Zoekresultaat: 24 artikelen

Jaar 2015 x

    In this paper, an attempt is made to work out a methodology for comparative legal research, which goes beyond the ‘functional method’ or methodological scepticism.
    The starting point is the idea that we need a ‘toolbox’, not a fixed methodological road map, and that a lot of published, but largely unnoticed, research outside rule and case oriented comparative law offers varying approaches, which could usefully be applied in comparative research. Six methods have been identified: the functional method, the structural one, the analytical one, the law-in-context method, the historical method, and the common core method. Basically, it is the aim of the research and the research question that will determine which methods could be useful. Moreover, different methods may be combined, as they are complementary and not mutually exclusive.This paper focuses on scholarly comparative legal research, not on the use of foreign law by legislators or courts, but, of course, the methodological questions and answers will largely overlap.

Mark Van Hoecke
Professor of Comparative Law at Queen Mary University of London, and Professor of Legal Theory and Comparative Law at Ghent University

Natura 2000 en Bouwen met de Natuur: een blik op de praktijkervaring in een zoektocht naar synergie tussen economie en ecologie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Omgevingsrecht, Aflevering 4 2015
Trefwoorden Natura 2000, Habitatrichtlijn, Bouwen met de Natuur
Auteurs Dr. V. (Vera) Vikolainen, Prof. mr. M. (Michiel) Heldeweg, Dr. K. (Kris) Lulofs e.a.

    De toepassing van Europese natuurbeschermingsregels wordt bij veel infrastructurele projecten als juridische belemmering ervaren. In deze bijdrage geven de auteurs een positieve blik op de ervaringen in of nabij Natura 2000-gebieden in Noordwest-Europese estuaria en kustgebieden en stellen dat Natura 2000 niet per se een struikelblok hoeft te vormen, en dat het toepassen van innovatieve ontwerpmethoden als Bouwen met de Natuur het verschil kan maken voor de implementatie van Natura 2000 op projectniveau. Empirisch bewijs hiervoor is in veertien cases gezocht, waarbij drie verschillende onderzoeksontwerpen zijn gebruikt. Afgesloten wordt met een vooruitblik naar wat dit betekent voor de private partijen en overheden, voor de evaluatie van Natura 2000 in 2015 en voor Bouwen met de Natuur als innovatieve ontwerpmethode.

Dr. V. (Vera) Vikolainen
Dr. V. (Vera) Vikolainen is universitair onderzoeker aan de Universiteit Twente.

Prof. mr. M. (Michiel) Heldeweg
Prof. mr. M. (Michiel) Heldeweg is hoogleraar Publiekrecht voor het openbaar bestuur aan de Universiteit Twente.

Dr. K. (Kris) Lulofs
Dr. K. (Kris) Lulofs is universitair hoofdonderzoeker (OZ1) aan de Universiteit Twente.

Prof. dr. H. (Hans) Bressers
Prof. dr. H. (Hans) Bressers is hoogleraar Beleidsstudies en Milieubeleid aan de Universiteit Twente.

Access_open Cutting Corners or Enhancing Efficiency?

Simplified Procedures and the Israeli Quest to Speed up Justice

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 4 2015
Trefwoorden Israel, austerity, civil procedure, simplified procedures, small claims
Auteurs Ehud Brosh

    Israel was spared the worst of the world financial crisis of 2008-2009. However, austerity concerns are by no means invisible in the developments in the field of civil procedure. These concerns correlate heavily with the long-standing Israeli preoccupation with ‘speeding up’ justice. An array of simplified procedural tracks, aimed at addressing the perceived inadequacy of ‘standard’ procedure, have been developed in Israel over the years. The importance of simplified procedures in the Israeli system cannot be overestimated. Their development illustrates the dialectical tension between the values of ‘efficiency’ and ‘quality’ in the administration of justice. During periods of austerity, the scales are easily (or easier) tipped in favour of efficiency and general or particular simplification of procedure. In times of prosperity, on the other hand, concerns over ‘quality’, access to justice, and truth discovery predominate, and attempts at promoting efficiency and/or simplification at their expense tend to be bogged down. Such attempts also tend to lose their extrinsic legitimacy and are widely viewed as ‘cutting corners’. This is evident in the recent Israeli experience with civil procedure reform.

Ehud Brosh
Ehud Brosh, LL.M., is a research student at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

Access_open Relief in Small and Simple Matters in Belgium

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 4 2015
Trefwoorden Belgium, small matters, simple matters, recovery of unchallenged claims, summary order for payment
Auteurs Stefaan Voet

    This article is based on a national report that was written for the XVth World Congress of the International Association of Procedural Law that was held in Istanbul in May 2015 and that focused on Effective Judicial Relief and Remedies in an Age of Austerity. It first of all sketches the general judicial context in Belgium and some of its relevant features: the judicial organisation, the goals of the civil justice system, the course of an ordinary civil lawsuit, the role of the court, and the litigation costs. Next, a detailed and critical overview of the current and future procedures that offer relief in small and simple matters is given. The current summary order for payment procedure, which was introduced in 1967, did not meet its goals. The article concludes that a new trend is emerging in Belgium, namely keeping small and unchallenged claims outside the judiciary and providing for cheaper and more efficient alternatives.

Stefaan Voet
Stefaan Voet is an Associate Professor of Law at the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven and a Visiting Professor at the Universiteit Hasselt.

Access_open A View from the Sky

A General Overview about Civil Litigation in the United States with Reference to the Relief in Small and Simple Matters

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 4 2015
Trefwoorden civil procedure, United States, small and simple matters
Auteurs Manuel Gomez en Juan Carlos Gomez

    This article, which is based on the research conducted for the General Report ‘Relief in Small and Simple Matters in an Age of Austerity’ presented at the XV World Congress of Procedural Law, provides a contextualised and broad overview of these phenomena in the United States. After describing the general features of the federal and state judiciaries, including its adversarial model of judging, and the importance of the jury system, the article turns its attention to discuss the factors that affect the cost of litigation in the United States, the different models of litigation funding, the available legal aid mechanisms, and the procedural tools available for handling small and simple disputes. Furthermore, this article briefly revisits the discussion about the effect of austerity on the functioning of the United States legal system on the handling of small and simple matters and ends with a brief conclusion that summarises its contribution and sketches the points for future research on this important topic.

Manuel Gomez
Manuel Gomez is Associate Professor of Law and Associate Dean of International and Graduate Students at the Florida International University College of Law.

Juan Carlos Gomez
Juan Carlos Gomez is Director of the Carlos A. Costa Immigration and Human Rights Clinic at the Florida International University College of Law.

Access_open Religion Ain’t Sacrosanct

How to Fight Obsolete Accounts of Religious Freedom

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 3 2015
Trefwoorden Hobby Lobby, Hosanna-Tabor, tolerance-leaning liberalism, equality-leaning liberalism
Auteurs Roland Pierik

    This paper is largely an endorsement and a further elaboration of Cohen’s critical discussion of the Hobby Lobby and Hosanna-Tabor cases and the conceptual overstretch of religious freedom they embody. I disagree with Cohen, however, on the proper interpretation of this debate. Cohen construes the ominous Court cases as an anti-liberal attack on the liberal state order. My main thesis is that the root of this dispute can be traced back to a fault line within liberalism between a more tolerance-leaning and a more equality-leaning tradition. I argue that the ominous cases are instances of the tolerance-leaning tradition in liberalism, which once was characteristic of the liberal tradition. Still, I agree with Cohen that this tradition should be rejected because it reverts to an obsolete interpretation of religious freedom that defends unwarranted privileges for certain groups that are out of sync with the egalitarian underpinnings of contemporary liberal political orders.

Roland Pierik
Roland Pierik is Associate Professor of Legal Philosophy at the University of Amsterdam Law School.

The legacy and current relevance of Cappelletti and the Florence project on access to justice

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2015
Trefwoorden definition and dimensions access to justice, recommendations, historic context access to justice, current context access to justice
Auteurs Bernard Hubeau

    This contribution explains what access to justice can encompass and how the ideals about access to justice have developed in time. The way to do this is going back to the work of the famous scholars Cappelletti and Garth, who were responsible for a worldwide project on access to justice in the 1970s. Their main issue was to explain access to justice is more than the access to a judge and the organization of courts. Primarily, the system must be equally accessible to all, irrespective of social or economic status or other incapacity. But it also must lead to results that are individually and socially just and fair. Equal access and effective access are the central notions. Their work is put in perspective. The importance of their legacy and the question how we can get along with their work are stressed. Their definition is compared to a few other authoritative definitions. The waves in the history of access to justice are described and putting them in the current context illustrates why a fourth waved can be observed. The major question to be answered is how one can assess the challenges and obstacles of access to justice in the current context. Therefore, some recent dimensions and developments within access to justice are presented: the democratic dimension, the effectiveness of new social rights, the attention for poor and vulnerable people, further juridification, expanding frontiers of and monitoring access to justice, e-justice, and self-help. Finally, a few building blocks for reforms are presented.

Bernard Hubeau
Bernard Hubeau is a full-time Professor in Sociology and Sociology of Law at the Faculty of Law of the University of Antwerp. He also teaches at the Faculty of Social Sciences of the University of Antwerp and the Faculty of Law and Criminology of the University of Brussels. He is the former ombudsman of the city of Antwerp and of the Flemish Parliament.

Access to justice in consumer law

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2015
Trefwoorden consumer law, enforcement of consumer rights, costs of procedure, obstacles for enforcement
Auteurs Marco Loos

    In many areas of private law, mandatory substantive law protects consumers. In this contribution, I will argue that awarding consumer rights without properly regulating the consumer’s access to the court system renders these rights unenforceable through the ordinary courts. Several obstacles to the proper enforcement of consumer rights by individuals are identified, ranging from consumers’ lack of knowledge of their rights to the formalities of proceedings, the use of complex jargon and the costs involved in court procedures. It is argued that these obstacles produce such disincentives for consumers to maintain their rights that the result is that they do so in an insufficient manner, which leads to under-enforcement of consumer law.

Marco Loos
Marco Loos is Professor of Private Law, in particular of European consumer law, at the Centre for the Study of European Contract Law of the University of Amsterdam in the Netherlands and member of the Board of the Ius Commune Research School.

Responsibilities of the state and legal professions

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2015
Trefwoorden responsibilities, the state, lawyers, the judiciary and judges
Auteurs Mies Westerveld en Ashley Terlouw

    This contribution, which is based on the Dutch legal system, deals with the responsibilities of the State and legal professions in ensuring access to justice. The responsibilities of the four main players involved in bringing justice to the citizen are discussed: the legislator, the executive, the judiciary, and the legal profession. Responsibilities for access to justice do not only stem from the law, they do also evolve from societal problems and discussions. The contribution deals with both. Several actors share some of the responsibilities. One can think of responsibilities for information, for financing, and for being aware of vulnerabilities and other obstacles. What are the legal responsibilities and what other responsibilities are felt by the actors involved and how do they deal with them? And as a result: do they contribute to access to justice, do they form an obstacle, or both?

Mies Westerveld
Mies Westerveld is Professor Legal aid by special appointment and Professor in Labour Law (social insurance) at the University of Amsterdam. Her research concentrates on current issues of access to justice and state-financed legal aid on the one hand and the decreasing role of social insurance on a fragmented labour market on the other hand.

Ashley Terlouw
Ashley Terlouw is Professor in Sociology of Law at the Radboud University of Nijmegen. She is responsible for the Centre for Migration Law of the Radboud University. Besides she is part-time Judge at the District Court of Gelderland. Her research concentrates on legal and societal issues of asylum and equal treatment and on the working of the judiciary.

Challenges and obstacles to access to justice in health care

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2015
Trefwoorden patients’ rights, disciplinary law, medical negligence, right to complain
Auteurs Aart Hendriks

    In the Netherlands, patients have a large number of options to express their dissatisfaction about the services provided by health care providers and can institute all kind of (quasi) legal procedures. None of these procedures was however introduced to ensure patients’ right to access to justice. Access to justice for health care providers confronted with complaints by patients is even less guaranteed. An analysis of Dutch law and practice learns that the access to justice has not found an inroad in the health care sector yet. This is not to suggest that patients lack legal rights, but if access to justice was taken as a yardstick to measures laws against the health care sector, they would have looked differently.

Aart Hendriks
Aart Hendriks is Professor in Health Law at Leiden University, the Netherlands, legal advisor to the Royal Dutch Medical Association, and substitute judge at the District Court of Rotterdam. He has published extensively on health and human rights issues. He serves as advisor to various national and international organizations, is board member of a number of administrative bodies, and is editor of several scientific journals in the field of health, medicine, and human rights.

Art. 3:305a lid 2 BW schiet zijn doel voorbij!

Tijdschrift Maandblad voor Vermogensrecht, Aflevering 11 2015
Trefwoorden belangenbehartiging, collectieve actie, massaschade, rechtsbescherming, groepsactie
Auteurs Mr. K. Rutten

    Aan art. 3:305a lid 2 BW is een zin toegevoegd over (niet-)ontvankelijkheid van rechtspersonen omdat getwijfeld werd aan de zuiverheid van de motieven van bepaalde ad-hoc claimstichtingen. Aan de hand van twee uitspraken staat de auteur stil bij de rol en functie van commerciële belangenbehartigers in het collectieve actierecht en behandelt hij de vraag of deze toevoeging aan art. 3:305a lid 2 BW niet haar doel voorbijschiet.

Mr. K. Rutten
Mr. K. Rutten is advocaat bij Wijn & Stael Advocaten te Utrecht.

Pleiten, schikken of slikken

Een economische analyse van de Richtlijn inzake schadevorderingen bij inbreuken op het mededingingsrecht

Tijdschrift Markt & Mededinging, Aflevering 4 2015
Trefwoorden Richtlijn inzake schadevorderingen, schadevergoeding, boetes, civielrechtelijke handhaving, bestuursrechtelijke handhaving
Auteurs Peter van Wijck en Jan Kees Winters

    De Richtlijn inzake schadevorderingen beoogt de ‘civielrechtelijke handhaving’ van het mededinginsgrecht te bevorderen door schadevergoedingsacties te stimuleren. De schade die door (met name) een kartel is veroorzaakt, dient geheel te worden vergoed. Economisch gezien betekent dit een extra financiële belasting bovenop de bestuursrechtelijke boete. Het lijkt dan aannemelijk dat de afschrikwekkende werking op kartelgedrag wordt vergroot. Of dat zo is, hangt af van diverse factoren, zoals de boete, pakkans, mogelijkheid tot schikken en de kans op het feitelijk verkrijgen van een schadevergoeding.

Peter van Wijck
Dr. P.W. van Wijck is universitair hoofddocent aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Jan Kees Winters
Dr. J.K. Winters is principal bij RBB Economics.

Reden tot discussie over het Nederlandse planschadestelsel?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Omgevingsrecht, Aflevering 3 2015
Trefwoorden planschade, Wet nadeelcompensatie en schadevergoeding, Omgevingswet, nadeelcompensatie
Auteurs Mr. J.H.M. (Jonathan) Huijts en Prof. dr. C.W. (Chris) Backes

    In deze bijdrage wordt een pleidooi gehouden om na te denken over mogelijke principiële wijzigingen van het planschaderecht.

Mr. J.H.M. (Jonathan) Huijts
Mr. J.H.M. (Jonathan) Huijts schrijft een proefschrift waarin hij verschillende nadeelcompensatieregelingen vergelijkt. Hij is verbonden aan de Universiteit Maastricht.

Prof. dr. C.W. (Chris) Backes
Prof. dr. C.W. (Chris) Backes is hoogleraar bestuursrecht aan de Universiteit Maastricht.

De legal opinion-praktijk in Nederland

Tijdschrift Maandblad voor Vermogensrecht, Aflevering 10 2015
Trefwoorden legal opinion-praktijk, aansprakelijkheid opiniegever, legal opinion, opinion letter
Auteurs Mr. dr. R. Mellenbergh

    Opinion letters zijn een standaardonderdeel binnen de zakelijke transactiepraktijk. Zij kenmerken zich door vergaande standaardisatie. De legal opinion-praktijk kenmerkt zich verder door eigen gebruiken en vakjargon. In deze bijdrage wordt ingegaan op de betekenis van opinion letters en de daarin opgenomen legal opinions. Tevens wordt ingegaan op de mogelijke civielrechtelijke aansprakelijkheid van de opiniegever.

Mr. dr. R. Mellenbergh
Mr. dr. R. Mellenbergh is universitair hoofddocent/associate professor bij de Afdeling privaatrecht van de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid en directeur van het International Business Law-programma van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

    Een discussie over de schaderegeling bij whiplashzaken (WAD graad I en II) zou als uitgangspunt moeten hebben dat de slachtoffers erkend worden in hun (soms ook blijvende) klachten en beperkingen. Het is bekend dat in deze zaken een (aantoonbaar) medisch substraat ontbreekt, maar dat betekent niet dat de klachten niet reëel zijn of daardoor niet aan een ongeval kunnen worden toegerekend. Als de klachten een zekere ernst hebben, dan kunnen daaruit ook beperkingen voor bijvoorbeeld het verrichten van arbeid voortvloeien gedurende een lange looptijd. In juridisch opzicht is de ‘whiplashdiscussie’ al gevoerd: deze heeft (te) kort gezegd in het voordeel van het slachtoffer uitgepakt. Daarmee zijn we er echter nog niet: we zouden moeten proberen de schaderegeling in deze kwesties te verbeteren.

Mr. J.F. Schultz
Mr. J.F. Schultz, re is letselschadespecialist bij Pals groep letselschadespecialisten.

Lang verwacht, stil gezwegen, nooit gedacht, toch gekregen: de definitieve richtlijn betreffende schadevorderingen wegens mededingingsinbreuken

Tijdschrift Maandblad voor Vermogensrecht, Aflevering 4 2015
Trefwoorden kartelschade, inbreuk op mededingingsrecht, aansprakelijkheid, richtlijn betreffende schadevorderingen, schadevergoeding
Auteurs Mr. dr. E.-J. Zippro en Mr. dr. R. Meijer

    Op 26 november 2014 is de Europese richtlijn betreffende schadevorderingen wegens mededingingsinbreuken aangenomen. In deze bijdrage geven de auteurs een overzicht van de richtlijn en wordt de richtlijn vergeleken met het huidige Nederlandse recht, waarbij de auteurs aangeven of het Nederlandse recht naar hun mening dient te worden aangepast om de richtlijn te implementeren.

Mr. dr. E.-J. Zippro
Mr. dr. E.-J. Zippro is advocaat bij ZIPPRO & MEIJER Advocaten te Amsterdam en tevens als universitair docent verbonden aan het Instituut voor Privaatrecht van de Universiteit Leiden.

Mr. dr. R. Meijer
Mr. dr. R. Meijer is advocaat bij ZIPPRO & MEIJER Advocaten te Amsterdam en tevens als universitair docent verbonden aan het Molengraaff Instituut van de Universiteit Utrecht.

Schadevergoedingsregelingen voor slachtofferschap van seksueel misbruik: kwetsbaar voor fraude?

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 2 2015
Trefwoorden Schadevergoedingsregelingen, Slachtofferschap, Seksueel misbruik, Fraude
Auteurs Dr. mr. Maarten Kunst

    Lately, several private and public compensation schemes have been established in the Netherlands for people who have been sexually abused as a minor by representatives of the Catholic Church, childcare workers or foster parents. Eligible for compensation are those who can make a reasonable case of the likelihood that they have been sexually abused. They do not have to provide indisputable proof of the abuse. The author of this article argues that this low burden of proof makes these compensation schemes vulnerable to fraud. He supports his argumentation with several examples of dishonest victims who have been unmasked as fraudsters. Furthermore, he explains that undetected fraud can have several adverse by-effects, such as the condemnation of falsely accused persons and impairment of the credibility of compensation schemes and agencies that run such schemes. The author concludes with emphasizing the need for more explicit policies on fraud prevention, detection, and control.

Dr. mr. Maarten Kunst
Dr. mr. M.J.J. Kunst is universitair hoofddocent Criminologie aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

‘Moral hazard’ onder slachtoffers van identiteitsfraude? De relatie tussen schadevergoeding bij onterechte bankafschrijvingen en riskant internetgedrag

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 2 2015
Trefwoorden Identiteitsfraude, Schadevergoeding, Online activiteiten, Onbedoelde gevolgen
Auteurs Dr. Johan Van Wilsem en Levy Paulissen MSc

    Due to digitalization of modern societies, identity fraud is becoming a serious problem. Until recently, Dutch victims of unauthorized cash withdrawals from their bank accounts were reimbursed by their banks in most instances. Because most victims were not confronted with financial damages, this generous reimbursement policy may have unintendedly stimulated moral hazard among victims, due to a lack of incentives to change risky behavior and avoid future victimization. This paper therefore compares post-victimization changes in Internet activities among reimbursed victims of identity fraud and non-reimbursed victims, as well as non-victims. For this purpose, large-scale, representative victimization survey data were used from the Dutch LISS-panel. Overall, we found no differences in Internet activity change between the distinguished groups, which points to the absence of moral hazard in this specific case.

Dr. Johan Van Wilsem
Dr. Johan van Wilsem is universitair hoofddocent Criminologie aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Levy Paulissen MSc
Levy Paulissen MSc is werkzaam als stagiair bij Europol (afdeling cybercrime).
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