Zoekresultaat: 14 artikelen

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Jaar 2020 x
Article

Access_open The Right to Claim Innocence in Poland

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 4 2020
Trefwoorden wrongful convictions, right to claim innocence, reopening of criminal proceedings, miscarriage of justice, revision of final judgment
Auteurs Wojciech Jasiński Ph.D., habilitation en Karolina Kremens Ph.D.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Wrongful convictions and miscarriages of justice, their reasons and effects, only rarely become the subject of academic debate in Poland. This article aims at filling this gap and providing a discussion on the current challenges of mechanisms available in Polish law focused on the verification of final judgments based on innocence claims. While there are two procedures designed to move such judgment: cassation and the reopening of criminal proceedings, only the latter aims at the verification of new facts and evidence, and this work remains focused exactly on that issue. The article begins with a case study of the famous Komenda case, which resulted in a successful innocence claim, serving as a good, though rare, example of reopening a case and acquitting the convict immediately and allows for discussing the reasons that commonly stand behind wrongful convictions in Poland. Furthermore, the article examines the innocence claim grounds as regulated in the Polish criminal procedure and their interpretation under the current case law. It also presents the procedure concerning the revision of the case. The work additionally provides the analysis of the use of innocence claim in practice, feeding on the statistical data and explaining tendencies in application for revision of a case. It also presents the efforts of the Polish Ombudsman and NGOs to raise public awareness in that field. The final conclusions address the main challenges that the Polish system faces concerning innocence claims and indicates the direction in which the system should go.


Wojciech Jasiński Ph.D., habilitation
Wojciech Jasiński is Assistant Professor in the Department of Criminal Procedure of the University of Wroclaw, Poland. orcid.org/0000-0002-7427-1474

Karolina Kremens Ph.D.
Karolina Kremens is Assistant Professor in the Department of Criminal Procedure of the University of Wroclaw, Poland. orcid.org/0000-0002-2132-2645
Artikel

Access_open Bescherming van derdelandmigranten tegen arbeidsuitbuiting in de EU

Tijdschrift Arbeidsrechtelijke Annotaties, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden Migratie, Derdelanders, Arbeidsuitbuiting
Auteurs Mr. drs. Gerrie Lodder
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Arbeidsmigratie is in de EU een belangrijk en actueel onderwerp. Enerzijds, omdat steeds meer landen in de EU te kennen geven dat ze voor het op peil houden van het arbeidspotentieel hun toevlucht moeten nemen tot het aantrekken van arbeidsmigranten van buiten de EU. Anderzijds blijkt dat er regelmatig sprake is van uitbuiting van deze arbeidsmigranten. In EU-wetgeving in het algemeen en de regulering van migratie van onderdanen van derde landen (derdelanders) naar de EU in het bijzonder wordt aandacht besteed aan de kwetsbare positie van derdelanders en een eerlijke behandeling. Het doel van migratiewetgeving is echter met name ook het beheersen van migratie, het bestrijden van illegale migratie en het stimuleren van economische ontwikkeling. Deze verschillende doelen kunnen met elkaar botsen. In dit artikel wordt onderzocht wat de invloed is van de EU-migratiewetgeving op de uitbuiting van arbeidsmigranten.


Mr. drs. Gerrie Lodder
Mr. drs. G.G. Lodder is werkzaam als onderzoeker en docent bij het Europa Instituut van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

De Dark Triad persoonlijkheidskenmerken en online en offline agressie: een verkennende studie op basis van zelfrapportages van jonge adolescenten

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2020
Trefwoorden Dark Triad, self-reported aggression, psychopathy, narcissism, Machiavellianism
Auteurs Clio Lambrechts, Lieven Pauwels en Wim Hardyns
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The current study investigates the relationship between the Dark Triad personality traits (consisting of narcissism, psychopathy and Machiavellianism) and three different forms of aggression: online aggression, overt aggression and relational aggression. The sample consisted of 1,051 adolescents between 12 and 16 years old. Results show that psychopathy and Machiavellianism are positive predictors of the three forms of aggression, while narcissism is a positive predictor of online aggression only.


Clio Lambrechts
C. Lambrechts is doctoraatsonderzoekster aan de Vakgroep Criminologie, Strafrecht en Sociaal Recht (Universiteit Gent) en lid van het Institute for International Research on Criminal Policy (IRCP).

Lieven Pauwels
Prof. dr. L. Pauwels is professor aan de Vakgroep Criminologie, Strafrecht en Sociaal Recht (Universiteit Gent) en directeur van het Institute for International Research on Criminal Policy (IRCP).

Wim Hardyns
Prof. dr. W. Hardyns is professor aan de Vakgroep Criminologie, Strafrecht en Sociaal Recht (Universiteit Gent) en lid van het Institute for International Research on Criminal Policy (IRCP). Daarnaast is hij als gastprofessor verbonden aan de master in de Veiligheidswetenschappen van de Universiteit Antwerpen.

    The entry into force of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) pushed state obligations to counter prejudice and stereotypes concerning people with disabilities to the forefront of international human rights law. The CRPD is underpinned by a model of inclusive equality, which views disability as a social construct that results from the interaction between persons with impairments and barriers, including attitudinal barriers, that hinder their participation in society. The recognition dimension of inclusive equality, together with the CRPD’s provisions on awareness raising, mandates that states parties target prejudice and stereotypes about the capabilities and contributions of persons with disabilities to society. Certain human rights treaty bodies, including the Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and, to a much lesser extent, the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, require states to eradicate harmful stereotypes and prejudice about people with disabilities in various forms of interpersonal relationships. This trend is also reflected, to a certain extent, in the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights. This article assesses the extent to which the aforementioned human rights bodies have elaborated positive obligations requiring states to endeavour to change ‘hearts and minds’ about the inherent capabilities and contributions of people with disabilities. It analyses whether these bodies have struck the right balance in elaborating positive obligations to eliminate prejudice and stereotypes in interpersonal relationships. Furthermore, it highlights the convergences or divergences that are evident in the bodies’ approaches to those obligations.


Andrea Broderick
Andrea Broderick is Assistant Professor at the Universiteit Maastricht, the Netherlands.
Artikel

Twintig jaar groei van herstelrechtelijke programma’s

Reflecties op basis van de tweede editie van het UNODC Handboek

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden UNODC handbook, Restorative Justice programmes, Basic Principles, cases of serious crime, community
Auteurs Jee Aei Lee en Yvon Dandurand
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this contribution, the authors take stock of the many diverse restorative justice programs that have been implemented in many countries, worldwide, over the past twenty years, and that have involved a number of problems. They also discuss a number of new developments and areas of concern, including victim participation, the relationship with common law, cases of serious crime and the role of the community. The authors hope the new UNODC Handbook on Restorative Justice Programmes to be as successful as the previous edition in promoting new ways to apply restorative justice principles in criminal matters and helping practitioners benefit from each other’s experience.


Jee Aei Lee
Jee Aei Lee is Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Officer, Justice Section, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), Vienna, Austria.

Yvon Dandurand
Yvon Dandurand is Professor Emeritus, Criminology, University of the Fraser Valley, and Fellow and Senior Associate at the International Centre for Criminal Law Reform, Vancouver, Canada.
Artikel

Straftoemeting in zaken betreffende seksuele uitbuiting van minderjarigen

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 5 2020
Trefwoorden human trafficking, child victims, sentencing, Defence for Children
Auteurs Mr. Eva Huls en Drs. Frits Huls
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article is a summary of the recently published study of Defence for Children - ECPAT: Sentencing of Sexual Exploitation of Minors: an analysis. The aim of the research was to provide insight into the penalties imposed in 2015-2019 in cases involving the sexual exploitation (human trafficking) of child victims. Another aim was to gain a better understanding of how the sentence was determined. A total of 145 convictions were analysed. This article first describes (the reason for) the research. Subsequently, the crime of human trafficking is briefly discussed. The findings of the analysis are then presented in a summarized version. Finally, the conclusion and recommendations follow.


Mr. Eva Huls
Mr. Eva Huls is advocaat-in-dienstbetrekking bij Defence for Children.

Drs. Frits Huls
Drs. Frits Huls is rechtssocioloog.
Artikel

Is herstelrecht voor jeugdigen volwassen geworden?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 4 2020
Trefwoorden jeugdstrafrecht, jeugdherstelrecht, binding, kinderrechten, herstelrechtelijk jeugdsanctierecht
Auteurs Annemieke Wolthuis
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The 20th anniversary of this journal is a good reason to glance back at developments with restorative justice for children and young people. Can we say that restorative youth justice has become mature? Some core events and articles about developments in Belgium, the Netherlands and elsewhere are discussed, paying attention to young suspects as well as victims. Subsequently, the embedding of restorative justice in youth laws is discussed. Finally, the article focuses on the question what should be done to improve the implementation into an effective, child friendly and ‘rights based’ youth sanction model.


Annemieke Wolthuis
Annemieke Wolthuis is kinderrechter-plaatsvervanger bij de Rechtbank Rotterdam, mediator en vicevoorzitter van het European Forum for Restorative Justice.
Artikel

Access_open Een eerste blik op online delinquentie

Verkennend onderzoek bij Vlaamse jongeren en vergelijking met offline delinquentie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2-3 2020
Trefwoorden online crime, juveniles, self-reported delinquency, risk profiles, prevalence
Auteurs Ena Coenen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Given that the social life of youngsters develops more and more online, attention for cybercrime has grown as well. However, no Flemish data is available yet. This study uses data from two representative samples of the Flemish youth to research the prevalence and risk profiles of on- and offline crime. Compared to offline crime, online crime is relatively limited. In addition, results showed that online offenders had the least severe risk profile, while offenders of both on- and offline delinquency had the most severe profile. For victimization, it appeared that it is important to consider individual types of offences, since complex differences were found between various crime types. These results indicate a limited, but not ignorable, occurrence of online crime, and a difference in risk profiles for offline and online crime.


Ena Coenen
E. Coenen is wetenschappelijk medewerker bij het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie aan de KU Leuven.
Article

Access_open Safeguarding the Dynamic Legal Position of Children: A Matter of Age Limits?

Reflections on the Fundamental Principles and Practical Application of Age Limits in Light of International Children’s Rights Law

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden age limits, dynamic legal position, children’s rights, maturity, evolving capacities
Auteurs Stephanie Rap, Eva Schmidt en Ton Liefaard
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article a critical reflection upon age limits applied in the law is provided, in light of the tension that exists in international children’s rights law between the protection of children and the recognition of their evolving autonomy. The main research question that will be addressed is to what extent the use of (certain) age limits is justified under international children’s rights law. The complexity of applying open norms and theoretically underdeveloped concepts as laid down in the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, related to the development and evolving capacities of children as rights holders, will be demonstrated. The UN Committee on the Rights of the Child struggles to provide comprehensive guidance to states regarding the manner in which the dynamic legal position of children should be applied in practice. The inconsistent application of age limits that govern the involvement of children in judicial procedures provides states leeway in granting children autonomy, potentially leading to the establishment of age limits based on inappropriate – practically, politically or ideologically motivated – grounds.


Stephanie Rap
Stephanie Rap is assistant professor in children’s rights at the Department of Child Law, Leiden Law School, the Netherlands.

Eva Schmidt
Eva Schmidt is PhD candidate at the Department of Child Law, Leiden Law School, the Netherlands.

Ton Liefaard
Ton Liefaard is Vice-Dean of Leiden Law School and holds the UNICEF Chair in Children’s Rights at Leiden University, Leiden Law School, the Netherlands.
Artikel

Social engineering: digitale fraude en misleiding

Een meta-analyse van studies naar de effectiviteit van interventies

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden awareness, cybercrime, intervention, meta-analysis, social engineering
Auteurs Dr. Jan-Willem Bullée en Prof. dr. Marianne Junger
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The prevalence of online crime increases. Social engineering, such as email phishing, is often an important element in an attack. Several interventions have been developed to reduce the success of these types of attacks. The current study investigates whether interventions can help reduce vulnerability to social engineering attacks. The authors investigate which types of interventions and specific elements are most successful. They selected studies with an experimental design that tested at least one intervention. A total of 19 studies with 37 effect sizes, based on a total sample of N=23,146 subjects, were found. The available training courses, intervention materials and effect sizes were analysed. Overall, positive effects of interventions were found. However, there are substantial differences in effect for the different types of interventions. Effective interventions are relatively intensive and have a specific focus. The authors conclude with the design of the best possible intervention given the results of their research.


Dr. Jan-Willem Bullée
Dr. J.-W. Bullée is werkzaam bij Awareways, Computer & Network Security. Hij promoveerde in 2017 op het proefschrift Experimental social engineering aan de Universiteit Twente.

Prof. dr. Marianne Junger
Prof. dr. M. Junger is hoogleraar Cyber Security en Business Continuity aan de Universiteit Twente.
Artikel

Vissen met een nieuwe hengel: een onderzoek naar betaalverzoekfraude

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden payment request fraud, online advertisement platforms, modus operandi, cybercrime, spearphishing
Auteurs Joke Rooyakkers MSc. en Dr. Marleen Weulen Kranenbarg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Online fraudsters seem to adapt to new digital opportunities. While the academic literature about phishing mainly focuses on phishing through emails, fraudsters also appear to use new means of communication and platforms to find and deceive their victims. Based on analysis of 728 police reports from the period from June 20th to August 20th 2019, this article provides a descriptive study on the new phenomenon of payment request fraud on the Dutch advertisement platform Marktplaats.nl (similar to eBay). The article will provide a thorough description of the crime script and its success factors. As fraudsters now use new means of communication, it will also be assessed to what extent they use new persuasion techniques, and to what extent victims may have different characteristics. The research, therefore, focuses on the modus operandi, persuasion techniques used by the fraudsters, and victim characteristics.


Joke Rooyakkers MSc.
I.J.M. Rooyakkers MSc. is analist cybercrime bij de Nationale Politie, eenheid Limburg.

Dr. Marleen Weulen Kranenbarg
Dr. M. Weulen Kranenbarg is universitair docent Criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. Persoonlijke pagina: https://research.vu.nl/en/persons/marleen-weulen-kranenbarg.
Artikel

Gluren bij de buren

Wat kunnen we leren over samenwerken op basis van de Vlaamse ervaringen met Family Justice Centers?

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden Family Justice Center, domestic violence, child abuse, Collaboration
Auteurs Prof. dr. Janine Janssen, Drs. Karlijn Juncker, Teun Haans MSc e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Issues regarding domestic violence and abuse of children are considered to be complex phenomena. Often ecological models are used in order to explain that on different levels – societal, group and individual – factors that are of influence. With some of these aspects can be dealt, while others are more complex to influence. In practice professionals with different disciplinary backgrounds need to collaborate in order to be of assistance to families in need. As a model for collaboration so-called Family Justice Centers (FJC) have been developed. This concept originated in the United States and is nowadays also adopted in Europe. In the Netherlands there is a lot of interest in these FJC’s. In this contribution the impression of two visits two FJC’s in neighboring region Flanders (Belgium) is described. What can we learn from their experiences? What are the challenges of international comparisons of forms of policies and collaborations regarding the care for families and children?


Prof. dr. Janine Janssen
Prof. dr. Janine Janssen is lector Veiligheid in Afhankelijkheidsrelaties van Avans Hogeschool, Hoofd Onderzoek van het Landelijk Expertise Centrum Eer Gerelateerd Geweld van de Nationale Politie, bijzonder hoogleraar Rechtsantropologie aan de Open Universiteit en voorzitter van de redactie van PROCES.

Drs. Karlijn Juncker
Drs. Karlijn Juncker is projectmedewerker bij het lectoraat Veiligheid in Afhankelijkheidsrelaties van Avans Hogeschool.

Teun Haans MSc
Teun Haans MSc. is verbonden aan de Regionale Taskforce Kindermishandeling en clustermanager bij Sterk Huis.

Berna Trommelen
Berna Trommelen is verbonden aan de Regionale Taskforce Kindermishandeling.
Artikel

Misverstanden over trauma

Een illustratie aan de hand van ervaringen van professionals

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden Trauma, Professionals
Auteurs Dr. mr. Elisa van Ee en Prof. dr. Janine Janssen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Previously we have published an article about misunderstandings regarding trauma and PTSS. In this contribution we deal with other popular beliefs regarding trauma. We focus on trauma among professionals as a consequence of their work. It is explained that a professional does not have to witness violence or another severe case directly in order to develop some form of trauma. Next to that we focus on the misconception that professionals suffering from trauma can receive treatment without support of their loved ones and social network. It is explained that social support is not only relevant but necessary in treating trauma effectively.


Dr. mr. Elisa van Ee
Dr. mr. Elisa van Ee is klinisch psycholoog en onderzoeker bij het Psychotraumacentrum Zuid-Nederland, Reinier van Arkel en Behavioural Science Institute, Radboud Universiteit. Tevens is zij als extern deskundige op het gebied van trauma verbonden aan het Landelijk Expertise Centrum Eer Gerelateerd Geweld van de Nationale Politie.

Prof. dr. Janine Janssen
Prof. dr. Janine Janssen is hoofd onderzoek van het Landelijk Expertise Centrum Eer Gerelateerd Geweld van de Nationale Politie, lector Veiligheid in Afhankelijkheidsrelaties aan Avans Hogeschool, bijzonder hoogleraar Rechtsantropologie aan de Open Universiteit en voorzitter van de redactie van PROCES.
Artikel

Access_open Die zivilrechtliche Haftung für Mitspielerverletzungen bei Sport und Spiel

Bespreking van het proefschrift van Philipp Dördelmann

Tijdschrift Maandblad voor Vermogensrecht, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden onrechtmatige daad, zorgvuldigheidsnorm, sport en spel, onderlinge aansprakelijkheid, eigen aard van de beoefende activiteit en wederzijds risico van letselschade
Auteurs Dr. P.C.J. De Tavernier
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In zijn dissertatie verkent de Duitse jurist Philipp Dördelmann de problematiek van de aansprakelijkheid voor schade die deelnemers aan sport en spel elkaar toebrengen. Met behulp van een helder referentiekader, namelijk de eigen aard van de beoefende sport- of spelactiviteit (‘Typizität’) enerzijds en de wederzijdse kans van deelnemers om bij sport en spel schade te lijden (‘Reziprozität’) anderzijds, tracht hij antwoord te geven op de vraag waarom er in geval van aansprakelijkheid voor schade van deelnemers die tijdens sport en spel met elkaar wedijveren, kan worden afgeweken van de zorgvuldigheidsnorm die in het aansprakelijkheidsrecht van toepassing zou zijn bij schadegevallen die zich buiten sport- en spelsituaties voordoen.


Dr. P.C.J. De Tavernier
Dr. P.C.J. De Tavernier is universitair docent aan de Universiteit Leiden, meer bepaald aan de Afdeling Burgerlijk Recht (Instituut voor Privaatrecht). Hij is als bijzonder academisch personeelslid ook verbonden aan de Universiteit Antwerpen.
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