nederlandse gezinnen.

Iris Sportel
Iris Sportelstudeerde Culturele Antropologie en Ontwikkelingsstudies en Arabische Taal en Cultuur aan de Radboud Universiteit in Nijmegen. Voor haar masterscriptie deed zij in Egypte onderzoek naar ziyara, het bezoeken van heiligen. Sinds 2008 doet zij promotieonderzoek naar echtscheiding in Neder-lands-Egyptische en Nederlands-Marokkaanse gezinnen.

Rob Schwitters
Rob Schwittersis UHD rechtssociologie aan de Universiteit van Amster-dam en voorzitter van de VSR. Hij heeft gepubliceerd over sociale zekerheid, aansprakelijkheid en risicomaatschappij en de juridisering van medische beslis-singen. Verder schreef hij een inleiding in de rechtssociologie (Recht en samen-leving in verandering, Kluwer 2008).

Karin Nijenhuis
Karin Nijenhuis (nijenhuis@ascleiden.nl) is a human geographer and environmental jurist. She is doing her PhD on the mobility of farmers and conflicts over access to land in Mali at the African Studies Centre, Leiden. In addition she is working as a senior project manager at the Center for International Legal Cooperation (CILC) in The Hague.

    Using the concept of chronocentrism, the doctrine that what is current must somehow be superior to what went on before, that ideas, scholars and scholarship inevitably become stale and discredited over time, the author argues the rise and attraction of nodal governance and nodal security fits the definition of chronocentrism. The recent ‘discovery’ of a multitude of (semi-)public agencies and private sector actors performing police functions neglect the fact that many of these agencies and actors have a long standing history (sometimes more than a century) and have been subject of many academic studies. Moreover, these studies are richer in their theoretical foundations because of the explanations they give for different functions, goals, interests, cultures and operational styles of public policing, administrative policing and private policing than much of the current language. In many ways nodal governance and nodal security are new labels for ongoing processes of gradual interweaving of different forms of policing. For this reason the use of these concepts is useful in two ways. First, for policy makers and practitioners. For them the new concepts seem to have a function as a motivational strategy. For instance, what was called increasing cooperation in the justice system (ketensamenwerking) and public-private cooperation in the eighties and nineties are revitalized using new labels. Second, nodal governance and nodal security, in the academic community ‘forces’ us to rethink the very notion of policing. Policing increasingly takes place in hybrid organizations and processes in which boundaries between public administration, public policing, regulatory agencies and private security are blurring.


A.B. Hoogenboom
Prof. dr. Bob Hoogenboom is hoogleraar Politiestudies en Veiligheidsvraagstukken aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en hoogleraar Forensic Business Studies aan Nyenrode.
Artikel

Een gevaarlijke driehoeksverhouding?

Falende staten, georganiseerde misdaad en transnationaal terrorisme

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2009
Auteurs Tanja E. Aalberts
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In recent years it has become popular in political discourse and academic literature to talk about the blurring boundaries between transnational terrorism and organized crime. In addition, the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 have instigated a debate on the link between transnational terrorism and state failure. This article scrutinizes this so-called ‘black hole’ thesis and its relationship to the crime-terror nexus by addressing the political significance of such conceptual blurring within an international context that is increasingly characterized by uncertainty and uncontrollable risks.


Tanja E. Aalberts
Dr. Tanja E. Aalberts is universitair docent aan de Universiteit Leiden (taalberts@fsw.leidenuniv.nl).

    The upsurge in the use of economic sanctions in the post-Cold War era has prompted much scholarly and policy debate over their effectiveness and humanitarian consequences. Remarkably little attention, however, has been devoted to their criminalizing consequences and legacy for the post-sanctions period. In this article, the author develops an analytical framework identifying and categorizing the potential criminalizing effects of sanctions across place (within and around the targeted country) and time (during and after the sanctions period). This framework is applied and evaluated through an in-depth examination of the case of Yugoslavia. For comparative leverage and to assess the applicability of the argument beyond the Yugoslavia case, the analysis is briefly extended to Croatia. The article suggests that sanctions can unintentionally contribute to the criminalization of the state, economy, and civil society of both the targeted country and its immediate neighbors, fostering a symbiosis between political leaders, organized crime, and transnational smuggling networks. This symbiosis, in turn, can persist beyond the lifting of sanctions, contributing to corruption and crime and undermining the rule of law.


Peter Andreas
Prof. Peter Andreas is als assistent-hoogleraar Internationale Betrekkingen verbonden aan de Brown University, Rhode Island, Providence, USA.

    In this article four possible relations of the credit crunch and corporate crime are examined. A first relation is that cases of accounting fraud have contributed to the causation of the crisis. Due to these scandals the trust in large corporations and the financial sector would have been eroded. A second possible relation is the reverse: the crisis will lead to more corporate crime. Because of the crisis companies run into financial difficulties. In their despair they could try to cut costs by not complying with regulations or they could try to gain illegal profits through fraud. The third relation is the criminalization of more unethical corporate behavior. The moral outrage on the behavior of banks and insurance companies that contributed to the crisis might lead to an increased labeling of risky or greedy of corporate executives as crime. This will result in more regulation. The fourth and final relation is that these amplification effects will lead to the discovery of more corporate crime.


W. Huisman
Prof. dr. Wim Huisman is als hoogleraar criminologie verbonden aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.

    Trust between people and institutions is essential for the functioning of society. In this paper the author distinguishes trust and confidence. Confidence is the optimism or pessimism of consumers and investors about the future, about the Dutch economy and about the financial situation of their own household. Consumer confidence declined sharply after 2007, with negative consequences for the sales of houses and cars. A low level of trust is threatening for the functioning of institutions and society. Determinants of trust are: competence, stability, integrity, benevolence, transparency, value congruency and reputation. The first four determinants are ‘dissatisfiers’, while the last three are ‘satisfiers’. Financial institutions have to meet the criteria on the first four determinants without a compensation by the last three determinants. The last three determinants offer options for additional profiling, positioning and differentiation. The recovery of confidence will happen sooner than the recovery of trust. Confidence is related to general economic developments. The recovery of trust is a slower process, because of the integrity of persons and institutions. People want to see ‘proofs’ of a changed behaviour before they trust persons and institutions again. This means that a prolonged trust crisis is to be expected, even when confidence is already optimistic.


W.F. van Raaij
Prof. dr. Fred van Raaij is als hoogleraar economische psychologie verbonden aan de Faculteit Sociale Wetenschappen van de Universiteit van Tilburg.

    The notion that animal abuse and domestic violence are related has been existing for centuries. Recent studies in the United States, Great Britain, Australia, New Zealand and the Netherlands report evidence for this relation. In the western world, more than 50% of families have pets. They are often valued as members of the family. It is obvious that pets can be victims of family violence as well. The relation between animal abuse and domestic violence has many manifestations. Abused women reported violence against their pets, reported that their children abused the pets. Abused children, especially severely abused and/or sexually abused children, are more often than other children animal abusers. Animal abuse is often related to other violent behaviour or severe criminal acts later in life. Besides, animal abuse is an early diagnostic marker for psychopathology. Animal abuse is always a signal of a problematic situation. A greater awareness of the possible link between animal abuse and domestic violence could contribute to saving men, women, children and animals from violent situations.


M.J. Enders-Slegers
Dr. Marie-José Enders-Slegers is verbonden aan het departement Klinische en Gezondheidspsychologie van de Faculteit Sociale Wetenschappen van de Universiteit Utrecht.

    In the past few years, an increasing number of Private Security Companies (PSCs) - also sometimes referred to as Private Military Companies (PMCs) - have emerged offering and conducting anti-piracy services. These companies offer services in addition to security provided by states and their government agencies. PSCs are today hired to provide anti-piracy services in different parts of the world, but mostly in strategically important waterways where piracy is a serious security concern. This article examines the employment of PSCs in two such waterways, namely the Malacca Straits and the Gulf of Aden, and discusses the risks, challenges and benefits of privatising maritime security.


C. Liss
Carolin Liss is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het Asia Research Center van de Murdoch University in Perth, Australië.
Artikel

Radicalisering en radicale groepen in vogelvlucht

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2009
Trefwoorden radicalisering, terrorisme, Deradicalisering, contraterrorisme
Auteurs Bob de Graaff, Christianne de Poot en Edward Kleemans
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    What do we know about radicalization and radical groups? This thematic issue focuses on these questions and this introduction sketches the outlines of the subject. Many researchers studied this subject from different angles, using various research techniques and sources of information.


Bob de Graaff
Prof. dr. B.G.J. de Graaff is hoogleraar aan de Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen van de Universiteit Leiden, bobdegraaff@yahoo.com.

Christianne de Poot
Dr. C.J. de Poot is onderzoeker bij afdeling criminaliteit, rechtshandhaving en sancties, Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum (WODC), c.j.de.poot@minjus.nl.

Edward Kleemans
Prof. dr. E.R. Kleemans is waarnemend hoofd, afdeling criminaliteit, rechtshandhaving en sancties, Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum (WODC) en hoogleraar zware criminaliteit en rechtshandhaving, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, e.r.kleemans@minjus.nl.
Artikel

Herstelrecht in de samenleving

Barmhartige gerechtigheid in de praktijk van de gevangenenzorg

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 4 2009
Trefwoorden herstelrecht, gevangenenzorg, barmhartige gerechtigheid
Auteurs Hans Barendrecht, Martine Cammeraat en Esther Klaassen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The contribution informs about some of the activities and the philosophy of Gevangenenzorg Nederland, a non-governmental organisation for the care for prisoners, member of the Prison Fellowship International. Holding a person responsible for his or her criminal conduct does not only mean punishment, but also individualizing the person as a person, with his or her own life, history and future. The stay in prison should help the person to return into society as a citizen with an equal status, rehabilitated by his punishment. But social reality is far removed from this ideal. The volunteers of Gevangenenzorg Nederland try to bring closer a form or charitable justice, focussing not so much on the risks that a person may be perceived to pose, but much more on the healthy and socially positive talents of the detainee, against the background of the ‘good lives model’ of Ward and Maruna (2007). The article describes the workshop offered to detainees ‘Speaking of guilt, remorse, victims and society’, wherein participants can investigate and discover in a systematic way their own degree and type of guilt and responsibilities and the avenues that might be available to express remorse and to make amends with victims and society. Family members or other significant others are called in in the stage of concluding the course with presenting ‘restorative gestures’ of any personal kind. Care after leaving the prison is offered and planned, hoping to facilitate a fully rehabilitated reintegration into society.


Hans Barendrecht
Hans Barendrecht is jurist en directeur van Gevangenenzorg Nederland.

Martine Cammeraat
Martine Cammeraat MSc is als criminologe werkzaam bij Gevangenenzorg Nederland.

Esther Klaassen
Esther Klaassen is werkzaam bij Gevangenenzorg Nederland als coördinator van de herstelrechtprogramma’s van die organisatie.
Artikel

Houdt religie af van misdaad?

Over de impact van geloof, religieus geïnspireerde programma’s en rehabilitatie van daders

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 4 2009
Trefwoorden religie, criminaliteit, attituden ten aanzien van straf, herstel en vergeving
Auteurs Bas van Stokkom
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This study revolves around the broad question: can religion prevent crime? In the first part the (possible) impact of religious faith on social behaviour (or the prevention of certain behaviours) is discussed. Respectively the following aspects are dealt with: religion as a source of activism, religion as protective factor to keep people from crime, and the impact of crime on tolerant or intolerant and forgiving or punitive attitudes. The second part deals with deliberately organized faith-based-interventions, intended to support and help inmates. The role of identity change via redemption narratives is examined, as well as the question how professionals and volunteers may stimulate rehabilitation and reintegration of (ex-)prisoners.


Bas van Stokkom
Bas van Stokkom is verbonden aan de Vrije Universiteit, de Radboud Universiteit en redactielid van dit tijdschrift.
Artikel

Burgers over beveiligers

Een kwantitatief onderzoek naar percepties, verwachtingen en oordelen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2009
Trefwoorden beveiligers, burgers, beveiliging
Auteurs Ronald van Steden, Maddy Roelofs en Mahesh Nalla
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The employment of private security guards has increased in many European countries in recent decades and the Netherlands is no exception. However, despite large increases in the growth of the private security industry, little is known about how the public perceives agents of private policing and their role in crime prevention and enhancing the public’s sense of safety. In this paper we examine public perceptions of private security personnel. More specifically, we examine citizens’ perceptions and expectations toward the nature of security guards’ work and their relationships with public police, as well as citizens’ level of satisfaction with private security services. Findings suggest that overall Dutch citizens have mixed opinions of security guards. Nonetheless, contrary to what is often assumed about the public image of private security, findings also suggest that respondents are sometimes surprisingly positive in their reactions.


Ronald van Steden
Ronald van Steden is werkzaam bij de onderzoeksgroep Veiligheid en Burgerschap aan de Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen van de Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam. Postadres: De Boelelaan 1081, 1081 HV Amsterdam. E-mail: r.van.steden@fsw.vu.nl.

Maddy Roelofs
Maddy Roelofs in onderzoeker bij de Dienst Onderzoek en Statistiek van de gemeente Amsterdam. Postadres: Postbus 658, 1000 AR Amsterdam. E-mail: m.roelofs@os.amsterdam.nl.

Mahesh Nalla
Mahesh Nalla is hoogleraar in Criminal Justice Studies aan Michigan State University, U.S.A. Postadres: School of Criminal Justice, 560 Baker Hall, East Lansing, MI 48824-1118. E-mail: nalla@msu.edu.
Artikel

Access_open Nussbaum’s Capabilities Approach: In Need of a Moral Epistemology?

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 3 2009
Trefwoorden Martha Nussbaum, Capabilities Approach, moral epistemology, objectivity, residues of justice, Bernard Williams, political moralism
Auteurs Mr. Iris van Domselaar
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Although Nussbaum’s “Capabilities Approach” (CA) clearly expresses a commitment to objectivity, this article argues that this commitment is rather ambiguous due to the conception of public reason it endorses. In particular, the CA cannot account for an objective justification of public reason, given certain characteristics of public reason. As a result, the CA jeopardizes the substantive aim it has set itself: to provide an objective justification for public choices regarding human capabilities and their specifications.


Mr. Iris van Domselaar
Iris van Domselaar is a Ph.D-student and lecturer at the Department of General Jurisprudence, Faculty of Law, University of Amsterdam. The subject of her thesis is “Residues of Justice and Tragic Legal Choice in a Liberal Rule of Law”.

    In this article the author summarizes the main arguments for and notions of a maximalist conception of restorative justice, as developed in his latest book: Restorative Justice, Self-interest and Responsible Citizenship.While using a rather limited, goal-oriented definition of RJ as ‘an option for doing justice after the occurrence of an offence that is primarily oriented towards repairing the individual, relational and social harm caused by that offence’, Walgrave aims at developing a full blown alternative for penal justice. In the restorative system it should also be possible to impose sanctions, when deliberative processes of mediation and conferencing are not feasible, although the latter have, of course, the greatest chance of achieving restoration.The sanctions of restorative justice are not punishments, because any intention to impose suffering is lacking at the side of the sentencing authorities. But RJ can be seen as a form of inverted retributivism, in the sense that the offender pays his dues back to the victim and the society, to a degree that has to be acceptable to all involved, and seeking a fair amount of proportionality that does not impose unrealistic or unfair obligations. Principles of due process of law should be adapted to fit the restorative process. The high degree of participation in restorative justice serves democracy and so should criminology, by studying the ways in which social capital can be increased.The concept of ‘common self-interest’ is explained as the fundamental understanding that self-interests are best served by serving the common self-interest in as far as that provides full possibilities of deployment to everyone.


Lode Walgrave
Lode Walgrave is emeritus hoogleraar (jeugd)criminologie van de Katholieke Universiteit Leuven en redactielid van dit tijdschrift.
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