Zoekresultaat: 46 artikelen

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Jaar 2012 x
Artikel

Twitter tijdens flitscrises

Een onderbenut potentieel?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2012
Trefwoorden Twitter, flash crises, crisis communication, Moerdijk, social media
Auteurs Jelle Groenendaal, Martine de Bas en Ira Helsloot
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    By pointing to the immense use of Twitter by citizens during crises, communication experts argue that governments should participate more actively on Twitter during crises. Until now, however, little empirical research has been conducted to validate this claim. This article aims at validating this claim and putting forward building blocks for an evidence-based vision on the use of Twitter by governments during flash crises, i.e. large-scale incidents that occur unexpectedly and immediately. The authors analysed 52.806 tweets sent by citizens and governments during a large-scale industrial fire in Moerdijk (2011). They looked at the content of the tweets and sorted them into fourteen categories. The results show that most of the tweets sent by citizens contained no new or relevant information for governments. In addition, the tweets sent by governments were totally ‘snowed under’ in the huge stream of tweets from citizens. Consequently, the tweets sent by governments were very little re-tweeted by Twitter users. The authors conclude that the Moerdijk case does not show a need for a more proactive role of governments on Twitter.


Jelle Groenendaal
Jelle Groenendaal MSc is onderzoeker bij Crisislab en promovendus aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen. E-mail: j.groenendaal@crisislab.nl

Martine de Bas
Martine de Bas MSc is adviseur crisisbeheersing en veiligheid bij de gemeente Papendrecht. E-mail: EM.de.bas@papendrecht.nl

Ira Helsloot
Prof. dr. Ira Helsloot is hoogleraar Besturen van Veiligheid aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen en voorzitter van stichting Crisislab. E-mail: i.helsloot@crisislab.nl

Tobias Arnoldussen
Tobias Arnoldussen is writing his PhD at the Erasmus School of Law at the University of Rotterdam. He concerns himself with the regulation of air pollution and other environmental problems from a social constructivist and discourse analytic perspective.
Boekbespreking

Ensuring Corporate Misconduct

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 2 2012
Auteurs Tetty Havinga

Tetty Havinga

Peter Mascini
Artikel

Medical liability: do doctors care?

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 2 2012
Auteurs Ben C.J. van Velthoven en Peter W. van Wijck
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Van Velthoven and Van Wijck review empirical studies on the effects of tort law in the medical sector. The data they present comes mainly from the US, because from the 1970’s US states have enacted a variety of reforms in their tort systems. This variation has provided very useful data to study preventive effects. The empirical evidence analysed shows that medical malpractice risk affects the behaviour of health care providers. It has a negative impact on the supply of services and it encourages extra diagnostic testing;yet if the additional tests and procedures have any value, it is only a marginal one. Furthermore it has been found that changes in the supply of services do not affect health adversely. This suggests that the physicians who are driven out of business have a below average quality of performance. The authors conclude that, at the margin, medical liability law may have some social benefits after all.


Ben C.J. van Velthoven
Ben van Velthoven is associate professor of law and economics at Leiden University. His research interests are: liability issues, civil litigation, and criminal law enforcement.

Peter W. van Wijck
Peter van Wijck is associate professor of law and economics at Leiden University and coordinator strategy development at the Dutch Ministry of Security and Justice. His research interests concern tort law, contract law, civil litigation, and crime.
Artikel

Non-pecuniary damages: financial incentive or symbol?

Comparing an economic and a sociological account of tort law

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 2 2012
Auteurs Rob Schwitters
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Schwitters focuses on the differences between economic and a sociological perspectives on non-pecuniary damages. By exposing the alternative perspectives on this issue, he illuminates some methodological differences between both disciplines. Although law and economics has had a positive influence on empirical research, he questions the merits of this perspective when analysing non-pecuniary damages. Law and economics regards non-pecuniary damages exclusively as a financial incentive to realise optimal deterrence and maximisation of welfare. Alternatively, in sociology of law there is also attention for the symbolic dimension of law in which rules are seen as normative standards of behaviour. Compensation is a way to bring the wrongdoer to recognise that he has done wrong and has to compensate the victim, and to show the victim that his rights are taken seriously. Through a sociological lens, the adoption of an exclusively economic model of human behaviour has to be questioned. To what extent human behaviour is really influenced by either financial incentives or by normative standards of behaviour is an open empirical question. Finally, he argues that the decision to base our institutions (such as law) on economic underpinnings is a decision which itself cannot be based on an economic procedure of aggregating individual preferences and maximising welfare.


Rob Schwitters
Rob Schwitters is associate professor (sociology of law) and member of the Paul Scholten Centre (University of Amsterdam). He publishes on tort law, responsibility and liability, the welfare state, compliance and methodological issues.
Artikel

Cultuur en werkstijlen van private beveiligers: een vergelijking met politiecultuur

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2012
Trefwoorden private security, police culture, private security culture, stress-coping model of police culture
Auteurs Jan Terpstra
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    To what extent do private security workers have a culture that is comparable to the police culture? To what extent can such a private security culture be explained by the use of the so-mentioned stress-coping model of police culture? This comparative survey of a sample of private security workers and a sample of police officers shows that contrary to popular assumptions of increasing similarities between police and private security cultures, in reality there are important differences. Private security workers have a much stronger focus on service tasks than police officers and are less oriented to crime fighting. The stress factors that contribute to a stronger police culture, can also contribute to a similar culture in private security. However, because these stress factors are much less prominent in private security, it may be assumed that such a police-like culture is almost absent among private security workers.


Jan Terpstra
Jan Terpstra is hoogleraar criminologie aan de Radboud Universiteit te Nijmegen.
Artikel

Access_open Relational Jurisprudence

Vulnerability between Fact and Value

Tijdschrift Law and Method, 2012
Trefwoorden fact/value separation, vulnerability, relational jurisprudence, empirical methodology, normative methodology
Auteurs Maksymilian Del Mar
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Relational jurisprudence is an approach to law that situates it in five relational contexts: (1) relations between individuals; (2) relations between individuals and communities; (3) relations between communities; (4) relations between individuals or communities on the one hand, and institutions on the other; and (5) relations between institutions. Thus, part of what makes relational jurisprudence distinctive is its object: the study of law in the context of certain relations, including investigating what factors affect and influence the quality of those relations. Relational jurisprudence is also distinctive, however, in its method. One of its methodological commitments is to avoid the dichotomy, without losing the benefits of a distinction, between facts and values. In trying to avoid this dichotomy, the approach identifies and uses devices that have both factual and evaluative dimensions, called here ‘factual-evaluative complexes’. These devices are then used to investigate the quality of different relations. One such device is ‘vulnerability’. The argument of this paper is that at least some of law can be profitably understood as managing vulnerability, i.e. recognising some vulnerabilities as worthy of protection and others not, or balancing the protection of different vulnerabilities in different relational contexts. Avoiding the dichotomy while retaining the usefulness of the distinction between facts and values in the above-outlined way means that we ought to employ a mix of empirical and normative methodology in the study of law.


Maksymilian Del Mar
Maksymilian Del Mar is lecturer in Legal and Social Philosophy, Department of Law, Queen Mary University of London.
Artikel

Access_open Exciting Times for Legal Scholarship

Tijdschrift Law and Method, 2012
Trefwoorden legal methodology, law as an academic discipline, ‘law and …’-movements, legal theory, innovative and multiform legal scholarship
Auteurs Jan Vranken
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Until recently, legal-dogmatic research stood at the undisputed pinnacle of legal scientific research. The last few years saw increasing criticism, both nationally and internationally, levelled at this type of research or at its dominant role. Some see this as a crisis in legal scholarship, but a closer look reveals a great need for facts, common sense, and nuance. Critics usually base their calls for innovation on a one-dimensional and flawed image of legal-dogmatic research. In this article, the author subsequently addresses the various critical opinions themselves and provide an overview of the innovations that are proposed. He concludes that there are a lot of efforts to innovate legal scholarship, and that the field is more multiform than ever, which is a wonderful and unprecedented state of affairs. This multiformity should be cherished and given plenty of room to develop and grow, because most innovative movements are still fledgling and need time, sometimes a lot of time, to increase in quality. It would be a shame to nip them in the bud now, merely because they are still finding their way. In turn, none of these innovative movements have cause to disqualify legal-dogmatic research, as sometimes happens (implicitly), by first creating a straw-man version of the field and then dismissing it as uninteresting or worse. That only polarises the discussion and gains us nothing. Progress can only be achieved through cooperation, with an open mind towards different types of legal research and a willingness to accept a critical approach towards their development. In the end, the only criterion that matters is quality. All types of research are principally subject to the same quality standards. The author provides some clarification regarding these standards as well.


Jan Vranken
Jan Vranken is hoogleraar Methodologie van het privaatrecht aan de Universiteit van Tilburg.
Artikel

Collective efficacy, sociaal kapitaal en ‘fear of crime’

Een evaluatie van contextuele effecten op drie aspecten van onveiligheidsbeleving

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2012
Trefwoorden collective efficacy, social capital, disorder, fear of crime, multi-level
Auteurs Dr. Wim Hardyns en Prof. dr. Lieven Pauwels
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The present study investigates the existence of independent effects of community level social processes on fear of crime. Attention is paid to social trust and informal control, two dimensions of Sampson’s famous concept of collective efficacy. The model is tested on three well-known dimensions of fear of crime: perceived risk of victimisation, emotional fear and avoidance behaviour. The results suggest an independent effect of neighbourhood social trust on all three dimensions, when control is hold for demographic background variables and individual levels of social capital. The effect of neighbourhood social trust is mediated by neighbourhood disorder.


Dr. Wim Hardyns
Dr. W. Hardyns is als postdoctoraal onderzoeker verbonden aan de Onderzoeksgroep Sociale Veiligheidsanalyse (SVA) binnen de vakgroep Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Gent en aan de vakgroep Huisartsgeneeskunde en Eerstelijnsgezondheidszorg van de Universiteit Gent.

Prof. dr. Lieven Pauwels
Prof. dr. L.J.R. Pauwels is directeur van de Onderzoeksgroep Sociale Veiligheidsanalyse (SVA) binnen de vakgroep Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Gent.
Discussie

Access_open ‘We Are Also Here.’ Whose Revolution Will Democracy Be?

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 3 2012
Trefwoorden democracy, public sphere, civil society, Arab Spring, feminism
Auteurs Judith Vega
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Steven Winter’s argument is premised on a sharp contrast of individualist and social revolutions. I elaborate my doubts about his argument on three accounts, involving feminist perspectives at various points. First, I take issue with Winter’s portrayal of liberal theory, redirecting the focus of his concern to economic libertarianism rather than liberalism, and arguing a more hospitable attitude to the Kantian pith in the theory of democracy. Secondly, I discuss his conceptualization of democracy, adding the conceptual distinction of civil society and public sphere. Thirdly, I question his normative notion of socially situated selves as having an intrinsic relation to social freedom. I moreover consult cultural history on the gendered symbolics of market and democracy to further problematize Winter’s take on either’s meaning for social freedom.


Judith Vega
Judith Vega is Lecturer in Social and Political Philosophy at the University of Groningen, the Netherlands.
Discussie

Access_open ‘Nothing Spells Freedom Like a Hooters Meal’

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 3 2012
Trefwoorden Enlightenment universalism, self-governance, freedom, moral point of view, political participation
Auteurs Ronald Tinnevelt
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Winter’s criticism of the conventional account of freedom and democracy is best understood against the background of the history of Enlightenment critique. Winter claims that our current misunderstanding of freedom and self-governance is the result of the strict dichotomy between subject and object. This paper critically reconstructs Winter’s notion of freedom and self-governance which does not adequately address (a) the details of his anti-collectivist claim, and (b) the necessary conditions for the possibility of a moral point of view. This makes it difficult to determine how Winter can distinguish between freedom and lack of freedom, and to assess the limited or radical nature of his critique of Enlightenment universalism.


Ronald Tinnevelt
Ronald Tinnevelt is Associate Professor Philosophy of Law at Radboud University, Nijmegen.
Artikel

Access_open ‘Down Freedom’s Main Line’

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 3 2012
Trefwoorden democracy, radical freedom, free market economy, consumerism, collective action
Auteurs Steven L. Winter
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Two waves of democratization define the post-Cold War era of globalization. The first one saw democracies emerge in post-communist countries and post-Apartheid South Africa. The current wave began with the uprisings in the Middle East. The first focused on the formal institutions of the market and the liberal state, the second is participatory and rooted in collective action. The individualistic conception of freedom and democracy that underlies the first wave is false and fetishistic. The second wave shows democracy’s moral appeal is the commitment to equal participation in determining the terms and conditions of social life. Freedom, thus, requires collective action under conditions of equality, mutual recognition, and respect.


Steven L. Winter
Steven L. Winter is Walter S. Gibbs Professor of Constitutional Law at Wayne State University Law School, Detroit, Michigan.
Discussie

Access_open Political Freedom after Economic Freefall and Democratic Revolt

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 3 2012
Trefwoorden globalisation, civic tradition, Enlightenment, free-market economy, autonomy
Auteurs Tinneke Beeckman
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Can globalisation lead to more democracy? And if so, what concept of freedom lies at the basis of this development? The ideal of liberal freedom, supposedly exercised by the autonomous, rational individual is no longer tenable. Finding a new way of interpreting self-rule beyond self-interested choice has become a crucial aspect of regenerating democratic spirit. This paper formulates three comments on Winter’s paper. The first comment concerns the resemblance between the attitudes of consumers and voters. A second comment reflects on the positive heritage of the Enlightenment. A third comment focuses on the recent Tahrir Square protests and reflects on the republican civic tradition.


Tinneke Beeckman
Tinneke Beeckman is postdoctoral researcher at the Fund for Scientific Research, Flanders, University of Brussels.

    In this reply, Steven L. Winter adresses his critics.


Steven L. Winter
Artikel

‘Hij schreef dat hij contact op zou nemen zodra hij de tegenpartij had gesproken’: letselschadeslachtoffers over hun belangenbehartiger

Empirisch onderzoek brengt vijf belangrijke factoren voor waardering belangenbehartiger aan het licht

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Vergoeding Personenschade, Aflevering 3 2012
Trefwoorden afwikkelingsproces, beleving van slachtoffer, kwaliteit belangenbehartiger, communicatie, procedurele rechtvaardigheid, empowerment, professionalisering, digitaal behandelplan
Auteurs Drs. N.A. Elbers, Mr. K.A.P.C. van Wees en Prof. mr. A.J. Akkermans
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Deze bijdrage doet verslag van een kwalitatief empirisch onderzoek onder letselschadeslachtoffers naar hun ervaringen met hun belangenbehartiger. Er werden 21 slachtoffers geïnterviewd, zowel tevreden als ontevreden met hun belangenbehartiger en zowel met licht als met zwaarder letsel. Uit de interviews komen vijf factoren naar voren die belangrijk blijken te zijn voor de waardering van slachtoffers voor hun belangenbehartiger: communicatie, empathie, daadkracht, onafhankelijkheid en deskundigheid. Deze factoren worden geïllustreerd met citaten uit de interviews, toegelicht en besproken. Zij lijken solide aanknopingspunten te kunnen bieden voor het kwaliteitsbeleid van belangenbehartigers en hun organisatie. Afgerond wordt met een oproep tot professionalisering van de interactie met de cliënt en het benutten van veelbelovende mogelijkheden die het internet biedt voor empowerment.


Drs. N.A. Elbers
Mevrouw drs. N.A. Elbers is psycholoog en onderzoeker aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en verbonden aan het Interfacultair samenwerkingsverband Gezondheid en Recht (IGER) van VU en VU medisch centrum.

Mr. K.A.P.C. van Wees
Mr. K.A.P.C. van Wees is universitair docent privaatrecht aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en verbonden aan het Interfacultair samenwerkingsverband Gezondheid en Recht (IGER) van VU en VU medisch centrum.

Prof. mr. A.J. Akkermans
Prof. mr. A.J. Akkermans is hoogleraar privaatrecht aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en verbonden aan het Interfacultair samenwerkingsverband Gezondheid en Recht (IGER) van VU en VU medisch centrum.
Artikel

Reclassering op een kruispunt(?)

Rol en positie van de reclassering bij Forensisch Psychiatrisch Toezicht

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 5 2012
Trefwoorden Forensic Psychiatry, Probation service, General Mental Health, Forensic Psychiatric Supervision
Auteurs Dr. Jaap van Vliet
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The probation service has a legally firmly embedded mandate to guide the Tbs-patients (Forensic Psychiatric Patients, subject of a hospital order) during his return to society and to supervise this return. Also because of incidents with Tbs-patients who returned to society, a new way of guidance and supervision was recently developed, in which the treating clinic, the GGz (general mental health care institutions) and the probation service cooperated and enhanced each other’s expertise, more than had been customary in the past. The aim was to reduce the risk of re-offending as far as possible. The first part of this article deals about Forensic Psychiatric Supervision and the problems regarding the links between the judiciary circuit and the GGz. The second part outline the role of the probation service and is concerned with the importance ánd the danger of risk assessment and risk control. Some conclusions are drawn.


Dr. Jaap van Vliet
Dr. Jaap A. van Vliet is beleidsadviseur bij Leger des Heils Jeugdzorg & Reclassering, onderzoeker bij het lectoraat ‘Werken in justitieel kader’ van de Hogeschool Utrecht en redactielid van PROCES.
Artikel

Tegen dovemansoren?

Tijdschrift RegelMaat, Aflevering 5 2012
Trefwoorden strafrechtswetenschap, antiterrorismewetgeving, crime complex, social media
Auteurs Mr. dr. M.A.H. van der Woude
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In deze bijdrage gaat de auteur, mede aan de hand van de casus van de antiterrorismewetgeving, nader in op de vraag wat de betekenis is van de strafrechtswetenschap bij de totstandkoming van nieuwe wet- en regelgeving op het terrein van orde en veiligheid. Haar standpunt is dat de rol van de strafrechtswetenschap binnen het wetgevingsproces tegenwoordig te beperkt is en geoptimaliseerd zou kunnen worden. Hierbij worden de strafrechtswetenschapper en de strafwetgever niet alleen in de schijnwerpers gezet, maar wordt ook de belangrijke en onlosmakelijke band tussen beiden benadrukt.


Mr. dr. M.A.H. van der Woude
Mr. dr. M.A.H. van der Woude is werkzaam als universitair docent bij het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie, Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Kunst en/of criminaliteit

De ene graffiti is de andere niet

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3 2012
Trefwoorden graffiti, perceptie, overlast, visuele methoden, verwijderingsbeleid
Auteurs Gabry Vanderveen en Funda Jelsma
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Graffiti has been linked in empirical studies to disorder, fear of crime, avoidance behavior, vandalism and delinquency. In most of those studies, graffiti is treated as an abstract and uniform concept: no distinctions are made between one graffiti or another. Policies based on this assumption hold a zero tolerance approach, meaning all graffiti is deemed undesirable and is or should be removed. This has been criticized by several (theoretical) studies. On the other hand however, ethnographic studies present graffiti as a multifaceted phenomenon, serving as a means of communication, resistance and protest or as an art form. The current study investigates the assumption that graffiti is perceived as a homogeneous and undesirable environmental feature. This article examines whether graffiti is actually perceived uniformly by Dutch citizens, and if not how people distinguish between different graffiti; which types of graffiti are perceived as disorder and whether different types of people exist based on their attitudes towards graffiti. An extensive questionnaire was designed, based on a thorough analysis of the literature and empirical pilot studies. A nationally representative sample responded to general questions with respect to graffiti and judged eighteen specific examples of graffiti on a reliable scale that measured perceived disorder. Results indicate that people vary enormously in their ideas and attitudes. Also, not every graffiti is the same, meaning graffiti is not a homogeneous, uniform phenomenon. Both type of graffiti and the location on which the graffiti is situated relate to the degree of perceived disorder. For example, tags, small scribbles, were considered a public nuisance more than pieces, large colorful images. Also, graffiti on a house or car is perceived much more as disorder than graffiti in a skatepark. The diversity in views necessitates a normative


Gabry Vanderveen
Dr. G.N.G. (Gabry) Vanderveen is universitair docent criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden, Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie. Postbus 9520, 2300 RA Leiden. E-mail: g.n.g.vanderveen@law.leidenuniv.nl

Funda Jelsma
Funda Jelsma MSc is als docent-onderzoeker verbonden aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
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