Zoekresultaat: 48 artikelen

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Jaar 2011 x
Artikel

Door een gekleurde bril?

Bespreking van een verkennend onderzoek naar de percepties en ervaringen van allochtone en autochtone jongeren ten aanzien van oneigenlijk selectief politiewerk

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 6 2011
Trefwoorden racial profiling, actuarial justice, discretionairy powers, police
Auteurs Mr. dr. drs. Maartje van der Woude, Prof. dr. Joanne van der Leun, Fleur van Barneveld e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    By expanding preventive powers, the Dutch criminal justice system is increasingly aimed at detecting risky people and groups as soon as possible. This so-called actuarial justice is accompanied by a great deal of discretionary power in the hands of those who have to enforce the law, bearing the risk that such powers may be carried out (in part) on the basis of generalizations relating to race, ethnicity, religion or nationality instead of on the basis of individual behavior and/or objective evidence. By presenting the results of an exploratory study into the perceptions of minorities with regard to racial profiling, the main conclusion of this article is that there is a clear necessity for further empirical research into this area.


Mr. dr. drs. Maartje van der Woude
Mr. dr. Maartje van der Woude is universitair docent bij het Instituut voor Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Prof. dr. Joanne van der Leun
Prof. dr. Joanne van der Leun is hoogleraar Criminologie bij het Instituut voor Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Fleur van Barneveld
Fleur van Barneveld is masterstudent Criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Yannick van Eijk
Yannick van Eijk is masterstudent Criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Roel Holman
Roel Holman is masterstudent Criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Madelin Mooijer
Madelin Mooijer is masterstudent Criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Grensvervaging tussen interne en externe veiligheid

Achtergronden en gevolgen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2011
Trefwoorden internal security, external security, blurring boundaries
Auteurs Tom Vander Beken
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Internal and external security are traditionally considered to be distinct concepts that allow police organizations and tasks to be differentiated from those of the military. Internal security is then viewed as oriented towards the maintenance of the order within a state and to be exercised against fellow citizens with a limited use of violence. External security deals with the protection of the territory and is exercised against foreign enemies, may include the use of excessive violence. In practice, however, the boundaries between these concepts and between police and military aims and tasks have become blurred. The extension of the security concept, a change in the nature of interventions on foreign territory and a shifting image of the enemy create an overlap between internal and external security issues and actors. This evolution seriously challenges the existing legal and normative frameworks that rely heavily on assumptions based on the distinction between internal and external security.


Tom Vander Beken
Prof. dr. T. (Tom) Vander Beken is hoogleraar aan de vakgroep Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Gent en directeur van het Institute for International Research on Criminal Policy (IRCP). Correspondentieadres: Universiteitstraat 4, 9000 Gent, België. E-mail: tom.vanderbeken@ugent.be
Artikel

Over objectieve en subjectieve onveiligheid

En de (on)zin van het rationaliteitdebat

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2011
Trefwoorden fear of crime, fear victimization paradox, rationality debate
Auteurs Stefaan Pleysier
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution focuses on ‘fear of crime’ research. Departing from the classic distinction between crime and victimization as objective threats, on the one hand, and fear of crime as a subjective and emotional interpretation of that threat, on the other hand, the research tradition is confronted with the so-called fear victimization paradox. This paradox emerges from the observation that fear of crime is greater among women and elderly people, while these groups actually are less at risk of becoming a crime victim. It has immersed the research tradition in a dominant debate on the rationality of the fear of crime, with two opposing paradigms: rationalist and symbolic.Whilst both the paradox and the different paradigms in the debate offer a view at the core of fear of crime research, and illustrate how similar empirical observations can lead to differing explanations, and policy implications for that matter, we argue that the fear victimization paradox and the rationality debate surrounding this paradox, has occupied the bulk of research on fear of crime with what is essentially a nonsensical and redundant debate.


Stefaan Pleysier
Prof. dr. S. (Stefaan) Pleysier is docent Jeugdcriminologie en Methoden van onderzoek aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de K.U.Leuven, en verbonden aan het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie (LINC) waar hij co-coördinator is van de onderzoekslijn Jeugdcriminologie. E-mail: stefaan.pleysier@law.kuleuven.be
Artikel

Regulering in een hybride veiligheidszorg

Over de bewaking van een publiek goed in een deels geprivatiseerd bestel

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2011
Trefwoorden regulation, security, privatization, public good, self-regulation
Auteurs Jan Terpstra
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This paper deals with the question of how a partly privatized security sector could be regulated. A central aim of this regulation should be the control of security as a public good. Three models of regulation are analyzed. The current practice of this regulation in the Netherlands shows a serious lack of effectiveness. One of our main conclusions is that neither the state nor the private sector is able to enforce this regulation on their own. However, it is assumed that the state should have a central and integrated regulatory role in this field, with more attention paid to the practical implementation of it, with the power and will to sanction private agencies if necessary. In addition managers of private security companies should adopt a role as public managers with a public moral duty. Regulation of security is faced with a double problematic, not only the horizontal fragmentation of the field, but also the vertical fragmentation, often resulting in a serious gap between managers and those in the field, both in the public and the private sector. This implies that the regulation should not only rest on the state and on self-regulation by the sector at management level, but also on the promotion of a practical ethic for security workers to steer and regulate their daily work.


Jan Terpstra
Prof. dr. ir. J.B. (Jan) Terpstra is werkzaam bij het Criminologisch Instituut, Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Radboud Universiteit, Nijmegen. E-mail: j.terpstra@jur.ru.nl
Discussie

Facing Up to the ICC’s Crisis of Legitimacy

A Critique of The Reckoning and Its Representation of International Criminal Justice

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2011
Auteurs Jeff Handmaker
Auteursinformatie

Jeff Handmaker
Jeff Handmaker is senior lecturer in law, human rights and development at the International Institute of Social Studies (ISS) of Erasmus University Rotterdam and honorary research fellow at the School of Law of the University of the Witwatersrand.
Artikel

Citizenship in Transnational Social Spaces

New Ways to Study Socio-legal Boundaries

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2011
Auteurs Thomas Faist
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In order to establish and evaluate the significance of changing socio-legal boundaries and how these are mirrored in citizenship, cross-border formations of the social and citizenship rules must be discussed. The first part of this paper deals with changes in social boundaries across state borders and presents three generations of transnational studies. Based on this, the second part asks how legal boundaries have changed in the case of dual citizenship and supranational social citizenship. Citizenship is a particularly important issue because it sits at the intersection of social and legal boundaries. There is a growing tolerance toward dual citizenship and the evolution of supranational citizenship, one in which migrants enjoy a transnational life that is supported by the implementation of human rights principles in national constitutions, legislation and in European Union court rulings.


Thomas Faist
Thomas Faist is professor in the Department of Sociology, Bielefeld University. His fields of interest are transnational relations, citizenship, development and migration. He held visiting professorships at Brandeis University, Malmö University and the University of Toronto. Thomas Faist serves on the editorial board of The Sociological Quarterly, Ethnic and Racial Studies, Migration Letters, and South Asian Diaspora. He recently co-edited Migration, Development and Transnationalisation: A Critical Stance (Berghahn 2010), Diaspora and Transnationalism: Concepts, Theories and Methods (Amsterdam University Press 2010) and The Migration Development Nexus: Transnational Perspectives (Palgrave Macmillan 2011).
Artikel

Transnational Supermarket Standards in Global Supply Chains

The Emergence and Evolution of GlobalGAP

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2011
Auteurs Jaap Van der Kloet
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In recent years, West European supermarkets have been playing an active role in the global regulation of food safety. They have developed several transnational food safety standards and compelled suppliers of food products around the world to acquire certification under these standards. Why and how did supermarkets do this? This article explores the emergence and evolution of transnational supermarket standards by analyzing the development of GlobalGAP, one of the most commonly implemented supermarket standards on farms throughout the world. In the literature, the emergence of transnational regulation is often attributed to one or two factors that play an important role at a particular moment in time. The main argument made in this article is that the emergence of transnational supermarket standards is best understood when it is studied as a process. The development of GlobalGAP includes four main characteristics which may be helpful in analyzing the emergence of other transnational private standards.


Jaap Van der Kloet
Jaap Van der Kloet is a PhD candidate at the Institute for Sociology of Law of the Radboud University Nijmegen, the Netherlands. His PhD research focuses on comparing the social working of transnational private food safety standards between local farmers in the Netherlands and Kenya. He has a Master’s degree in International Development Studies. He worked as junior researcher at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and as project leader at the Dutch NGO Fairfood.
Artikel

Slachtofferbewegingen en herstelrecht

Over het belang van de realiteit achter de stereotypes

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 4 2011
Trefwoorden victimology, victim movements, social movements, restorative justice
Auteurs Antony Pemberton
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The position of victims of crime has shown marked improvement over the past 30 years. The rise of the victim has been associated with the growth of a unified ‘victim movement’; a social movement that strives to improve the position of victims of crime. However, it is questionable whether the victim movement should be viewed as a unitary phenomenon. Instead of one movement, there appear to be a number of victim movements. There are differences between the victim advocates in the United States, Victim Support in Europe, the violence against women movement and proponents of restorative justice.. In this article, reasons for these differences are sought in victim-endogenous factors: differences in victims’ characteristics and the idealtypes employed by the different movements are an important explanation for the divergent development in organisations representing victims interests, which in turn influences their policy preferences. It is argued that advocates of restorative justice would benefit from understanding both the reality and the distortion involved in the idealtypes, including their own. This would allow proponents of restorative justice to adapt their practices in a manner that is both suitable and convincing to the representative and target group of the different victim movements.


Antony Pemberton
Dr. Antony Pemberton is sociaalwetenschapper en universitair hoofddocent bij het International Victimology Institute Tilburg (INTERVICT) van de Universiteit van Tilburg.
Artikel

Access_open Islam en gedrag: naar een serieuze onderzoeksagenda voor een serieus vraagstuk?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 3 2011
Trefwoorden Islam, female circumcision, terrorism, academic research
Auteurs Marnix Croes
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    If one listens to what the authorities say about matters such as female circumcision and terrorism, Islam has nothing to do with it. These authorities are supported in this opinion by the work of many scientists. A cross section of the Dutch scientific literature on female circumcision and terrorism is discussed here. The upshot is that, regarding female circumcision, the literature is plagued with factual inaccuracies while the question of Islamic terrorism is dealt with in a one-sided and over-simplified way. The article concludes with an alternative research agenda that would help fill the gaps in our knowledge about the role of Islam in the behaviour of Islamic terrorists.


Marnix Croes
Dr. M.T. Croes werkt als onderzoeker bij het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum van het Minsterie van Veiligheid en Justitie.
Discussie

Access_open Horizontal Effect Revisited

A Reply to Four Comments

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 3 2011
Auteurs Gunther Teubner
Samenvatting

    In this concluding article, Gunther Teubner addresses his critics.


Gunther Teubner
Discussie

Access_open Hybrid Constitutionalism, Fundamental Rights and the State

A Response to Gunther Teubner

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 3 2011
Trefwoorden societal constitutionalism, Gunther Teubner, system theory, fundamental rights
Auteurs Gert Verschraegen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution explores how much state is necessary to make societal constitutionalism work. I first ask why the idea of a global societal constitutionalism ‘beyond the state-and-politics’ might be viewed as a significant and controversial, but nonetheless justified innovation. In the second part I discuss what Teubner calls ‘the inclusionary effects of fundamental rights’. I argue that Teubner underplays the mediating role of the state in guaranteeing inclusion or access, and in a way presupposes well-functioning states in the background. In areas of limited statehood there is a problem of enforcing fundamental rights law. It is an open question whether, and under which conditions, constitutional norms within particular global social spheres can provide enough counter-weight when state constitutional norms are lacking.


Gert Verschraegen
Gert Verschraegen is Assistant Professor of Theoretical Sociology at the University of Antwerp, Belgium.
Discussie

Access_open Human Rights, and the Destructive Communications and Actions of Differentiated Society

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 3 2011
Trefwoorden communication, one-sided rationality, human rights, bare body and mind, inclusion, action, exclusion
Auteurs Wil Martens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution raises two questions with regard to Teubner’s view on human rights. First and foremost, it asks how one might conceive of modern society as a threat to human beings. Attention is brought to bear on Teubner’s attempt to describe society as a matter of communication, and more specifically as a set of one-sided communication systems. In this regard, I scrutinise the attempt to describe the threat of society in terms of inclusion/exclusion and criticise the vacuity of the concept of inclusion. Secondly, it questions Teubner’s description of human beings that demand justice and protection by human rights. Are their demands about the bare existence of body and mind? Moreover, are these concerns identical to worries about the destruction of human presuppositions for the self-reproduction of functional social systems, as Teubner suggests? Against Teubner, I contend that human rights are actually about social human beings that ask for justice as acting beings, which claim does not coincide with presuppositions of societal subsystems.


Wil Martens
Wil Martens is Assistant Professor of Organisational Development and Senior Researcher at the Nijmegen School of Management at the Radboud University Nijmegen, the Netherlands.
Discussie

Access_open The Destruction and Reconstruction of the Tower of Babel

A Comment to Gunther Teubner’s Plea for a ‘Common Law Constitution’

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 3 2011
Trefwoorden global society, constitutionalism, social systems theory, Teubner, law and order
Auteurs Bart van Klink
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article presents some critical comments concerning the conceptual, normative and institutional foundations of Teubner’s plea for a ‘common law constitution’. My comments question the desirability of the means chosen for attaining this objective as well as their efficacy. In particular, I have difficulties with the ambivalent role that is assigned to man, either as a person or as a human being; with the reduction of social problems to problems of communication; and, finally and most importantly, with the attempt to conceive of law and politics beyond established legal and political institutions, which in my view is doomed to fail. The conclusion offers some tentative suggestions for an alternative approach.


Bart van Klink
Bart van Klink is Professor of Legal Methodology at the Faculty of Law of the VU University Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
Artikel

Symmetrie in homicide

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 0 2011
Trefwoorden social rank, honour, conflict, close social bonds, small communities
Auteurs Anton Blok
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    An analysis of about 2,200 cases of homicides in the Netherlands committed between 1992 and 2006 shows that lethal violence typically results from conflict in symmetric relations in which social rank is ambiguous. The settings of homicides are mostly well-integrated, small communities, including families, rural villages in tribal and agrarian societies, modern urban neighbourhoods, gettos, criminal organisations, and ethnic enclaves. The mechanism that drives antagonism between people in such places is their attachment, close-knit structure, and common features. Earlier, Simmel developed this insight in lethal conflict when saying ‘the more we have in common with another as whole persons, the more easily will our totality be involved in every single relationship to that person, hence the disproportionate violence to which normally well-controlled people can be moved within their relations to those closest to them.’ Contemporary sociologists, ethnographers, and historians amply corroborated this view of lethal violence. In his comparative work Gould shows a compelling connection between ambiguity of social rank and lethal conflict. Knauft investigated the high homicide rates in a New Guinea community and found that lethal violence resulting from sorcery attributions is not the anti-thesis of the ideal of ‘good company’ but its ultimate culmination.


Anton Blok
Prof. dr. Anton Blok is emeritus hoogleraar Culturele antropologie aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam. E-mail: anton.blok@xs4all.nl.
Artikel

Rondzwerven, stedelijke ruimte en transgressie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 0 2011
Trefwoorden drift, transgression, precarity, urban control
Auteurs Jeff Ferrell
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article describes and judges the complex and often contradictory dynamic by which boundaries are constructed and transgressed. This dynamic reveals much about power, meaning, and the political economy of crime and control. The author describes the project undertaken by Critical Mass riders and precarity activists. These projects explore the possibilities of drift as collective experience and collective transgression. The pervasiveness of drift in contemporary society, paired with the subversive cultures of drift emerging around new social movements and alternative spatial practices, point toward a new kind of global collectivity.


Jeff Ferrell
Prof. dr. Jeff Ferrell is hoogleraar Sociologie aan de Texas Christian University en gasthoogleraar Criminologie aan de University of Kent. E-mail: j.ferrell@tcu.edu.
Artikel

Etnografie en criminologie in het tropisch regenwoud

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 0 2011
Trefwoorden green criminology, ethnography, rainforests, illegal logging
Auteurs Tim Boekhout van Solinge
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article discusses tropical deforestation from a cultural criminological perspective, by using qualitative methods such as ethnography and interviews, and by emphasizing the difficulties, dangers and dilemmas of ethnographic research. Case studies include timber smuggling from Indonesia to Malaysia and deforestation for bauxite, soy and timber in Brazil’s Amazon. Also described are meetings with (Dutch) timber traders, policy makers and law enforcers. Tropical deforestation is responsible for a great deal of harm, crime and violence, mainly committed by ranchers and loggers. Victims are humans (including humanity’s oldest societies), future generations (considering the impact on greenhouse gas emissions and climate change) and non-humans (with risks of extinctions).


Tim Boekhout van Solinge
Dr. Tim Boekhout van Solinge is sociaal-geograaf en universitair docent Criminologie aan het Willem Pompe Instituut voor Strafrechtwetenschappen, Universiteit Utrecht. E-mail: t.boekhoutvansolinge@uu.nl.
Artikel

Alles stroomt...?

Over ‘cultuur’ in de culturele criminologie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 0 2011
Trefwoorden cultural criminology, essentialism, constructivism, structure-agency debate, globalization
Auteurs Brenda Carina Oude Breuil
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Cultural criminology has been criticized for not taking enough notice of classical anthropological debates on the concept of ‘culture’. This article responds to that. It analyses anthropological conceptualization from an initial essentialist to a social constructivist approach of ‘culture’. The constructivist approach can prevent cultural criminologists from focusing too much on ‘exotic subcultures’ and neglecting broader socio-cultural developments. The article treats the structure-agency debate and its relevance to cultural criminology. In conclusion, cultural criminology from a dynamic constructivist concept of culture is best equipped for studying crime and reactions to crime in the current era of globalization.


Brenda Carina Oude Breuil
Dr. Brenda Carina Oude Breuil is universitair docent/onderzoeker bij het Willem Pompe Instituut voor Strafrechtswetenschappen, Universiteit Utrecht. E-mail: b.oudebreuil@uu.nl.
Artikel

Access_open Approaching Law through Conflicts

Tijdschrift Law and Method, 2011
Trefwoorden Latour, modernity of law, legal procedure, proof, qualification of facts
Auteurs Niels van Dijk
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article the author presents Latour’s negative analysis of modernity and his positive ethnographical studies of the modes of existence of our modern world. I will discuss the merits and disadvantages of his specific approach on law – an institutional ethnography of the French Conseil d’Etat – within this framework. The analysis will be supplemented with the results of a conflict-based approach to a case study in patent law at a law firm.


Niels van Dijk
Niels van Dijk LL.M. is onderzoeker bij het Center for Law, Science, Technology & Society (LSTS) van de Vrije Universiteit Brussel.
Artikel

Actief burgerschap binnen herstelrecht

Een inventarisatie van participatievormen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 3 2011
Trefwoorden Citizenship, Participation, Mediators, Activism
Auteurs Brunilda Pali
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Seemingly a difficult concept, participation in restorative justice can be understood better once the notion is broadened and operationalized. Therefore a proposal will be made here to first broaden the meaning of participation beyond participation of stakeholders and ‘community’ in the process as it is generally understood in restorative justice literature, and second break down the concept of participation into five different levels: (1) involvement of the stakeholders and the ‘community’ in the restorative process; (2) participation of citizens as volunteer mediators/facilitators in the process; (3) self-referrals from citizens; (4) voluntary participation of experts in restorative justice organisations; (5) promotion from ex-victims of crime and ex-offenders. Based on this approach, in the end, the author opens up the discussion on the meaning of active citizenship for restorative justice in continental Europe. Before discussing how the broadening of the concept of participation is concretely envisioned, the author argues on the importance of prioritizing the notion of citizenship instead of ‘community’ in the continental European restorative justice discourse.


Brunilda Pali
Brunilda Pali verricht promotieonderzoek aan het Instituut voor Criminologie van de Katholieke Universiteit van Leuven.
Artikel

Comparative reflections on change of circumstances

Tijdschrift Contracteren, Aflevering 3 2011
Trefwoorden Change of circumstances, Imprévision, Hardship
Auteurs Dr. R.A. Momberg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The aim of this paper is to provide some general considerations from a comparative perspective with regard to the subject of change of circumstances, which can be useful or interesting for the Dutch reader. The article summarizes the conclusions reached on the research conducted by the author to obtain his PhD degree at the Molengraaff Institute of Private Law of the Utrecht University.


Dr. R.A. Momberg
Dr. R.A. Momberg is assistant professor at the Faculty of Law of the Austral University of Chile and Honorary lecturer at the Molengraaff Institute of Private Law of the Utrecht University.
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