Zoekresultaat: 66 artikelen

x
Jaar 2015 x
Artikel

De remmende werking van huwelijk en arbeid op vermogensdelicten. Rotterdam, 1812-1820

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2015
Trefwoorden property crime, marriage, labour, nineteenth century, Netherlands
Auteurs Bjørn Gallée BA en Jaap Ligthart MA
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Within the field of criminology, marriage and labour are important determinants for the decline in criminal behavior. However, these factors are seldom researched in the context of historical criminology. By conducting research into crimes against property in Rotterdam, those brought to the Rotterdam correctional court in the 1812-1820 period, this paper attempts to shed light on the topic. Our findings show that a majority of the delinquents in question were employed, while a minority of those female delinquents were married, yet also in gainful employment in most cases. Male adolescents, who had just entered the labour market, were the largest group of male delinquents. The female population of delinquents consisted mostly of women who were close to marriageable age. Thus, it is suggested that labour and marriage supplied insufficient economical stability to inhibit criminal behavior during the 1812-1820 period.


Bjørn Gallée BA
B. Gallée, BA is werkzaam als onderzoeksassistent in het project ‘Crime and Gender’ aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Jaap Ligthart MA
J. Ligthart, MA was in 2013 werkzaam als onderzoeksassistent in het project ‘Crime and Gender’ en promoveert momenteel aan de Universiteit Leiden op financiële problemen van vorsten in de vijftiende-eeuwse Nederlanden.

    This paper looks at how Dutch newspapers dealt with mental disorders and gender in their crime reports in 1930. The Psychopath Acts, which allowed special restriction orders (‘TBR’) to be imposed on mentally disturbed delinquents who were a danger to society, had just come into effect then. The newspapers did not present such TBR criminals as dangerous or mentally disturbed. Instead, the papers used ‘madness’ to explain apparently motiveless crimes such as killing one’s own children. Female perpetrators were no more likely to be labelled mentally ill than male perpetrators.


Clare Wilkinson MA
C. Wilkinson, MA is promovendus aan de Universiteit Leiden.
Praktijk

Migranten en minderheden in het vizier van staat en politie

Een langetermijnperspectief

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2015
Auteurs Prof. dr. Margo De Koster
Auteursinformatie

Prof. dr. Margo De Koster
Prof. dr. M. De Koster is universitair docent historische criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en de Vrije Universiteit Brussel.
Redactioneel

Historische criminologie: een vakgebied

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2015
Trefwoorden History, social change, comparative analysis, crime trends, crime patterns
Auteurs Prof. dr. mr. Catrien Bijleveld, Prof. dr. Margo De Koster en Prof. dr. Manon van der Heijden
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Throughout history people have committed theft, fraud and murder. However, the frequency and severity of crimes are not static, but varies across time and space. The ways in which people respond to crime also change over time: penalties such as banishment, corporal punishment and capital punishment were frequently imposed in early modern Europe, but do not exist here anymore. Our thinking about crime and crime control changed over time as well. In addition to so-called hard crimes such as theft and homicide, various kinds of conduct were – in some times and periods – labeled as criminal (adultery, fornication and blasphemy). In crime control, state formation resulted in the emergence and expansion and professionalization of police forces and judicial systems, which development was accompanied by increasing interactions and interplays between supranational governments, private crime fighters, and informal forms of social control. Criminologists study fluid phenomena which vary across time and space. This makes exchange of knowledge and research cooperation between historians and criminologists particularly fruitful, or as Paul Knepper put it: ‘From what has been done so far, one thing is clear enough: the most interesting criminology arises at the point that history and criminology meet’ (Knepper, 2013, 2081).


Prof. dr. mr. Catrien Bijleveld
Prof. dr. mr. C.C.J.H. Bijleveld is hoogleraar methoden & technieken van criminologisch onderzoek en directeur van het NSCR.

Prof. dr. Margo De Koster
Prof. dr. M. De Koster is universitair docent historische criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en de Vrije Universiteit Brussel.

Prof. dr. Manon van der Heijden
Prof. dr. M.P.C. van der Heijden is hoogleraar Comparative Urban History aan de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Stapels koopwaar als eene bestendige aanlokking voor dieven’. De economische visie op criminaliteit en criminaliteitscontrole in de haven van Antwerpen (1880-1940)

De economische visie op criminaliteit en criminaliteitscontrole in de haven van Antwerpen (1880-1940)

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2015
Trefwoorden governance of security, private security, crime control, situational crime prevention, loss prevention
Auteurs Drs. P. Leloup
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution focuses on the manner in which between 1880 and 1940 private actors in the port of Antwerp, whether or not in cooperation with the public authorities, interpreted crime and crime control in terms of risk management, loss prevention and situational crime prevention through a strict economic approach, as opposed to the then dominant institutionalized and criminological discourse. Whereas crime control by the major criminal justice institutions put an emphasis on the biological, psychological and sociological characteristics of the offender, measures taken by maritime, industrial and commercial organizations were aimed exclusively at manipulating the temporal and spatial dimensions of the opportunity structures in which criminal activities, which posed a threat to the economic profitability, could develop.


Drs. P. Leloup
Drs. P. Leloup is verbonden aan de Crime & Society (CRiS)-onderzoeksgroep van de Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Faculteit Recht en Criminologie, is houder van masterdiploma’s geschiedenis (Universiteit Gent, 2009) en criminologische wetenschappen (Universiteit Gent, 2012) en werkt aan een proefschrift over de ontwikkeling van de private veiligheidszorg in België, getiteld ‘The development of the private security industry in Belgium (1907-1990). A historical-criminological perspective on contemporary changes in security and crime control’.
Artikel

Minderjarige slachtoffers in herstelbemiddeling: positie en ervaringen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 4 2015
Trefwoorden jeugdige slachtoffers, Herstelbemiddeling, Participatie, Inspraak
Auteurs Eline Renders BA en Inge Vanfraechem
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article studies the position of young victims in restorative justice and mediation. First we study the literature, which shows that although young victims may have specific needs, their position within restorative justice remains underexposed. Therefore, we have set up a small explorative study in the beginning of 2015. Through nine interviews with young victims who have gone through a mediation process in Flanders, we sought to answer three central questions. The article discusses whether these victims were satisfied with the mediation process, whether they could have a say in the process and what the importance was of having support persons throughout the mediation process.
    We found that the participation of the parents does influence the mediation process, since the parents are the main support persons for the young victim. Other support people are seldom present in the process, although some victims wanted the school or a friend to participate. Most of the young victims found they had a say in the process, but the presence of the parents could be an impediment in that regard. Young victims interviewed were generally satisfied with the mediator and mediation process, but not always with the outcome of the mediation. Ensuring that these young victims really get a say in the process proved to be a point of attention for practice.


Eline Renders BA
Eline Renders is BA in sociaal werk (KH Leuven) en MA in Criminologie (KU Leuven) en schreef haar thesis aangaande herstelbemiddeling en minderjarige slachtoffers. Ze deed haar stage bij de Bemiddelingsdienst van het Arrondissement Leuven.

Inge Vanfraechem
Inge Vanfraechem is senior onderzoeker aan het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie (KU Leuven) en redactielid van dit tijdschrift.
Artikel

De epidemiologie van kinderdoding in Nederland, 2009-2014

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 0304 2015
Trefwoorden Child homicide, Filicide, The Netherlands, Epidemiology, Copycat
Auteurs Marieke Liem en Stephanie Haarhuis
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Child homicide is a phenomenon that not infrequently leads to shock and societal unrest. However, the precise nature and scope of child homicide in the Netherlands remains unknown. This article attempts to fill the gap in our current knowledge by reporting descriptive research on child homicide in the Netherlands in the period 2009-2014. Further, this article aims to assess if media attention regarding child homicide brings about a so-called copycat-effect. By means of descriptive statistics, case, victim and perpetrator characteristics of 74 cases of filicide are assessed.


Marieke Liem
Marieke Liem is universitair docent en senior onderzoeker voor het Violence Research Initiative, bij Centre for Terrorism and Counterterrorism, verbonden aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Stephanie Haarhuis
Stephanie Haarhuis is in 2015 afgestudeerd in de forensische criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Afgeschermd wonen in Nederland: een studie naar waarom mensen hiervoor kiezen en hoe zij omgaan met interne regelgeving

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 0304 2015
Trefwoorden Gated communities, afgeschermde woondomeinen, Vondelparc, Haverleij
Auteurs Marc Schuilenburg en Ronald Van Steden
Samenvatting

    Protected living in some sort of gated community is popular. However Dutch protected living differs from, for instance, the living in American gated communities, the development tends to social discussions whether it is undesirable or not. Safety seems in the Netherlands not the first reason for protected living. Here, domestic and aesthetic reasons are much more important.


Marc Schuilenburg

Ronald Van Steden
Article

Access_open Austerity’s Effect on English Civil Justice

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 4 2015
Trefwoorden Austerity, court fees and legal aid, adversarial and inquisitorial process, McKenzie Friends, simplified process
Auteurs John Sorabji
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article considers the effect of austerity-induced public spending cuts on the English civil justice system. In doing so it initially examines two fundamental changes engendered by the effect austerity has had on civil court fees and legal aid: first, a challenge to the traditional commitment in English procedure to adversarial process, and a concomitant increase in inquisitorial or investigative processes; and secondly, the growth in use of unqualified individuals to act as advocates in court for individual litigants who are unable to afford legal representation. It then turns to consider what, if any, effect austerity has had on simplified processes available in English civil procedure.


John Sorabji
DPhil, Senior Fellow, UCL Judicial Institute, University College, London, email: j.sorabji@ucl.ac.uk.
Article

Access_open Canadian Civil Justice: Relief in Small and Simple Matters in an Age of Efficiency

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 4 2015
Trefwoorden Canada, small and simple matters, austerity, civil justice, access to justice
Auteurs Jonathan Silver en Trevor C.W. Farrow
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Canada is in the midst of an access to justice crisis. The rising costs and complexity of legal services in Canada have surpassed the need for these services. This article briefly explores some obstacles to civil justice as well as some of the court-based programmes and initiatives in place across Canada to address this growing access to justice gap. In particular, this article explains the Canadian civil justice system and canvasses the procedures and programmes in place to make the justice system more efficient and improve access to justice in small and simple matters. Although this article does look briefly at the impact of the global financial crisis on access to justice efforts in Canada, we do not provide empirical data of our own on this point. Further, we conclude that there is not enough existing data to draw correlations between austerity measures in response to the global crisis and the challenges facing Canadian civil justice. More evidence-based research would be helpful to understand current access to justice challenges and to make decisions on how best to move forward with meaningful innovation and policy reform. However, there is reason for optimism in Canada: innovative ideas and a national action plan provide reason to believe that the country can simplify, expedite, and increase access to civil justice in meaningful ways over the coming years.


Jonathan Silver
Jonathan Silver, B.A. Honors, J.D. 2015, Osgoode Hall Law School.

Trevor C.W. Farrow
Trevor C.W. Farrow is Professor and Associate Dean, Osgoode Hall Law School. He is very grateful to Jonathan Silver, who took the lead in researching and writing this article.
Artikel

Responsibilities of the state and legal professions

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2015
Trefwoorden responsibilities, the state, lawyers, the judiciary and judges
Auteurs Mies Westerveld en Ashley Terlouw
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution, which is based on the Dutch legal system, deals with the responsibilities of the State and legal professions in ensuring access to justice. The responsibilities of the four main players involved in bringing justice to the citizen are discussed: the legislator, the executive, the judiciary, and the legal profession. Responsibilities for access to justice do not only stem from the law, they do also evolve from societal problems and discussions. The contribution deals with both. Several actors share some of the responsibilities. One can think of responsibilities for information, for financing, and for being aware of vulnerabilities and other obstacles. What are the legal responsibilities and what other responsibilities are felt by the actors involved and how do they deal with them? And as a result: do they contribute to access to justice, do they form an obstacle, or both?


Mies Westerveld
Mies Westerveld is Professor Legal aid by special appointment and Professor in Labour Law (social insurance) at the University of Amsterdam. Her research concentrates on current issues of access to justice and state-financed legal aid on the one hand and the decreasing role of social insurance on a fragmented labour market on the other hand.

Ashley Terlouw
Ashley Terlouw is Professor in Sociology of Law at the Radboud University of Nijmegen. She is responsible for the Centre for Migration Law of the Radboud University. Besides she is part-time Judge at the District Court of Gelderland. Her research concentrates on legal and societal issues of asylum and equal treatment and on the working of the judiciary.
Artikel

Tenant vs. owner: deriving access to justice from the right to housing

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2015
Trefwoorden tenants’ rights, adequate housing, discrimination, effectiveness of law
Auteurs Nico Moons
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The right to adequate housing has since long been established in international and European human rights law and has been (constitutionally) incorporated into many domestic legal systems. This contribution focuses on the extent to which this fundamental right influences rental law and the horizontal relationship between tenant and landlord and how it contributes to the tenant’s access to justice. The right to housing certainly accounts for tenant’s rights, but since international and European human rights law evidently centres around state obligations, any possible impact on the position of tenants remains indirect. This is of course different on the national plane. In Belgium, the constitutional right to housing has been implemented through regional Housing Codes, complementing private law measures and creating additional protection to tenants. Nonetheless, many challenges still remain in increasing access to justice for tenants, both top-down and bottom-up: lack of knowledge and complexity of law, imbalance in power and dependency, discrimination, etc.


Nico Moons
Nico Moons is a PhD student at the Faculty of Law of the University of Antwerp (research group Government & Law). His research topic involves the effectiveness of the right to adequate housing. Previously, he has worked at the Council for Alien Law Litigation.
Artikel

Pleiten, schikken of slikken

Een economische analyse van de Richtlijn inzake schadevorderingen bij inbreuken op het mededingingsrecht

Tijdschrift Markt & Mededinging, Aflevering 4 2015
Trefwoorden Richtlijn inzake schadevorderingen, schadevergoeding, boetes, civielrechtelijke handhaving, bestuursrechtelijke handhaving
Auteurs Peter van Wijck en Jan Kees Winters
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    De Richtlijn inzake schadevorderingen beoogt de ‘civielrechtelijke handhaving’ van het mededinginsgrecht te bevorderen door schadevergoedingsacties te stimuleren. De schade die door (met name) een kartel is veroorzaakt, dient geheel te worden vergoed. Economisch gezien betekent dit een extra financiële belasting bovenop de bestuursrechtelijke boete. Het lijkt dan aannemelijk dat de afschrikwekkende werking op kartelgedrag wordt vergroot. Of dat zo is, hangt af van diverse factoren, zoals de boete, pakkans, mogelijkheid tot schikken en de kans op het feitelijk verkrijgen van een schadevergoeding.


Peter van Wijck
Dr. P.W. van Wijck is universitair hoofddocent aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Jan Kees Winters
Dr. J.K. Winters is principal bij RBB Economics.
Artikel

Psychiatrische patiënten in detentie: het belang van etnische achtergrond

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 5 2015
Trefwoorden forensische psychiatrie, Detentie, Etniciteit
Auteurs Sara De Wilde MSc, Dr. Joke Harte en Dorina Denzel MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Immigrants are overrepresented in Dutch crime rates and in forensic psychiatric care. The current research explored the relation between delinquency, psychiatric problems and ethnicity. General characteristics, judicial history and history of mental health care of male detainees which reside in a penitentiary psychiatric centre, have been investigated and the relation of these factors with ethnicity is examined. Results show that in particular second-generation non-western immigrants are highly represented. It seems that it had been more difficult for them to get adequate treatment.


Sara De Wilde MSc
Sara de Wilde MSc studeerde criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en liep stage bij het Penitentiair Psychiatrisch Centrum Amsterdam.

Dr. Joke Harte
Dr. Joke Harte is universitair hoofddocent Criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en senior onderzoeker bij het NSCR.

Dorina Denzel MSc
Dorina Denzel MSc is psycholoog en onderzoeker in het Penitentiair Psychiatrisch Centrum Amsterdam.
Artikel

Taboe in culturele criminologie?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2015
Trefwoorden taboos, criminology, open secrets, social sciences
Auteurs Prof. dr. Dina Siegel en prof. dr. Richard Staring
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article several perspectives on studying taboos within social sciences are described. Originally, taboo, a concept that was already used within Polynesian societies early 1800, referred to food that was not allowed to eat. Anthropologists analyzed taboos especially in a functionalistic manner, as contributing to the maintenance of existing power balances within societies. These and other studies on taboos all illustrate the fact that taboos are very much a social construction and are very much time and place dependent. In contemporary western societies taboos are associated with ‘open secrets’ and ‘silencing’. Within criminology certain topics are considered taboo as a research object (e.g. explaining crime through ethnic, cultural or religious characteristics), while others claim that there are no criminological research taboos left.


Prof. dr. Dina Siegel
Prof. dr. Dina Siegel is hoogleraar criminologie aan de Universiteit Utrecht.

prof. dr. Richard Staring
Prof. dr. Richard Staring is bijzonder hoogleraar mobiliteit, toezicht en criminaliteit aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

De seksuele tiener en de sociale orde

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2015
Trefwoorden youth, sex, transgression, criminal law
Auteurs Mr. drs. Juul Gooren
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    A taboo serves the social order for it facilitates social control. This article will focus on taboos related to sexual contact by youngsters. The way authorities guard sexual taboos is indicative of the way authorities envision the organization of society. It is this organization through the control of youth and sex which will receive attention. In the classic study by Mary Douglas on pollution and taboo dirt is understood as ‘matter out of place’. The sexual teenager is an illustration of this ‘matter out of place’ because it is difficult to categorize sexual teenagers on the basis of asexual children and sexual adults as an organizing principle for society. In criminal law lewd conduct by youngsters refers to wrong sex at the wrong age. By criminalizing these sexual transgressions the proper place of youth and sex is once again restored. This is necessary for it will be argued that the interests of society are somewhat under pressure because of transgressions when it comes to children as asexual and when it comes to sex as something for within a relationship. The perpetrator of lewd conduct should be understood as a scapegoat reestablishing when and how sex should take place. By restoring the asexual child and the sexual relationship it is hoped sex and youngsters can once again offer some guidance in a social order lacking these clear markers.


Mr. drs. Juul Gooren
Mr. drs. Juul Gooren is docent voor Safety & Security Management Studies aan De Haagse Hogeschool.
Boekbespreking

Rationele keuze, nieuwsgierigheid en ambitie

Hoe hoogleraren onderzoek vinden

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 3 2015
Auteurs Prof. dr. Tom Vander Beken
Auteursinformatie

Prof. dr. Tom Vander Beken
Prof. dr. T. Vander Beken is hoogleraar aan de Universiteit Gent.
Discussie

Cultuur op den duur

Een reactie op Bovenkerk en Fokkema

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 3 2015
Auteurs Dr. Frank van Gemert
Auteursinformatie

Dr. Frank van Gemert
Dr. F.H.M. van Gemert is universitair docent bij de sectie criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

Wetgeving, empirisch-juridisch onderzoek en Legal Big Data

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 2 2015
Trefwoorden legislation, big data, empirical legal research, nudging
Auteurs Frans L. Leeuw
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    A second empirical revolution in law is in full swing: legal big data have made their entrance and will play an increasingly important role in the legal field. Legal big data, for example, increase the accessibility and transparency of files. They make it easier for legislators to find out how society views proposed legislation. Using big data, all jurisprudence can be processed very easily and judicial decisions can be predicted with a high degree of certainty. The contribution concludes with a number of legal and ethical issues and methodological challenges in relation to legal big data, such as ownership, privacy and representativeness.


Frans L. Leeuw
Frans L. Leeuw is directeur van het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum (WODC) bij het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie. Tevens is hij hoogleraar Recht, openbaar bestuur en sociaalwetenschappelijk onderzoek aan de universiteit van Maastricht. Eerder was hij onder meer directeur Doelmatigheidsonderzoek bij de Algemene Rekenkamer. Hij publiceerde vele artikelen en boeken, vooral op het terrein van evaluatie.
Artikel

Conflictbeleving en herstelrecht in Brussel

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 3 2015
Trefwoorden conflict and crime, metropolitan challenges, neighbourhoods
Auteurs Minne Huysmans en Erik Claes
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article stems from a practice-oriented research on restorative justice and perceptions of conflict in a poor neighbourhood in Brussels: the Anneessens district. The first part of the article focuses on the conceptual shift from a crime-oriented towards a conflict-oriented restorative justice, including the search for a user-friendly working definition of ‘conflict’. The classical restorative justice story receives a facelift in order to address metropolitan challenges. The second part analyses 41 walking interviews of residents, focusing on conflict themes and zones. The third part cautiously checks the working definition in the frame of the analysed data. A provisional conclusion entails that the notion of crime and its related meanings should not be discarded too quickly.


Minne Huysmans
Minne Huysmans is docent in de opleiding orthopedagogie van Odisee en praktijkonderzoeker in het PWO-onderzoek Herstelrecht in Brussel. Tot 2012 was hij bemiddelaar in Brussel binnen de HCA-dienst van Alba vzw.

Erik Claes
Erik Claes is onderzoeker en docent filosofie in de opleiding sociaal werk van Odisee. Hij is projectleider van het PWO-onderzoek Herstelrecht in Brussel.
Toont 1 - 20 van 66 gevonden teksten
« 1 3 4
U kunt door de volledige tekst zoeken naar alle artikelen door uw zoekterm in het zoekveld in te vullen. Als u op de knop 'Zoek' heeft geklikt komt u op de zoekresultatenpagina met filters, die u helpen om snel bij het door u gezochte artikel te komen. Er zijn op dit moment twee filters: rubriek en jaar.