Zoekresultaat: 52 artikelen

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Jaar 2010 x

    There is a tendency to put honour-based and domestic violence in the same box. This article examines whether this is correct or not. The perception of the two phenomena share a number of similarities: violence that often occurs in the context of the family and, in many cases, complex issues that have already been at play for some time. Furthermore, the perception is that primarily women are the victims of both domestic and honour-based violence. A big difference is that the term domestic violence refers to the social context where violence is taking place and the term honour-based refers to the motive for violent action or threats. A complicating factor is that hurt feelings of honour might provoke violence or threats in the context of the family. In research literature it is assumed that domestic violence occurs at all levels of society, which means that this phenomenon will also be encountered amongst ethnic minorities. It is striking that domestic violence amongst ethnic minorities is often mentioned in the same breath as honour-based violence. However, both phenomena deserve a different approach. The risks of treating domestic violence as an honour case and honour-based violence as domestic abuse are described.


J. Janssen
Dr. Janine Janssen is als hoofd onderzoek verbonden aan het Landelijk Expertise Centrum Eergerelateerd Geweld (LEC EGG), dat is ondergebracht bij Politie Haaglanden.
Artikel

Omstreden gelijkheid

Over de constructie van (on)gelijkheid van vrouwen en mannen in partnergeweld

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 8 2010
Auteurs R. Römkens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) changed from a private problem to a public concern over the last decades. It has become subject of various discourses in different domains. In the social sciences the gender-based discriminatory nature of IPV is contested by some researchers who claim a gender equality in IPV. They call for a gender-neutral approach to IPV as a family problem, de-contextualized from gender-based inequalities. In the Netherlands this degendering is reflected in current policy discourse. However, in the international legal human rights domain, IPV is unequivocally considered to be an issue that affects women disproportionately as a form of women's discrimination that is the result of unequal power relations. Both international binding human rights law and recent ruling of the ECHR impose binding duties to acknowledge this. This article addresses the paradox that is reflected in these two positions and how to get beyond it.


R. Römkens
Prof. dr. Renée Römkens is als hoogleraar Huiselijk geweld verbonden aan het International Victimology Institute (Intervict) van de Universiteit van Tilburg.

    There are two conflicting viewpoints about partner violence: either that it involves a considerable degree of mutual combat or that it generally involves male perpetrators and female victims. In general, results supporting the former viewpoint are usually reported in studies of general population samples, while data that supports the latter viewpoint is usually collected in samples that were recruited in shelters, through victim support, or that was studied through police and court data. This article describes results from a Dutch study that investigated two different research groups: a sample of respondents from the general population and a group of offenders who had been in contact with the police and the law for domestic violence. In line with the literature on this topic, one of the most striking differences between the research groups from the general population and the judicial population is the fact that the former group consisted of more women than men (57.8% versus 42.2%), whereas the second group consisted nearly only of men (93.1% were men). This article explores a number of possible explanations for the strongly divergent proportion of men and women in the two research groups. The most probable explanation seems to be that, although both men and women commit domestic violence, the more serious types of injury are caused more often by men, as a result of which predominantly men come into contact with the police and the law for domestic violence. Moreover, there are some indications in the literature that male victims are less likely to report domestic violence to the police.


L.M. van der Knaap
Dr. Leontien van der Knaap is als universitair hoofddocent verbonden aan het International Victimology Institute van de Faculteit Rechtswetenschappen van de Universiteit van Tilburg.

S. Bogaerts
Prof. dr. Stefan Bogaerts is als hoogleraar Forensische Psychologie en Victimologie eveneens verbonden aan dit instituut.
Artikel

Fataal huiselijk geweld

Doding van eigen kind, partner of ouder

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 8 2010
Auteurs F. Koenraadt en M. Liem
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Homicides that take place in the family generally lead to shock and incomprehension in society at large. Even though in recent years the number of homicides in the Netherlands has decreased, domestic homicides still claim approximately sixty victims per year. This article aims to describe the nature and incidence of domestic homicide in the Netherlands by making use of both epidemiological data as well as detailed analyses of case reports of domestic homicides. In doing so, several types of domestic homicides are distinguished: intimate partner homicide, child homicide, parent and sibling homicide, multiple family homicide and finally, domestic homicide followed by suicide. The findings are discussed and put into perspective.


F. Koenraadt
Dr. Frans Koenraadt is als hoogleraar Forensische Psychiatrie en Psychologie verbonden aan de Universiteit Utrecht; hij is tevens wetenschappelijk adviseur bij het Pieter Baan Centrum (NIFP) te Utrecht en bij de Forensisch Psychiatrische Kliniek te Assen.

M. Liem
Dr. Marieke Liem is als universitair docent Criminologie verbonden aan de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Herstelrecht en de maatschappelijke (re)integratie van de dader

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 4 2010
Trefwoorden restorative justice, social work, reintegration, structural problems
Auteurs Maria Bouverne-De Bie en Rudi Roose
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Social (re-)integration is such a complex phenomenon that it is not possible to make a direct link between restorative justice and social reintegration of offenders. If one considers restorative justice, not in its utility for maintaining the law but as a praxis of social work, one could get the impression that restorative justice runs the risk of individualizing the social problem of crime by making offenders responsible and of losing sight of the structural dimensions causing or contributing to criminality. The same structural dimensions may appear to be a blockade for effective emancipation of offenders from their often marginal and powerless positions. Considered as a praxis of social work, restorative justice should be able to promote (the awareness of) accountability and the mutual exploration of the many roads that can lead to effective emancipation and reintegration.


Maria Bouverne-De Bie
Maria Bouverne-De Bie is als hoofddocent verbonden aan de vakgroep Sociale, Culturele en Vrijetijdsagogiek van de Universiteit van Gent.

Rudi Roose
Rudi Roose is als wetenschappelijk assistent verbonden aan de vakgroep Sociale, Culturele en Vrijetijdsagogiek van de Universiteit van Gent.

Anneke van Hoek
Anneke van Hoek is coördinator Restorative Justice Nederland
Artikel

De implementatie van dader-slachtofferbemiddeling in België

Zoektocht naar functionele en structurele randvoorwaarden

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 4 2010
Trefwoorden restorative justice, implementation, conditions for
Auteurs Hans Dominicus
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Victim-offender-mediation started in Belgium as early as 1993 and nowadays the Belgium landscape shows a variety of restorative practices, including conferencing with juveniles and mediation with adult offenders, on the basis of a number of legal arrangements. Progress can still be made in quantitative terms and qualitatively by harmonizing the various legal instruments that are available. The diversionary mediation that is possible at the level of the public prosecutor differs in a number of ways from the mediation that can be offered in subsequent stages of the criminal procedure. A variety of motives and reasons explain the reception and growth of restorative practices, such as the desire to offer victims a better service and to improve the delivery of justice. The willingness to experiment and to collaborate between protagonists of restorative justice and the agencies of criminal justice, and the strong scientific support from the Catholic University of Leuven, are amongst the key factors that promoted the integration and consolidation of restorative practices in the legal system.


Hans Dominicus
Hans Dominicus is attaché bij het Directoraat-generaal Justitiehuizen van de Federale Overheidsdienst Justitie in België. Hij is adviseur van minister van justitie Stefaan de Clerck.
Artikel

‘Uitgediende hetaeren, verjaagde concubines en in den steek gelatenen’

De opsluiting van vrouwelijke bedelaars eind negentiende eeuw

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2010
Trefwoorden Gender, Geschiedenis, Vrouwelijke bedelaars, Rijkswerkinrichting
Auteurs Drs. Marian Weevers en Prof. dr. mr. Catrien Bijleveld
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The backgrounds of the female vagabonds and beggars at the end of the 19th century show that contrary to their male counterparts, these females originated almost exclusively from the lower echelons of society. Their professions and those of their parents and husbands were low and ill-paid. Disease was prevalent, mortality was high and many of them had physical or psychological problems. Most of them were single and 25 percent had children out of wedlock. 20 Percent was convicted for mostly minor crimes. Because of their behaviour it is likely that they were not accepted by their family and received no support from the church or other institutions for relief of the poor. To beg and get convicted to RWI-placement may have been their only remaining survival strategy once they were old and ill.


Drs. Marian Weevers
Drs. M.H.A.C. Weevers is historica, mhac.weevers@planet.nl.

Prof. dr. mr. Catrien Bijleveld
Prof. dr. mr. C.C.J.H. Bijleveld is senior onderzoeker aan het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving en hoogleraar aan de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam, cbijleveld@nscr.nl.
Artikel

Sneeuwwitje en de machoman

Sekse en gender in de (Nederlandstalige) criminologie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2010
Trefwoorden gender, Feminisme, criminologische theorie
Auteurs Prof. dr. Dirk J. Korf, Dr. Martina Althoff en Prof. Els Enhus
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This special issue focuses on the role of sex/gender in Dutch and Belgian criminological and penological research and theory. This introductory article draws the history of thought and research within Dutch-language criminology and explores international developments, in particular the influence of feminist critique on theory and research.This framework serves the positioning of the other contributions, on the one hand research exploring the differences in crime between men and women and on the other hand empirical and theoretical articles focusing on (the social construction of) gender. Finally some innovative methodological findings will be discussed, also with regard to future criminological research.


Prof. dr. Dirk J. Korf
Prof. dr. D.J. Korf is bijzonder hoogleraar criminologie en directeur van het Bonger Instituut, faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Universiteit van Amsterdam, d.j.korf@uva.nl.

Dr. Martina Althoff
Dr. M. Althoff is universitair docent criminologie, vakgroep Strafrecht en Criminologie, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, m.althoff@rug.nl.

Prof. Els Enhus
Prof. E. Enhus is als hoogleraar verbonden aan de vakgroep Criminologie, Interuniversitaire Onderzoeksgroep Sociale Veiligheidsanalyse (SVA), faculteit Recht en Criminologie, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, els.enhus@vub.ac.be.
Artikel

Sekse en straftoemeting

Een experiment

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2010
Trefwoorden Gender, Experiment, Straftoemeting
Auteurs Catrien Bijleveld en Henk Elffers
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Over 700 students judged fictitious descriptions of court cases, in which the gender of the offender was systematically varied, as well as a number of aspects pertinent to theories that explain disparities in sentencing between females and males. The results show that females indeed received shorter sentences than males, and that this difference could be attributed to the fact that male student-judges gave women shorter sentences and differential sentencing for violent crimes. We found mixed support for the chivalry as well as for the perceptual shorthand theory. More research is needed, in more realistic settings, to explain gender differences in sentencing.


Catrien Bijleveld
Prof. dr. mr. C.C.J.H. Bijleveld is senior onderzoeker aan het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving en hoogleraar aan de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam, cbijleveld@nscr.nl.

Henk Elffers
Prof. dr. H. Elffers is hoogleraar empirische bestudering van de strafrechtpleging, afdeling Strafrecht en Criminologie, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, en senior onderzoeker aan het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) te Amsterdam, helffers@nscr.nl.
Artikel

Trajecten van vrouwelijke gedetineerden

Weinig jeugddelinquenten, veel late starters

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2010
Trefwoorden Gender, Vrouwelijke gedetineerden, Interviews, Criminele carrière
Auteurs An Nuytiens en Jenneke Christiaens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article, an ongoing Flemish qualitative research on life histories and criminal careers of women in prison is discussed. We conducted autobiographical interviews with 40 female prisoners aged between 20 and 69 years. Considering our target group, we didn’t always succeed in conducting an autobiographical interview. In practice we often conducted a classic open in-depth interview. By means of file analysis, we reconstituted the criminal career of every interviewed woman. Thanks to the retrospective approach we could reveal a diversity of trajectories. We identified three pathways: (1) youth offenders, (2) early adult-onset offenders and (3) late adult-onset offenders. Remarkably, quite a lot of women are late starters. Three risk factors – to a greater or lesser extent – play a role in these pathways: a problematic educational situation in childhood, drugs and negative love affairs.


An Nuytiens
A. Nuytiens is onderzoekster bij de vakgroep Criminologie, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, an.nuytiens@vub.ac.be.

Jenneke Christiaens
Prof. dr. J. Christiaens is hoofddocent bij de vakgroep Criminologie, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, jenneke.christiaens@vub.ac.be.
Artikel

Mannelijkheid en detentie

De waarde van mannelijkheidsstudies voor gevangenissociologie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2010
Trefwoorden Gender, Detentie, Hegemoniale mannelijkheid, Gevangenis
Auteurs Valesca Lippens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Gender, in criminological research, often refers to women. Although ‘masculinities’ and crime have been intertwined internationally for more than two decades, this isn’t so for Dutch research. Based on this international critique, this article introduces the masculinities approach in Dutch penology. Prisons are generally considered as hypermasculine settings (Toch, 1998), but this hypothesis is seldom explored within a gender framework. Nevertheless, ‘doing masculinity’ is an important coping strategy for male prisoners (Jewkes, 2005). This gap is tackled on two levels: (1) the conceptualization of ‘hegemonic masculinity’ and (2) a critical, masculinity-oriented analysis of the existing knowledge on prison life, prison culture and prison hierarchy. It aims to tackle prison masculinity stereotypes, since traditional penal insights aren’t necessarily valid from a gender point of view (Evans & Wallace, 2008). Therefore, we conclude by analyzing the value of masculinity studies for penology.


Valesca Lippens
V. Lippens is onderzoekster bij de vakgroep Criminologie, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (Aspirant van het Fonds voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek), valesca.lippens@vub.ac.be.
Artikel

Oorzaken van het mijden van onveilige situaties bij mannen en vrouwen

Een contextuele analyse op basis van de ‘collective efficacy’-theorie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2010
Trefwoorden Gender, Angst voor criminaliteit, Mijdgedrag, Collective efficacy
Auteurs Dr. Wim Hardyns, Prof. dr. Stefaan Pleysier en Prof. dr. Lieven Pauwels
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Two explanations can be found for the unequal geographical concentrations of avoidance behaviour: (1) the demographic composition of residential areas, and (2) the social and structural contextual effects of residential areas. Different studies all over the world have shown that women report more fear of crime than men. In this article we study contextual as well as individual determinants of avoidance behaviour for men and women separately to gain a better insight in the explanation of individual differences in avoidance behaviour. The theoretical framework of this study is derived from the collective efficacy theory. In the present study a contextual model was tested on a 2009 survey of 2,080 residents from 40 municipalities in Flanders (Belgium), by using block-wise multilevel analyses on data from the Social Cohesion Indicators in Flanders Survey (SCIF-survey), the Security Monitor and the registered crime statistics. The results indicate that economic disadvantage in the residential area increases the risk on avoidance behaviour both for men and women, because these areas often have high disorder and violent crime rates. With regard to the social ecology of crime this study shows that more research is needed on the differences in contextual effects of structural area characteristics on avoidance behaviour.


Dr. Wim Hardyns
Dr. W. Hardyns is verbonden aan de Onderzoeksgroep Sociale Veiligheidsanalyse (SVA) en het Centre for the Study of Urban Crime and Delinquency (UCD) binnen de vakgroep Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Gent. Op 1 november 2010 heeft hij zijn doctoraal proefschrift verdedigd met de titel: Social cohesion and crime. A multilevel study of collective efficacy, victimisation and fear of crime, wim.hardyns@ugent.be.

Prof. dr. Stefaan Pleysier
Prof. dr. S. Pleysier is als docent verbonden aan het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie (LINC) van de K.U. Leuven, stefaan.pleysier@law.kuleuven.be.

Prof. dr. Lieven Pauwels
Prof. dr. L.J.R. Pauwels is codirecteur van het Centre for the Study of Urban Crime and Delinquency, Onderzoeksgroep Sociale Veiligheidsanalyse (SVA-UCD) binnen de vakgroep Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Gent, lieven.pauwels@ugent.be.
Artikel

De relatie tussen subtypen relationeel geweldplegers en de adviezen van de reclassering

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 6 2010
Trefwoorden Relationeel geweld, Subtypen, B-SAFER, Reclassering
Auteurs Drs. Jill Thijssen en Prof. dr. Corine de Ruiter
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the present study, the B-SAFER was coded for 146 files of spousal assault cases from the Dutch probation service. The aim of the study was twofold: (1) identifying subtypes of spousal assaulters and (2) examine the relationship between the subtypes found and the advice the probation officers gave to court. Four subtypes of assaulters were identified: family-only, generally violent/antisocial, low-level antisocial, and psychopathology. There was only a significant relationship between the subtypes and the advice on two of the ten advices. The type of advice showed a strong relationship with the region of the probation offices where the batterer was examined.


Drs. Jill Thijssen
Jill Thijssen is als promovenda verbonden aan de afdeling Clinical Psychological Science van de Universiteit van Maastricht.

Prof. dr. Corine de Ruiter
Corine de Ruiter is als hoogleraar Forensische psychologie verbonden aan de Universiteit van Maastricht.
Artikel

Gekocht, maar niet gekregen

Slachtofferschap van online oplichting nader onderzocht

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2010
Trefwoorden Online oplichting, Slachtofferschap, Slachtofferenquête, Lage zelfcontrole
Auteurs Johan van Wilsem
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Consumer fraud seems to be widespread, yet little research is devoted to understanding why certain social groups are more vulnerable to this type of victimization than others. The present paper deals with internet consumer fraud victimization, and uses an explanatory model that combines insights from self control theory and routine activity theory. The results from large-scale victimization survey data among the Dutch general population (N=6,201) reveal that people with low self-control run substantially higher victimization risk, as well as people performing ‘risky’ routine activities, such as online shopping and participation in online forums. Though a minority share of the self-control-victimization link is indirect – because people with low self-control are more involved in risk-enhancing routine activities – a large direct effect on internet fraud victimization remains. This suggests that, within similar situations, people with poor impulse control respond differently to deceptive online commercial offers.


Johan van Wilsem
Dr. Johan van Wilsem is werkzaam als universitair docent Criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden, Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie. Contactadres: postbus 9520, 2300 RA Leiden. Tel. 071-5277418. E-mail: J.A.van.Wilsem@law.leidenuniv.nl.
Artikel

Vertrouwen in toezicht

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Toezicht, Aflevering 4 2010
Trefwoorden toezicht, vertrouwen, controle
Auteurs Dr. ir. F.E. Six
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In het Nederlandse debat over de rol van vertrouwen in toezicht en handhaving heerst verwarring over het begrip vertrouwen. Dit artikel kijkt kritisch naar de argumenten en schept meer duidelijkheid over het begrip en de voor toezicht belangrijke relatie tussen vertrouwen en controle. Vertrouwen is onvermijdelijk aan de orde in toezichtrelaties en kan dus het beste expliciet in toezichttheorie geconceptualiseerd worden. De conceptualisatie van vertrouwen in de responsieve toezichttheorie van Braithwaite e.a. is echter aan herziening toe. Aan de hand van recente inzichten uit de vertrouwensliteratuur worden uitgangspunten en contouren van een mogelijke vertrouwensbenadering in toezicht geschetst.


Dr. ir. F.E. Six
Dr. ir. F.E. Six MBA is werkzaam aan de Vrije Universiteit, Afdeling Bestuurswetenschappen.
Artikel

De bestrijding van arbeidsuitbuiting

Werkwijzen en bevindingen van de SIOD

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 7 2010
Auteurs A. Bogaerts, P. Plooij en R. Zoetekouw
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article the strategies and investigation results of the Social Intelligence and Investigation Service (SIOD) concerning labour exploitation are discussed. The results from reactive criminal investigation confirm current ideas in the literature about labour exploitation in relation to vulnerable (victim) groups. However, an increase in reports did not lead to more investigations. This is partly caused by bad or incomplete reports. Therefore the SIOD is in addition developing a new approach: the labour exploitation risk model. This method fits into the idea of Intelligence-Led Policing and tackles the problem that many exploitation cases are not reported to the police. In a risk model enterprises and employers with a (high) risk of violations are selected for control or investigation on the basis of particular characteristics generated from various information databases of various (government) agencies. The authors discuss the further development of the risk model and conclude with a look ahead.


A. Bogaerts
Anne Bogaerts MSc is werkzaam als onderzoeker respectievelijk senior criminaliteitsanalist bij de SIOD. De auteur dankt haar collega's en in het bijzonder Arjan van der Lugt, Floris van Dijk en Sabine Konings voor hun bijdragen aan de totstandkoming van dit artikel.

P. Plooij
Drs. Peter Plooij is werkzaam als onderzoeker respectievelijk senior criminaliteitsanalist bij de SIOD. De auteur dankt zijn collega's en in het bijzonder Arjan van der Lugt, Floris van Dijk en Sabine Konings voor hun bijdragen aan de totstandkoming van dit artikel.

R. Zoetekouw
René Zoetekouw is werkzaam als onderzoeker respectievelijk senior criminaliteitsanalist bij de SIOD. De auteur dankt zijn collega's en in het bijzonder Arjan van der Lugt, Floris van Dijk en Sabine Konings voor hun bijdragen aan de totstandkoming van dit artikel.
Artikel

Werken in de marge

Illegaal verblijvende jongeren in Nederland

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 7 2010
Auteurs R. Staring en J. Aarts
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    A large number of former unaccompanied minors in the Netherlands leave for unknown destinations during the asylum procedure or after being rejected. In this contribution the authors provide answers to the question how undocumented (former) unaccompanied minors provide for their living and housing. The study is based on interviews with 118 former undocumented unaccompanied minors who were recruited through the personal networks of the researchers and through contacts with representatives of (private) organizations who support the youngsters. The undocumented minors are excluded from formal employment as well as provisions of the welfare state. By far the largest group of the undocumented (former) unaccompanied minors has never been involved in criminal activities and only one third of them work in the informal economy. The sectors in which these youngsters perform informal work vary from cleaning and construction to catering and personal services. The work is characterized by uncertain working hours. There are often few hours available and the work often takes place on call. The pay is meagre and few respondents can survive exclusively on their earnings. The undocumented (former) unaccompanied minors are mainly supported by friends and private organizations for their living and housing. It is because of this support that the youngsters do not roam the streets and can continue their illegal stay in the Netherlands. The strong orientation of the youngsters towards a lawful residence in the Netherlands causes them to fear the risks of arrest while working, so they rather settle for the limited support of private organizations and friends. The support of private organizations and the focus of the youngsters towards a lawful stay thus constitute a buffer against exploitation.


R. Staring
Dr. Richard Staring is verbonden aan de vakgroep Criminologie van de Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Erasmus Universiteit in Rotterdam.

J. Aarts
Drs. José Aarts is verbonden aan de vakgroep Criminologie van de Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Erasmus Universiteit in Rotterdam.
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