Zoekresultaat: 22 artikelen

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Jaar 2015 x
Article

Access_open Austerity’s Effect on English Civil Justice

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 4 2015
Trefwoorden Austerity, court fees and legal aid, adversarial and inquisitorial process, McKenzie Friends, simplified process
Auteurs John Sorabji
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article considers the effect of austerity-induced public spending cuts on the English civil justice system. In doing so it initially examines two fundamental changes engendered by the effect austerity has had on civil court fees and legal aid: first, a challenge to the traditional commitment in English procedure to adversarial process, and a concomitant increase in inquisitorial or investigative processes; and secondly, the growth in use of unqualified individuals to act as advocates in court for individual litigants who are unable to afford legal representation. It then turns to consider what, if any, effect austerity has had on simplified processes available in English civil procedure.


John Sorabji
DPhil, Senior Fellow, UCL Judicial Institute, University College, London, email: j.sorabji@ucl.ac.uk.
Article

Access_open A View from the Sky

A General Overview about Civil Litigation in the United States with Reference to the Relief in Small and Simple Matters

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 4 2015
Trefwoorden civil procedure, United States, small and simple matters
Auteurs Manuel Gomez en Juan Carlos Gomez
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article, which is based on the research conducted for the General Report ‘Relief in Small and Simple Matters in an Age of Austerity’ presented at the XV World Congress of Procedural Law, provides a contextualised and broad overview of these phenomena in the United States. After describing the general features of the federal and state judiciaries, including its adversarial model of judging, and the importance of the jury system, the article turns its attention to discuss the factors that affect the cost of litigation in the United States, the different models of litigation funding, the available legal aid mechanisms, and the procedural tools available for handling small and simple disputes. Furthermore, this article briefly revisits the discussion about the effect of austerity on the functioning of the United States legal system on the handling of small and simple matters and ends with a brief conclusion that summarises its contribution and sketches the points for future research on this important topic.


Manuel Gomez
Manuel Gomez is Associate Professor of Law and Associate Dean of International and Graduate Students at the Florida International University College of Law.

Juan Carlos Gomez
Juan Carlos Gomez is Director of the Carlos A. Costa Immigration and Human Rights Clinic at the Florida International University College of Law.
Artikel

Access to justice: a dynamic concept

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2015
Auteurs Mies Westerveld, Bernard Hubeau en Ashley Terlouw
Auteursinformatie

Mies Westerveld
Mies Westerveld is Professor Legal aid by special appointment and Professor in Labour Law (social insurance) at the University of Amsterdam. Her research concentrates on current issues of access to justice and state-financed legal aid on the one hand and the decreasing role of social insurance on a fragmented labour market on the other hand.

Bernard Hubeau
Bernard Hubeau is a full-time Professor in Sociology and Sociology of Law at the Faculty of Law of the University of Antwerp. He also teaches at the Faculty of Social Sciences of the University of Antwerp and the Faculty of Law and Criminology of the University of Brussels. He is the former ombudsman of the city of Antwerp and of the Flemish Parliament.

Ashley Terlouw
Ashley Terlouw is Professor in Sociology of Law at the Radboud University of Nijmegen. She is responsible for the Centre for Migration Law of the Radboud University. Besides she is part-time Judge at the District Court of Gelderland. Her research concentrates on legal and societal issues of asylum and equal treatment and on the working of the judiciary.
Artikel

Social security and social welfare: barriers and retrograde policies, but cause for optimism?

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2015
Trefwoorden social security, legal representation, means-testing, Britain, fees
Auteurs Amir Paz-Fuchs
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution addresses the limits placed on access to justice in the context of social services, with a particular, but not exclusive, focus on the UK, across five central platforms: legal representation, the financial barriers, the structure of the programme, the attitude of the bureaucracy, and the personal attributes of the client. The contribution finds that there exist, for decades, problematic elements that constitute barriers to justice in this area: the means-tested element in the programmes and the bureaucracy’s double role as provider of services and detector of fraud. But to them, in recent years, significant barriers were added: recent cuts in legal aid and the imposition of tribunal fees in the UK are retrograde steps, reverting 40 years of impressive achievements in the field.


Amir Paz-Fuchs
Amir Paz-Fuchs (D. Phil Oxford) is a Senior Lecturer at the School of Law, University of Sussex, where he teaches employment law, public law, and legal theory. In addition, he is a Visiting Research Fellow at the Centre for Socio-Legal Studies and a Research Associate at Wolfson College, both at the University of Oxford. He is also Co-Director of the ‘The Limits of Privatization’ research project, based at the Van Leer Institute in Jerusalem. He also served on the board of several human rights and social justice NGOs.
Artikel

Merits testing in the English legal aid system: exploring its impact in asylum cases

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2015
Trefwoorden access to justice, asylum seekers, merits testing, English legal aid system
Auteurs Tamara Butter
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In recent years, there has been much discussion on the legal aid cuts and reforms in England and Wales, and the possible consequences this would have on access to justice for vulnerable groups in society, including immigrants and asylum seekers. This contribution focuses on one element of the English legal aid system: merits testing by legal aid providers in asylum cases. It explores whether and, if so, how this aspect may affect the access to justice for asylum seekers lacking the financial means to pay privately for legal assistance and representation. The findings indicate that a merits test which makes access to legal aid on appeal conditional upon a case having at least 50% prospect of success and makes legal aid providers responsible for conducting this assessment may compromise asylum seekers’ ability to achieve justice both within and outside the existing body of law.


Tamara Butter
Tamara Butter is a PhD candidate at the Institute for Sociology of Law/Centre for Migration Law of the Radboud University of Nijmegen. Her research consists of a comparative case study into the professional decision making of asylum legal aid lawyers in the Netherlands and England.
Redactioneel

How to look at access to justice?

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2015
Auteurs Bernard Hubeau, Ashley Terlouw en Mies Westerveld
Auteursinformatie

Bernard Hubeau
Bernard Hubeau is a full-time Professor in Sociology and Sociology of Law at the Faculty of Law of the University of Antwerp. He also teaches at the Faculty of Social Sciences of the University of Antwerp and the Faculty of Law and Criminology of the University of Brussels. He is the former ombudsman of the city of Antwerp and of the Flemish Parliament.

Ashley Terlouw
Ashley Terlouw is Professor in Sociology of Law at the Radboud University of Nijmegen. She is responsible for the Centre for Migration Law of the Radboud University. Besides she is part-time Judge at the District Court of Gelderland. Her research concentrates on legal and societal issues of asylum and equal treatment and on the working of the judiciary.

Mies Westerveld
Mies Westerveld is Professor Legal aid by special appointment and Professor in Labour Law (social insurance) at the University of Amsterdam. Her research concentrates on current issues of access to justice and state-financed legal aid on the one hand and the decreasing role of social insurance on a fragmented labour market on the other hand.
Artikel

Responsibilities of the state and legal professions

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2015
Trefwoorden responsibilities, the state, lawyers, the judiciary and judges
Auteurs Mies Westerveld en Ashley Terlouw
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution, which is based on the Dutch legal system, deals with the responsibilities of the State and legal professions in ensuring access to justice. The responsibilities of the four main players involved in bringing justice to the citizen are discussed: the legislator, the executive, the judiciary, and the legal profession. Responsibilities for access to justice do not only stem from the law, they do also evolve from societal problems and discussions. The contribution deals with both. Several actors share some of the responsibilities. One can think of responsibilities for information, for financing, and for being aware of vulnerabilities and other obstacles. What are the legal responsibilities and what other responsibilities are felt by the actors involved and how do they deal with them? And as a result: do they contribute to access to justice, do they form an obstacle, or both?


Mies Westerveld
Mies Westerveld is Professor Legal aid by special appointment and Professor in Labour Law (social insurance) at the University of Amsterdam. Her research concentrates on current issues of access to justice and state-financed legal aid on the one hand and the decreasing role of social insurance on a fragmented labour market on the other hand.

Ashley Terlouw
Ashley Terlouw is Professor in Sociology of Law at the Radboud University of Nijmegen. She is responsible for the Centre for Migration Law of the Radboud University. Besides she is part-time Judge at the District Court of Gelderland. Her research concentrates on legal and societal issues of asylum and equal treatment and on the working of the judiciary.
Artikel

Access_open Kelsen, Secular Religion, and the Problem of Transcendence

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2015
Trefwoorden Kelsen, secular religion, Voegelin, Schmitt, transcendence
Auteurs professor Bert van Roermund
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    An alleged ‘return to religion’ in contemporary western politics (and science) prompted the Trustees of the Hans Kelsen Institut to posthumously publish Kelsen’s critique of the concept of ‘secular religion’ advanced by his early student Eric Voegelin. This paper identifies, firstly, what concept of transcendence is targeted by Kelsen, and argues that his analysis leaves scope for other conceptions. It does so in two steps: it summarizes the arguments against ‘secular religion’ (section 2) and it gives an account of the differences between Voegelin’s and Schmitt’s conception of transcendence – both under attack from Kelsen (section 3). It then submits an alternative account of the relationship between politics and religion in Modernity, building on the concept of a ‘civil religion’ as found in Rousseau’s Social Contract. Giving a Rousseauist slant to Claude Lefort’s analysis of political theology (section 4) it concludes that a thin concept of transcendence is part and parcel of every, in particular a democratic, account of politics. It should be a stronghold against any resurgence of religion that feeds on hypostatized transcendence. In closing (section 5), it is argued that two key concepts in Kelsen’s legal philosophy may well be understood as paradigms of thin transcendence, namely ‘the people’ and ‘the Grundnorm’.


professor Bert van Roermund
Bert van Roermund is professor (em.) of philosophy at Tilburg Law School and international correspondent of the Hans Kelsen Institute in Vienna.
Artikel

Doorwerking van het Europees recht in de Arubaanse rechtsorde

Over de personele werking van de VEU en VWEU in verhouding tot het Nederlanderschap op Aruba

Tijdschrift Caribisch Juristenblad, Aflevering 2 2015
Trefwoorden nationaliteitsrecht, Europees burgerschap, prejudiciële verwijzing, Aruba, LGO
Auteurs N.C. Luk LLM
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In dit artikel verdedigt de auteur het standpunt dat het Europees recht doorwerkt in de rechtsordes van landen en gebieden overzee. Aan de hand van twee argumenten – de personele werking van het Europees burgerschap en de uniforme toepassing van de RWN – wordt deze doorwerking onderbouwd voor het Nederlanderschap op Aruba. Verder wordt aangetoond dat deze doorwerking belangrijke gevolgen heeft voor de Arubaanse rechtsorde. In het bijzonder wordt gewezen op de bijkomende bevoegdheid van Arubaanse rechters om prejudiciële vragen te stellen aan het Hof van Justitie van de Europese Unie.


N.C. Luk LLM
N.C. Luk LLM is een alumnus van de Universiteit van Aruba en Universiteit Maastricht, en is werkzaam als PhD-researcher in het kader van het TRANSMIC-project aan het Centre for European Policy Studies te Brussel.
Artikel

De dynamiek van een migratiereis van Afrika naar Europa

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2015
Trefwoorden African migration, migration journey, European borders, migration policy, migrant aspiration
Auteurs Dr. J. Schapendonk
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the context of the most recent European policy initiatives towards putting a halt on illegal immigration from Africa, this article discusses the transnational environment of West African migrants and the dynamics of their migration routes. By following one migration story more closely and by relating this route with the experiences of other migrants the article gives a clear insight into the aspirations of migrants, the often intangible way their journeys are facilitated, as well as into the various results of asylum procedures in Europe. The author argues that a European migration policy should go beyond the securitizing of migration through strategies aiming at immobilizing African migrants. This policy will prove to be ineffective since the aspirations of African migrants are constantly fed by political instability and the transnational reality of globalization.


Dr. J. Schapendonk
Dr. Joris Schapendonk is verbonden aan de Faculteit Geografie, Planologie en Milieu van de Radboud Universiteit te Nijmegen.
Artikel

Asielzoekers in Europa: de geopolitieke context

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2015
Trefwoorden refugees, asylum seekers, Europe, geopolitical context, unrest in the Arabic world
Auteurs Dr. R.P.W. Jennissen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In recent years, the number of asylum seekers in Europe has increased again. According to the figures of Eurostat, more than 600.000 applications for asylum were submitted in the countries of the EU in 2014. This is more than double compared to 2010. This article seeks to provide explanations for this sudden increase. Furthermore, this article contains a detailed description of the long route which refugees who lodge an asylum application in a Northern or Western European country have to accomplish. Many considerations have to be made during this route. Other people than the refugees themselves (i.e. traffickers) make these considerations as well and they are often restricted by the circumstances.


Dr. R.P.W. Jennissen
Dr. Roel Jennissen is als wetenschappelijk medewerker verbonden aan het WODC en aan de WRR.
Artikel

Op zoek naar bescherming in een vrije wereld

Asielmigratie naar Europa ontleed

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2015
Trefwoorden undocumented migrants, asylum seekers, refugees, Lampedusa, European migration policy
Auteurs Prof. dr. H.B. Entzinger
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The arrival of asylum seekers has become a major political and social issue in Europe recently, although not for the first time in history. This article describes and analyses the reasons why growing numbers of undocumented migrants come to Europe, many of them as asylum seekers. One important reason is growing political instability in a ring of countries that surround the EU. The article also describes the different routes undocumented migrants take to the EU, the rapid changes that occur in the choice of routes, and the backgrounds of these changes. Although most attention goes to the risky transit in the Central Mediterranean area, and the number of migrants taking this route is growing, a majority of asylum seekers has reached the EU via other routes. Finally, this article also indicates roads towards finding solutions to the issue; this can only be achieved in the context of the EU.


Prof. dr. H.B. Entzinger
Prof. dr. Han Entzinger is als hoogleraar migratie- en integratiestudies verbonden aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. Hij is tevens vicevoorzitter van het Wetenschappelijk Comité van het Bureau voor de Grondrechten (FRA) van de Europese Unie te Wenen. Informatie: www.eur.nl/fsw/sociologie/profielen/profiel_mis/10541/.
Artikel

Frontex en de grenzen van zijn mandaat

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2015
Trefwoorden Frontex, fundamental rights, border control, push-back operations, Mare Nostrum
Auteurs Mr. dr. M.H.A. Strik
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    As an EU agency operating at the external borders of the EU, Frontex is actively involved in combating illegal migration. Since a rising number of migrants drown in the Mediterranean Sea or are pushed back to unsafe third countries, Frontex is being accused by human rights organizations for violating the fundamental rights of the EU. The Agency however maintains that it can’t be held accountable for human rights violations, as it is only assisting Member States, and not taking over their responsibility. This article analyses if this position is correct in the light of the growing tasks and mandate Frontex is granted by the EU.


Mr. dr. M.H.A. Strik
Mr. dr. Tineke Strik is als universitair docent verbonden aan het Centrum voor Migratierecht van de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen. Daarnaast is zij voorzitter van de GroenLinks-fractie in de Eerste Kamer.
Artikel

De Arabische Lente en artikel 1F Vluchtelingenverdrag

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2015
Trefwoorden Article 1F, Islamic State, Syria, Arab Spring, refugees
Auteurs M. Bolhuis MSc en Dr. mr. J. van Wijk
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article, the authors discuss in general terms the relevance of Article 1F Refugee Convention in relation to the recent increased asylum influx and the ‘Arab Spring’. More specifically, they answer the question to what extent it can be expected that the application of Article 1F is an appropriate means for identifying potential IS sympathizers and thus possibly for removing the threat of future terrorist attacks. With regard to countries like Syria it is more likely that relatively low-level persons who have been employed as a soldier or officer in a repressive state apparatus are excluded on the basis of Article 1F, than IS sympathizers with future terrorist plans. When the situation in Syria does not improve, it is likely that those 1F-excluded individuals will end up in a limbo situation for a prolonged period of time. This not only has significant negative consequences for the individuals involved, but also means that every 1F-exclusion today creates a political problem for the future.


M. Bolhuis MSc
Maarten Bolhuis MSc werkt bij het Center for International Criminal Justice (www.cicj.org) en is als promovendus verbonden aan de afdeling Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.

Dr. mr. J. van Wijk
Dr. mr. Joris van Wijk werkt bij het Center for International Criminal Justice (www.cicj.org) en is als universitair hoofddocent verbonden aan de afdeling Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.
Artikel

Dublin: blind interstatelijk vertrouwen is een fictie

Over inwilligingspercentages en overdrachten

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2015
Trefwoorden asylum seekers, Dublin Regulation, mistrust, distribution key, solidarity
Auteurs Mr. R. Bruin, Mr. S.G. Kok en Prof. mr. dr. A. Terlouw
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In light of the high numbers of persons entering the EU via the southern borders and the current uneven distribution of asylum seekers (five Member States of the EU currently received in 2014 more than 70% of the total amount of refugees), there is a clear and urgent need for the EU ministers to ensure a fairer distribution of asylum seekers within the EU. The Dublin Regulation’s system of allocating the responsibility for an asylum request does not offer a solution for this challenge, also because Member States cannot have a blind faith in the standards of a number of states for processing asylum requests. There are significant differences in the application of the law and the procedures.


Mr. R. Bruin
Mr. René Bruin is Head of Office UNHCR te Den Haag.

Mr. S.G. Kok
Mr. Stefan Kok is docent aan het Instituut voor Immigratierecht van de Universiteit Leiden.

Prof. mr. dr. A. Terlouw
Prof. mr. dr. Ashley Terlouw is hoogleraar rechtssociologie aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen.
Artikel

Vijf jaar bindend Handvest van de Grondrechten: wat heeft het de rechtzoekende opgeleverd?

Tijdschrift Nederlands tijdschrift voor Europees recht, Aflevering 4 2015
Trefwoorden Handvest van de Grondrechten, EVRM, Grondwet, eerlijk proces, persoonlijke levenssfeer
Auteurs Mr. J. Morijn, Mr. A. Pahladsingh en Mr. H. Palm
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Levert het Handvest van de Grondrechten de rechtzoekende iets op? Om dit te beantwoorden analyseren we allereerst welke procesmatige en inhoudelijke voordelen het inroepen van het Handvest kan hebben ten opzichte van andere mensenrechtenbronnen. Daarna kijken we naar de eerste Nederlandse en Luxemburgse praktijk aangaande het recht op een eerlijk proces en het recht op privéleven en gegevensbescherming. Ook brengen we de wisselwerking in kaart tussen de rechterlijke bescherming gebaseerd op het Handvest en het EVRM. Wij concluderen dat er eerste tekenen van meerwaarde van het Handvest zijn voor de rechtszoekende, maar ook mogelijkheden bestaan zijn potentie nog beter te benutten.


Mr. J. Morijn
Mr. J. (John) Morijn is werkzaam bij het ministerie van Binnenlandse Zaken en Koninkrijksrelaties en de Vakgroep Europees en economisch recht, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen. De bijdrage aan dit artikel is op persoonlijke titel.

Mr. A. Pahladsingh
Mr. A. (Aniel) Pahladsingh is werkzaam bij de Raad van State. De bijdrage aan dit artikel is op persoonlijke titel.

Mr. H. Palm
Mr. H. (Hanneke) Palm is werkzaam bij het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie. De bijdrage aan dit artikel is op persoonlijke titel.

    The article considers the role of the liberal public-private divide in protecting religious minorities against national-majoritarian assault. It links the defence of the public-private divide to liberal neutrality and argues that it rests on two distinct propositions: that the distinction between the ’public sphere’ and the ’private sphere’ is a meaningful way to cognize and structure modern pluralistic societies; and that there is a meaningful way to distinguish what is or ought to be ‘public’ from what is or ought to be ‘private.’ While the latter proposition cannot be defended on grounds of liberal neutrality, the former proposition provides the institutional framework for conducting liberal politics by enabling the negotiation of the public and the private between national majorities and religious minorities as members of the same political community.


Daniel Augenstein
Daniel Augenstein is Associate Professor at the Department of European and International Public Law at Tilburg University.
Artikel

Beperkingen aan en dilemma’s van de slachtoffergerichte aanpak van mensenhandel; een blik op arbeidsuitbuiting.

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 2 2015
Trefwoorden Slachtoffers, Mensenhandel, Arbeidsuitbuiting, Immigratiebeleid
Auteurs Prof. mr. dr. Tineke Cleiren, Prof. dr. Joanne van der Leun en Dr. Masja Van Meeteren
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In their article on the victim orientation in the combat against human trafficking – in particular labour exploitation – Cleiren, Van der Leun and Van Meeteren highlight the limitations of the protection of victims in practice. Based on a brief legal analysis and a secondary reading of the empirical literature, they conclude that the rights of victims remain subordinate to the main aims of the relevant legal domains: criminal law and immigration law. In addition, the practices-based analysis shows a mismatch between a victim-oriented approach and preferences and perceptions of many migrants involved as well as existing tensions between different legal domains.


Prof. mr. dr. Tineke Cleiren
Prof. mr. dr. Tineke Cleiren is hoogleraar Straf- en strafprocesrecht aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Prof. dr. Joanne van der Leun
Prof. dr. Joanne van der Leun is hoogleraar Criminologie aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Dr. Masja Van Meeteren
Dr. Masja van Meeteren is universitair docent Criminologie aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.
Praktijk

Discretie en feitenvaststelling in asielprocedures

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 1 2015
Trefwoorden discretion, asylum procedure, uncertainty, fact-finding
Auteurs Ralph Severijns
Auteursinformatie

Ralph Severijns
Ralph Severijns studeerde internationaal en Europees publiekrecht in Tilburg. Sinds 2012 is hij als promovendus verbonden aan het Centrum voor Migratierecht van de Radboud Universiteit. Daarnaast werkt hij als senior adviseur voor de Adviescommissie voor Vreemdelingenzaken.
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