Zoekresultaat: 5 artikelen

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Jaar 2010 x
Artikel

Downloaders van kinderporno

Een overzicht van de literatuur

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2010
Trefwoorden Kinderporno, Downloaden, Zedencriminaliteit, Literatuurstudie
Auteurs Anton van Wijk
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Unlike the physical abusers of children, little is known about downloaders of child pornography. The key questions in this article are: who are the downloaders, what are their backgrounds, why and how they download child pornography, how they behave offline and online and what types of downloaders can be distinguished? A simple answer to these questions is currently impossible to give. There is more, preferably longitudinal, research needed on risk factors for downloading child pornography and the various types of downloaders. Combating the downloaders requires a lot of the police in terms of international cooperation and up to date knowledge and expertise. This also served the treatment practices, which is partly dependent on a properly conducted police investigation.


Anton van Wijk
Dr. mr. A.Ph. van Wijk is criminoloog en directeur van Bureau Beke. E-mail: a.vanwijk@beke.nl.
Artikel

Gekocht, maar niet gekregen

Slachtofferschap van online oplichting nader onderzocht

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2010
Trefwoorden Online oplichting, Slachtofferschap, Slachtofferenquête, Lage zelfcontrole
Auteurs Johan van Wilsem
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Consumer fraud seems to be widespread, yet little research is devoted to understanding why certain social groups are more vulnerable to this type of victimization than others. The present paper deals with internet consumer fraud victimization, and uses an explanatory model that combines insights from self control theory and routine activity theory. The results from large-scale victimization survey data among the Dutch general population (N=6,201) reveal that people with low self-control run substantially higher victimization risk, as well as people performing ‘risky’ routine activities, such as online shopping and participation in online forums. Though a minority share of the self-control-victimization link is indirect – because people with low self-control are more involved in risk-enhancing routine activities – a large direct effect on internet fraud victimization remains. This suggests that, within similar situations, people with poor impulse control respond differently to deceptive online commercial offers.


Johan van Wilsem
Dr. Johan van Wilsem is werkzaam als universitair docent Criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden, Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie. Contactadres: postbus 9520, 2300 RA Leiden. Tel. 071-5277418. E-mail: J.A.van.Wilsem@law.leidenuniv.nl.

    This article aims to assess the security situation in South Africa during the FIFA World Cup by considering the crime situation and the potential for terrorism. Consideration is also given to the ability of the police and other security services to provide the required level of security without neglecting their normal law enforcement responsibilities and leaving South Africans in general more exposed to crime. A major international event such as the World Cup is an ideal facilitator for crime and a potential target for terrorist groups. South Africa does not presently face any direct terrorist threat, but given the number and diversity of participating countries, there will always be a risk. In general, however, from the evidence it would appear that the South African security services are well prepared to ensure a safe and secure World Cup.


J. Burger
Dr. Johan Burger is als senior onderzoeker verbonden aan het Institute for Security Studies in Tshwane (Pretoria).

    Cross-border police cooperation, in any case against political adversaries, has always been an important component in the foreign policy of European states, especially when police forces were established in their colonies during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Against this background it was quite astonishing, because very artificial, that in the Maastricht Treaty a rather clear distinction was made between a second pillar (foreign and defense policy) and a third pillar (justice and home affairs, later on called police and judicial cooperation). Over the years this gap has been bridged from two sides: on the one side the geographical enlargement of the European Union into Central and Eastern Europe asked for the integration of police and judicial cooperation in the related policies vis-à-vis the (new) member states; on the other side the enlargement of the political and military role of the European Union on the international stage, reinforced by the 9/11 attacks on the United States. The proposal in the The Hague Program (2004) that it is necessary to develop a coherent strategy with regard to the ‘external’ aspects of the European Union policy in the area of freedom, security and justice, has led to the formulation of such a strategy by the member states. This strategy partly focuses on the containment of serious general problems like the containment of terrorism and organized crime and partly on the reinforcement of criminal justice systems in, respectively the strengthening of police and judicial cooperation with specific important third states. The Stockholm Program sticks to this format, but underlines the necessity to reinforce the coherence between the ‘external’ freedom, security and justice policy of the European Union and the police missions it organizes in a number of weak, failing or failed states.


C. Fijnaut
Prof. dr. Cyrille Fijnaut is als hoogleraar internationaal en vergelijkend strafrecht verbonden aan de Faculteit Rechtswetenschappen van de Universiteit van Tilburg.
Artikel

Digitale en traditionele bedreiging vergeleken

Een studie naar risicofactoren van slachtofferschap

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 1 2010
Trefwoorden Bedreiging, Slachtofferschap, Cybercriminaliteit, Internet
Auteurs dr. Johan van Wilsem
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Computers and the internet offer new ways to offenders for committing crimes. The present article uses routine activity theory and large-scale victimization survey data (N=6,896) to study digital threat victimization (i.e. threats people receive by email or chat rooms) in the general population. It assesses risk factors for digital threats and compares them with risk factors for receiving traditional threats and a mixture of digital and traditional threats. The results show that youngsters and offenders of digital crime run higher risks of all types of threat victimization. In extension, outdoor routine activities increase the risk not only of traditional threats but of digital threats as well, while the same holds for certain computer activities (e.g. having a profile on Hyves). These findings point towards the connection of social interactions between people in the physical and digital world. Finally, the results suggest that impulsive people are more vulnerable to threat victimization.


dr. Johan van Wilsem
Dr. Johan van Wilsem is werkzaam als universitair docent criminologie, Universiteit Leiden, J.A.van.Wilsem@law.leidenuniv.nl.
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