Zoekresultaat: 77 artikelen

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Jaar 2016 x
Artikel

Versteviging van risicomanagement in het perspectief van de herziening van de Nederlandse Corporate Governance Code

Tijdschrift Maandblad voor Ondernemingsrecht, Aflevering 10-11 2016
Trefwoorden risicomanagement, compliance, interne audit, corporate governance, herziening Code
Auteurs Mr. H. Koster
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In dit artikel gaat de auteur in op de voorgestelde wijzigingen van de Nederlandse Corporate Governance Code op het terrein van risicomanagement. De auteur is positief over de voorgestelde wijzigingen. Wel zijn nog enkele verbeteringen mogelijk.


Mr. H. Koster
Mr. H. Koster is verbonden aan het Departement Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Utrecht.
Editorial

Access_open Legal Control on Social Control of Sex Offenders in the Community: A European Comparative and Human Rights Perspective

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 2 2016
Trefwoorden social control, folk devils, moral panic, dangerousness, sex offenders
Auteurs Michiel van der Wolf (Issue Editor)
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This paper provides first of all the introduction to this special issue on ‘Legal constraints on the indeterminate control of “dangerous” sex offenders in the community: A European comparative and human rights perspective’. The issue is the outcome of a study that aims at finding the way legal control can not only be an instrument but also be a controller of social control. It is explained what social control is and how the concept of moral panic plays a part in the fact that sex offenders seem to be the folk devils of our time and subsequently pre-eminently the target group of social control at its strongest. Further elaboration of the methodology reveals why focussing on post-sentence (indeterminate) supervision is relevant, as there are hardly any legal constraints in place in comparison with measures of preventive detention. Therefore, a comparative approach within Europe is taken on the basis of country reports from England and Wales, France, Germany, The Netherlands and Spain. In the second part of the paper, the comparative analysis is presented. Similar shifts in attitudes towards sex offenders have led to legislation concerning frameworks of supervision in all countries but in different ways. Legal constraints on these frameworks are searched for in legal (sentencing) theory, the principles of proportionality and least intrusive means, and human rights, mainly as provided in the European Convention on Human Rights to which all the studied countries are subject. Finally, it is discussed what legal constraints on the control of sex offenders in the community are (to be) in place in European jurisdictions, based on the analysis of commonalities and differences found in the comparison.


Michiel van der Wolf (Issue Editor)
Ph.D., LL.M, M.Sc., Reader in Criminal Law (Theory) and Forensic Psychiatry at the Erasmus School of Law; Member of the Editorial Board of the Erasmus Law Review.
Article

Access_open Legal Constraints on the Indeterminate Control of ‘Dangerous’ Sex Offenders in the Community: The Spanish Perspective

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 2 2016
Trefwoorden Supervised release, supervision, sex offenders, dangerousness, safety measures, societal upheaval, proportionality
Auteurs Lucía Martínez Garay en Jorge Correcher Mira
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article presents an overview of the legal regime provided in the Spanish system of criminal sanctions regarding the control of dangerous sex offenders in the community. It focuses on the introduction, in 2010, of a post-prison safety measure named supervised release. We describe the context of its introduction in the Spanish Criminal Code, considering the influence of societal upheaval concerning dangerous sex offenders in its development, and also the historical and theoretical features of the Spanish system of criminal sanctions. We also analyse the legal framework of supervised release, the existing case law about it and how the legal doctrine has until now assessed this measure. After this analysis, the main aim of this article consists in evaluating the effectiveness and the proportionality of the measure, according to the principle of minimal constraints and the rehabilitative function of the criminal sanctions in Spanish law, stated in Article 25.2 of the Spanish Constitution.


Lucía Martínez Garay
Lucía Martínez Garay is a Senior Lecturer at the University of Valencia, Department of Criminal Law.

Jorge Correcher Mira
Jorge Correcher Mira, Ph.D., is an Assistant Lecturer at the University of Valencia, Department of Criminal Law.
Article

Access_open Legal Constraints on the Indeterminate Control of ‘Dangerous’ Sex Offenders in the Community: The German Perspective

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 2 2016
Trefwoorden Supervision, twin track system, principle of proportionality, human rights, violent and sex offenders
Auteurs Bernd-Dieter Meier
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    After release from prison or a custodial preventive institution, offenders may come under supervision in Germany, which means that their conduct is controlled for a period of up to five years or even for life by a judicial supervising authority. Supervision is terminated if it can be expected that even in the absence of further supervision the released person will not commit any further offences. From the theoretical point of view, supervision is not considered a form of punishment in Germany, but a preventive measure that is guided by the principle of proportionality. After a presentation of the German twin track system of criminal sanctions and a glimpse at sentencing theory, the capacity of the principle of proportionality to guide and control judicial decisions in the field of preventive sanctions is discussed. The human rights perspective plays only a minor role in the context of supervision in Germany.


Bernd-Dieter Meier
Prof. Dr. Bernd-Dieter Meier is the Chair in Criminal Law and Criminology at the Law Faculty of Leibniz University Hannover.
Article

Access_open Legal Constraints on the Indeterminate Control of ‘Dangerous’ Sex Offenders in the Community: The Dutch Perspective

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 2 2016
Trefwoorden Dutch penal law, preventive supervision, dangerous offenders, human rights, social rehabilitation
Auteurs Sanne Struijk en Paul Mevis
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the Netherlands, the legal possibilities for post-custodial supervision have been extended considerably in recent years. A currently passed law aims to further increase these possibilities specifically for dangerous (sex) offenders. This law consists of three separate parts that may all result in life-long supervision. In the first two parts, the supervision is embedded in the conditional release after either a prison sentence or the safety measure ‘ter beschikking stelling’ (TBS). This paper focuses on the third part of the law, which introduces an independent supervisory safety measure as a preventive continuation of both a prison sentence and the TBS measure. Inevitably, this new independent sanction raises questions about legitimacy and necessity, on which this paper reflects from a human rights perspective. Against the background of the existing Dutch penal law system, the content of the law is thoroughly assessed in view of the legal framework of the Council of Europe and the legal principles of proportionality and less restrictive means. In the end, we conclude that the supervisory safety measure is not legitimate nor necessary (yet). Apart from the current lack of (empirical evidence of) necessity, we state that there is a real possibility of an infringement of Article 5(4) ECHR and Article 7 ECHR, a lack of legitimising supervision ‘gaps’ in the existing penal law system, and finally a lack of clear legal criteria. Regardless of the potential severity of violent (sex) offenses, to simply justify this supervisory safety measure on the basis of ‘better safe than sorry’ is not enough.


Sanne Struijk
Sanne Struijk, Ph.D., is an Associate Professor at the Erasmus School of Law.

Paul Mevis
Paul Mevis is a Professor at the Erasmus School of Law.
Article

Access_open Legal Constraints on the Indeterminate Control of ‘Dangerous’ Sex Offenders in the Community: The French Perspective

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 2 2016
Trefwoorden Preventive detention, mandatory supervision, sex offenders, retrospective penal laws, legality principle
Auteurs Martine Herzog-Evans
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    France literally ‘discovered’ sexual abuse following neighbour Belgium’s Dutroux case in the late 1990s. Since then, sex offenders have been the focus of politicians, media and law-makers’ attention. Further law reforms have aimed at imposing mandatory supervision and treatment, and in rare cases, preventive detention. The legal framework for mandatory supervision and detention is rather complex, ranging from a mixed sentence (custodial and mandatory supervision and treatment upon release or as a stand-alone sentence) to so-called ‘safety measures’, which supposedly do not aim at punishing an offence, but at protecting society. The difference between the concepts of sentences and safety measures is nevertheless rather blurry. In practice, however, courts have used safety measures quite sparingly and have preferred mandatory supervision as attached to a sentence, notably because it is compatible with cardinal legal principles. Procedural constraints have also contributed to this limited use. Moreover, the type of supervision and treatment that can thus be imposed is virtually identical to that of ordinary probation. It is, however, noteworthy that a higher number of offenders with mental health issues who are deemed ‘dangerous’ are placed in special psychiatric units, something that has not drawn much attention on the part of human rights lawyers.


Martine Herzog-Evans
Martine H-Evans, PhD, is a Professor at the Department of Law, Universite de Reims Champagne-Ardenne.
Artikel

Succes- en faalfactoren bij het strafrechtelijk afpakken van crimineel vermogen bij milieucriminaliteit

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Bijzonder Strafrecht & Handhaving, Aflevering 4 2016
Trefwoorden Milieucriminaliteit, Milieu(straf)recht, Afpakken, Strafrechtelijk afpakken, Financieel rechercheren
Auteurs N. van Zanden, MSc en Dr. R. Neve
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Het besef dat milieucriminaliteit hoofdzakelijk wordt gepleegd om er geld mee te verdienen is, anders dan bij ‘traditionele’ vormen van georganiseerde criminaliteit zoals drugs- en mensenhandel, van betrekkelijk recente datum. Om die reden is er langere tijd minder geïnvesteerd in financiële capaciteit bij milieuteams bij de Nationale Politie, Inspectie Leefomgeving en Transport en de Nederlandse Voedsel- en Warenautoriteit. De laatste jaren is getracht om deze achterstand in te lopen. In dit artikel wordt de huidige stand van zaken besproken aangaande de financiële focus en het strafrechtelijk afpakken van crimineel vermogen bij milieucriminaliteit.


N. van Zanden, MSc
N. van Zanden, MSc, is operationeel specialist bij de Nationale Politie, Dienst Informatieknooppunt Landelijke Recherche (vakgebieden: milieu en cybercrime). Daarnaast is zij op projectbasis verbonden aan de Politieacademie te Apeldoorn.

Dr. R. Neve
Dr. R. Neve is senior onderzoeker bij de Landelijke Eenheid van de Nationale Politie.
ECJ Court Watch

ECJ (Grand Chamber) 18 October 2016, case C-135/15 (Nikiforidis), Applicable law

Republik Griechenland – v – Grigorios Nikiforidis

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 4 2016
Trefwoorden Applicable-law
Samenvatting

    The Rome I Regulation only applies to contracts concluded before 17 December 2009 insofar as the contract has undergone major change afterwards. It precludes overriding mandatory provisions other than those of the forum court.

ECJ Court Watch

ECJ 14 September 2016, case C-16/15 (Pérez López), Fixed-term work

María Elena Pérez López – v – Servicio Madrileño de Salud (Comunidad de Madrid)

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 4 2016
Trefwoorden Fixed-term work
Samenvatting

    Successive fixed-term contracts cannot be justified by legal provisions allowing renewal in order to ensure the provision of certain services of a temporary, auxiliary or extraordinary nature when, in reality, there is no obligation to create additional permanent posts in order to bring an end to the structural use of fixed-term work to fill permanent posts.

Case Reports

2016/57 No compensation for an invalid non-compete clause where no harm shown (FR)

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 4 2016
Trefwoorden Non-compete, Damage compensation
Auteurs Claire Toumieux en Susan Ekrami
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    An employee who could not prove any harm resulting from an invalid non-compete clause in his employment contract could not obtain damages.


Claire Toumieux
Claire Toumieux and Susan Ekrami are a partner and associate with Allen & Overy LLP in Paris, www.allenovery.com.

Susan Ekrami

    In one of the first high-profile cases under the Protected Disclosures Act 2014 (i.e. whistleblowing legislation), two employees have successfully secured an injunction in the Circuit Court which prevents their dismissal.


Lucy O’Neill
Lucy O’Neill is an associate at Mason Hayes & Curan, www.MHC.ie.

    The comparative discussions held during this seminar show that the different jurisdictions make use of – approximately – the same ingredients for their legislation on adult guardianship measures and continuing powers of attorney. Given the common international framework (for example the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities) and given the common societal context (cfr. the strong increase of the ageing population) this may not come as a surprise. Despite these common ingredients, the different jurisdictions have managed to arrive at different dishes spiced with specific local flavours. Given that each jurisdiction bears its own history and specific policy plans, this may not come as a surprise either. The adage ‘same same but different’ is in this respect a suitable bromide.
    For my own research, the several invitations – that implicitly or explicitly arose from the different discussions – to rethink important concepts or assumptions were of most relevance and importance. A particular example that comes to mind is the suggestion to ‘reverse the jurisprudence’ and to take persons with disabilities instead of healthy adult persons as a point of reference. Also, the invitation to rethink the relationship between the limitation of capacity and the attribution of a guard comes to mind as the juxtaposition of the different jurisdictions showed that these two aspects don’t need to be automatically combined. Also the discussion on the interference between the continuing powers of attorney and the supervision by the court, provoked further reflection on hybrid forms of protection on my part. Finally, the ethical and medical-legal approaches may lead to a reconsideration of the traditional underlying concepts of autonomy and the assessment of capacity.


Veerle Vanderhulst Ph.D.
Veerle Vanderhulst works at the Faculty of Law and Criminology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel

Winfred Knibbeler
Mr. W. Knibbeler is advocaat bij Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer LLP te Amsterdam.
Article

Access_open A Theoretical Framework to Study Variations in Workplace Violence Experienced by Emergency Responders

Integrating Opportunity and Vulnerability Perspectives

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden Workplace aggression, workplace violence, emergency responders, blaming the victim, victimology
Auteurs Lisa van Reemst
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Emergency responders are often sent to the front line and are often confronted with aggression and violence in interaction with citizens. According to previous studies, some professionals experience more workplace violence than others. In this article, the theoretical framework to study variations in workplace violence against emergency responders is described. According to criminal opportunity theories, which integrate the routine activity theory and lifestyle/exposure theory, victimisation is largely dependent on the lifestyle and routine activities of persons. Situational characteristics that could be related to workplace violence are organisational or task characteristics, such as having more contact with citizens or working at night. However, they do not provide insight in all aspects of influence, and their usefulness to reduce victimisation is limited. Therefore, it is important to consider the role of personal characteristics of the emergency responders that may be more or less ‘attractive’, which is elaborated upon by the victim precipitation theory. Psychological and behavioural characteristics of emergency responders may be relevant to reduce external workplace violence. The author argues that, despite the risk of being considered as blaming the victim, studying characteristics that might prevent victimisation is needed. Directions for future studies about workplace violence are discussed. These future studies should address a combination of victim and situation characteristics, use a longitudinal design and focus on emergency responders. In addition, differences between professions in relationships between characteristics and workplace violence should be explored.


Lisa van Reemst
Lisa van Reemst, M.Sc., is a Ph.D. candidate at the Erasmus University Rotterdam.
Article

Access_open Keck in Capital? Redefining ‘Restrictions’ in the ‘Golden Shares’ Case Law

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 4 2016
Trefwoorden Keck, selling arrangements, market access, golden shares, capital
Auteurs Ilektra Antonaki
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The evolution of the case law in the field of free movement of goods has been marked by consecutive changes in the legal tests applied by the Court of Justice of the European Union for the determination of the existence of a trade restriction. Starting with the broad Dassonville and Cassis de Dijon definition of MEEQR (measures having equivalent effect to a quantitative restriction), the Court subsequently introduced the Keck-concept of ‘selling arrangements’, which allowed for more regulatory autonomy of the Member States, but proved insufficient to capture disguised trade restrictions. Ultimately, a refined ‘market access’ test was adopted, qualified by the requirement of a ‘substantial’ hindrance on inter-State trade. Contrary to the free movement of goods, the free movement of capital has not undergone the same evolutionary process. Focusing on the ‘golden shares’ case law, this article questions the broad interpretation of ‘capital restrictions’ and seeks to investigate whether the underlying rationale of striking down any special right that could have a potential deterrent effect on inter-State investment is compatible with the constitutional foundations of negative integration. So far the Court seems to promote a company law regime that endorses shareholders’ primacy, lacking, however, the constitutional and institutional legitimacy to decide on such a highly political question. It is thus suggested that a refined test should be adopted that would capture measures departing from ordinary company law and hindering market access of foreign investors, while at the same time allowing Member States to determine their corporate governance systems.


Ilektra Antonaki
Ilektra Antonaki, LL.M., is a PhD candidate at Leiden University, The Netherlands.
Artikel

Access_open The Erosion of Sovereignty

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2016
Trefwoorden sovereignty, state, Léon Duguit, European Union, Eurozone
Auteurs Martin Loughlin
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article presents an account of sovereignty as a concept that signifies in jural terms the nature and quality of political relations within the modern state. It argues, first, that sovereignty is a politico-legal concept that expresses the autonomous nature of the state’s political power and its specific mode of operation in the form of law and, secondly, that many political scientists and lawyers present a skewed account by confusing sovereignty with governmental competence. After clarifying its meaning, the significance of contemporary governmental change is explained as one that, in certain respects, involves an erosion of sovereignty.


Martin Loughlin
Martin Loughlin is Professor of Public Law at the London School of Economics and Political Science and EURIAS Senior Fellow at the Freiburg Institute of Advanced Studies (FRIAS).
Artikel

Access_open National Identity, Constitutional Identity, and Sovereignty in the EU

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2016
Trefwoorden national identity, constitutional identity, EU law, constitutional courts, Court of Justice
Auteurs Elke Cloots
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article challenges the assumption, widespread in European constitutional discourse, that ‘national identity’ and ‘constitutional identity’ can be used interchangeably. First, this essay demonstrates that the conflation of the two terms lacks grounding in a sound theory of legal interpretation. Second, it submits that the requirements of respect for national and constitutional identity, as articulated in the EU Treaty and in the case law of certain constitutional courts, respectively, rest on different normative foundations: fundamental principles of political morality versus a claim to State sovereignty. Third, it is argued that the Treaty-makers had good reasons for writing into the EU Treaty a requirement of respect for the Member States’ national identities rather than the States’ sovereignty, or their constitutional identity.


Elke Cloots
Elke Cloots is post-doctoral researcher at the Centre for Government and Law, University of Hasselt.
Redactioneel

Toezicht in samenwerking

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Toezicht, Aflevering 4 2016
Auteurs Dr. Karin van Wingerde en Prof. mr. Gustaaf Biezeveld
Auteursinformatie

Dr. Karin van Wingerde
Dr. C.G. van Wingerde is universitair docent criminologie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam en lid van de redactie van Tijdschrift voor Toezicht.

Prof. mr. Gustaaf Biezeveld
Prof. mr. G.A. Biezeveld is emeritus hoogleraar milieurecht, voormalig officier van justitie en lid van de redactie van Tijdschrift voor Toezicht.
Artikel

De beperkte macht van de regel

De kracht van sturen op gewenst gedrag bij verandering in de financiële en zorgsector

Tijdschrift Maandblad voor Vermogensrecht, Aflevering 11 2016
Trefwoorden effectiviteit van wetgeving, publieke toezichthouders, cultuur en gedrag
Auteurs Mr. dr. M.F.M. van den Berg, Mr. H.F.L. Goverde en Mr. C.W.M. Vergouwen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    De macht van de regel is beperkt. Veranderingen binnen de financiële sector en de gezondheidssector vereisen vooral een gedragsverandering van de traditionele spelers binnen die sectoren. Wet- en regelgeving kunnen maar een beperkte rol spelen om de vereiste veranderingen te realiseren. Dit geldt voor meerdere (publieke) sectoren van de samenleving. Zeker als sprake is van overregulering en daarmee samenhangende regeldruk, zoals in de financiële sector het geval is.


Mr. dr. M.F.M. van den Berg
Mr. dr. M.F.M. van den Berg is zelfstandig trainer en adviseur op juridisch en compliancegebied. Daarnaast is zij als research fellow verbonden aan het Tilburg Institute for Private Law (TIP) en het Amsterdam Centre for Insurance Studies (ACIS). Tevens is zij redacteur van dit tijdschrift.

Mr. H.F.L. Goverde
Mr. H.F.L. Goverde is voormalig Group Compliance Officer van Achmea en directeur Juridische Zaken van Interpolis. Thans is hij partner van het organisatieadviesbureau ZorgopKoers. Daarnaast vervult hij bestuurs- en toezichtfuncties binnen de zorg- en verzekeringssector.

Mr. C.W.M. Vergouwen
Mr. C.W.M. Vergouwen is Manager Compliance & ORM bij Achmea.
Artikel

“The production of law”: Law in action in the everyday and the juridical consequences of juridification

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden juridification, production of space, law in action, local bye-laws
Auteurs dr. mr. Danielle Chevalier
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In an increasingly diversifying society, public space is the quintessential social realm1x Lofland 1998. where members of that diverse society meet each other. Thus space is shared, whilst norms regarding that space are not always shared. Of rivalling norms, some are codified into formal law, in a process Habermas called juridification. Early Habermas regarded juridification a negative process, ‘colonizing the lifeworld’. Later Habermas argued juridification a viable pillar for conviviality in diversity. The shift in Habermas’ perspective invites the question how law works in action. In this article a frame is offered to scrutinize the working of law in action in public space, by applying the conceptual triad of spatial thinker Lefebvre to understand how law is “produced”. It argues that how law is perceived in action is pivotal to understanding how law works in action. Moreover, it discusses the possible ramifications of the perception of law in action for how the legal system as a whole is perceived.

Noten

  • 1 Lofland 1998.


dr. mr. Danielle Chevalier
Danielle Chevalier is a lecturer and research fellow at the University of Amsterdam, affiliated to both the Bonger Institute for Criminology and the Amsterdam School for Social Science Research. Her academic works focuses on the intersection of the legal and the spatial, positioned within the frames of urban sociology, criminology and legal sociology. More specifically she researches legal interventions in the urban realm through qualitative methods, and publishes both on law in action and research methods. Her current project centers on the development of the concept 'emotional ownership of public space'.
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