Zoekresultaat: 70 artikelen

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Jaar 2016 x
Artikel

De relatie tussen racisme en criminaliteit in Nederland

Een verkennende studie onder Surinaamse en Caribische Nederlanders

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 6 2016
Trefwoorden Surinaamse en Caribische migranten, Racisme, Huidskleur, Criminaliteit
Auteurs Dr. Katharina J. Joosen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Surinamese and Dutch Caribbean migrants have been overrepresented in (official) Dutch crime statistics for years. From Hirschi’s Social Control Theory and the Theory of African-American Offending, this study investigates to what degree racism based on skin color is related to self-reported offending among Surinam and Dutch Caribbean migrants in The Netherlands. A total of 91 online questionnaires were filled out regarding skin color, experiences with racism, and offending. Results show that darker-skinned respondents experienced more racism and that more racism was reported by the respondents who committed more offenses; especially regarding violent and drug-related offenses.


Dr. Katharina J. Joosen
Dr. Katharina Joosen is postdoctoraal onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving.
Article

Access_open Legal Constraints on the Indeterminate Control of ‘Dangerous’ Sex Offenders in the Community: The Spanish Perspective

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 2 2016
Trefwoorden Supervised release, supervision, sex offenders, dangerousness, safety measures, societal upheaval, proportionality
Auteurs Lucía Martínez Garay en Jorge Correcher Mira
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article presents an overview of the legal regime provided in the Spanish system of criminal sanctions regarding the control of dangerous sex offenders in the community. It focuses on the introduction, in 2010, of a post-prison safety measure named supervised release. We describe the context of its introduction in the Spanish Criminal Code, considering the influence of societal upheaval concerning dangerous sex offenders in its development, and also the historical and theoretical features of the Spanish system of criminal sanctions. We also analyse the legal framework of supervised release, the existing case law about it and how the legal doctrine has until now assessed this measure. After this analysis, the main aim of this article consists in evaluating the effectiveness and the proportionality of the measure, according to the principle of minimal constraints and the rehabilitative function of the criminal sanctions in Spanish law, stated in Article 25.2 of the Spanish Constitution.


Lucía Martínez Garay
Lucía Martínez Garay is a Senior Lecturer at the University of Valencia, Department of Criminal Law.

Jorge Correcher Mira
Jorge Correcher Mira, Ph.D., is an Assistant Lecturer at the University of Valencia, Department of Criminal Law.
Article

Access_open Legal Constraints on the Indeterminate Control of ‘Dangerous’ Sex Offenders in the Community: The Dutch Perspective

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 2 2016
Trefwoorden Dutch penal law, preventive supervision, dangerous offenders, human rights, social rehabilitation
Auteurs Sanne Struijk en Paul Mevis
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the Netherlands, the legal possibilities for post-custodial supervision have been extended considerably in recent years. A currently passed law aims to further increase these possibilities specifically for dangerous (sex) offenders. This law consists of three separate parts that may all result in life-long supervision. In the first two parts, the supervision is embedded in the conditional release after either a prison sentence or the safety measure ‘ter beschikking stelling’ (TBS). This paper focuses on the third part of the law, which introduces an independent supervisory safety measure as a preventive continuation of both a prison sentence and the TBS measure. Inevitably, this new independent sanction raises questions about legitimacy and necessity, on which this paper reflects from a human rights perspective. Against the background of the existing Dutch penal law system, the content of the law is thoroughly assessed in view of the legal framework of the Council of Europe and the legal principles of proportionality and less restrictive means. In the end, we conclude that the supervisory safety measure is not legitimate nor necessary (yet). Apart from the current lack of (empirical evidence of) necessity, we state that there is a real possibility of an infringement of Article 5(4) ECHR and Article 7 ECHR, a lack of legitimising supervision ‘gaps’ in the existing penal law system, and finally a lack of clear legal criteria. Regardless of the potential severity of violent (sex) offenses, to simply justify this supervisory safety measure on the basis of ‘better safe than sorry’ is not enough.


Sanne Struijk
Sanne Struijk, Ph.D., is an Associate Professor at the Erasmus School of Law.

Paul Mevis
Paul Mevis is a Professor at the Erasmus School of Law.
Artikel

Succes- en faalfactoren bij het strafrechtelijk afpakken van crimineel vermogen bij milieucriminaliteit

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Bijzonder Strafrecht & Handhaving, Aflevering 4 2016
Trefwoorden Milieucriminaliteit, Milieu(straf)recht, Afpakken, Strafrechtelijk afpakken, Financieel rechercheren
Auteurs N. van Zanden, MSc en Dr. R. Neve
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Het besef dat milieucriminaliteit hoofdzakelijk wordt gepleegd om er geld mee te verdienen is, anders dan bij ‘traditionele’ vormen van georganiseerde criminaliteit zoals drugs- en mensenhandel, van betrekkelijk recente datum. Om die reden is er langere tijd minder geïnvesteerd in financiële capaciteit bij milieuteams bij de Nationale Politie, Inspectie Leefomgeving en Transport en de Nederlandse Voedsel- en Warenautoriteit. De laatste jaren is getracht om deze achterstand in te lopen. In dit artikel wordt de huidige stand van zaken besproken aangaande de financiële focus en het strafrechtelijk afpakken van crimineel vermogen bij milieucriminaliteit.


N. van Zanden, MSc
N. van Zanden, MSc, is operationeel specialist bij de Nationale Politie, Dienst Informatieknooppunt Landelijke Recherche (vakgebieden: milieu en cybercrime). Daarnaast is zij op projectbasis verbonden aan de Politieacademie te Apeldoorn.

Dr. R. Neve
Dr. R. Neve is senior onderzoeker bij de Landelijke Eenheid van de Nationale Politie.
Redactioneel

Een ‘punitive turn’ bij de aanpak van financieel-economische criminaliteit?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Bijzonder Strafrecht & Handhaving, Aflevering 4 2016
Trefwoorden Financieel-economische criminaliteit, Criminaliteitsbestrijding, Witteboordencriminaliteit
Auteurs Prof. dr. mr. W. Huisman
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In dit redactioneel wordt betoogd dat er de laatste jaren sprake is van een meer punitieve reactie op financieel-economische criminaliteit. Ingegaan wordt op de achtergronden en gevolgen van deze ontwikkeling.


Prof. dr. mr. W. Huisman
Prof. dr. mr. W. Huisman is hoogleraar criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Boekbespreking

Bespreking van de oratie Verantwoord financieel strafrecht van Matthijs Nelemans, Tilburg University, 2015

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Bijzonder Strafrecht & Handhaving, Aflevering 4 2016
Trefwoorden Beginselen en omvang financieel strafrecht, Zorgvuldigheid, Motiveringsplicht, Buitengerechtelijke afdoening, Financiële toezichthouders
Auteurs Prof. dr. R.C.P. Haentjens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    De orator bespreekt het uitdijend rechtsgebied, met als kern de Wft, de evolutie van het handhavingsmodel met zijn open normen en buitengerechtelijke afdoening en ten slotte de legaliteit en legitimiteit van het financieel strafrecht. De recensent vraagt zich af, of de door de orator genoemde rechtsbeginselen wel de rechtsbeginselen (kunnen) zijn die het financieel strafrecht kunnen normeren, nu het rechtsgebied ‘in het gareel’ wordt gehouden door beginselen van commuun strafrecht, bestuursrecht en Europees recht. Hoe moet het met de begrippen als daderschap en samenloop in de straftoemeting? Het is een weerbarstige materie.


Prof. dr. R.C.P. Haentjens
Prof. dr. R.C.P. Haentjes is bijzonder hoogleraar financieel strafrecht aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam en raadsheer-plaatsvervanger aan het Gerechtshof Amsterdam.
Artikel

De hoge en bijzondere transactie: een pleidooi voor rechterlijke controle op de afdoening buiten geding

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Bijzonder Strafrecht & Handhaving, Aflevering 4 2016
Trefwoorden buitengerechtelijke afdoening, hoge transactie, bijzondere transactie, EHRM, internationale straftribunalen
Auteurs Mr. dr. K.C.J. Vriend
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In dit artikel zijn de mogelijkheden van rechterlijke controle op de afdoening buiten geding in strafzaken onderzocht. Gepleit wordt voor een aparte raadkamerprocedure voor hoge en bijzondere transacties, waarbij toetsingscriteria werden ontleend aan de jurisprudentie van het EHRM en de internationale straftribunalen. De raadkamer toetst de overeengekomen transactie aan drie criteria. Ten eerste of de verdachte de transactie vrijwillig heeft geaccepteerd. Ten tweede of de verdachte voldoende geïnformeerd is over de procedurele gevolgen en over het bewijs dat tegen hem vergaard is. Ten derde toetst de raadkamer of er prima facie voldoende bewijsmateriaal in het dossier voorhanden is. Een door de raadkamer in het openbaar uitgesproken gemotiveerde beschikking maakt controle mogelijk op het overeenkomen van hoge en bijzondere transacties.


Mr. dr. K.C.J. Vriend
Mr. dr. K.C.J. Vriend is universitair docent straf- en strafprocesrecht aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam.
Artikel

De strafrechtelijke aanpak van meisjesbesnijdenis in een rechtsvergelijkende context

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden besnijdenis, genitale verminking, culturele delicten, burgerschap, recht en religie
Auteurs Mr. Sohail Wahedi en Mr. dr. Renée Kool
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In Europe, female circumcision has been considered a grave violation of human rights. However, many European countries fail to combat this illegal practice. This article answers the question why criminal law enforcement with regard to female circumcision seems to fail in various European states, with the exception of France. To answer this question, this article analyses various models of citizenship.


Mr. Sohail Wahedi
Mr. S. Wahedi studeerde rechten in Utrecht. Hij is als promovendus verbonden aan de afdeling Sociology, Theory and Methodology van de Erasmus School of Law en verricht onderzoek op het terrein van recht en religie.

Mr. dr. Renée Kool
Mr. dr. R.S.B. Kool is als universitair hoofddocent Straf(proces)recht verbonden aan het Willem Pompe Instituut voor strafrechtswetenschappen en het Utrecht Centre for Accountability and Liability Law (UCALL). Zij heeft in het kader van haar onderzoek naar het aansprakelijkheidsrecht ook gepubliceerd over culturele delicten, zoals meisjesbesnijdenis en huwelijksdwang.

    In one of the first high-profile cases under the Protected Disclosures Act 2014 (i.e. whistleblowing legislation), two employees have successfully secured an injunction in the Circuit Court which prevents their dismissal.


Lucy O’Neill
Lucy O’Neill is an associate at Mason Hayes & Curan, www.MHC.ie.
Artikel

Herstelrecht bij partnergeweld

Resultaten van een Europees onderzoek

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 4 2016
Auteurs Annemieke Wolthuis en Katinka Lünnemann
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Restorative Justice is not evident in cases of intimate partner violence, but it can take and does take place under certain conditions. Wolthuis and Lünnemann explain about the European research they coordinated in six European countries (Austria, Denmark, Finland, Greece, the Netherlands and the UK) on context and practicalities of the use of victim-offender mediation in such complex cases. Cases dealing with violence of mainly men against women and where power imbalances often play a role. That means that mediators, referrers and others involved should know about this complexity and the needs of participants. Austria and Finland turned out to have the most experienced working methods. Their models, good practices and challenges are presented as well as the main outcomes of the research. Interviews and focus groups in the countries gave additional insights. It resulted in a guide with minimum standards addressing the different stages of a mediation process with extra attention for safety and empowerment.


Annemieke Wolthuis
Annemieke Wolthuis is zelfstandig onderzoeker, trainer en mediator. Zij is tevens redactielid van het Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht.

Katinka Lünnemann
Katinka Lünnemann is als senior-onderzoeker verbonden aan het Verwey-Jonker Instituut.
Praktijk

Tatausgleich en conferentie bij huiselijk geweld

Verslag van een coöperatieve werkweek bij Neustart in Oostenrijk

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 4 2016
Auteurs Janny Dierx
Auteursinformatie

Janny Dierx
Janny Dierx is jurist, MfN-mediator, bestuurder van De Mediation Coöperatie, lid van het Schadefonds Geweldsmisdrijven en redacteur van dit tijdschrift. Zij is tevens coördinator van de mediatorspool bij de Utrechtse pilot herstelbemiddeling in strafzaken en meewerkend voorvrouw.
Article

Access_open A Theoretical Framework to Study Variations in Workplace Violence Experienced by Emergency Responders

Integrating Opportunity and Vulnerability Perspectives

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden Workplace aggression, workplace violence, emergency responders, blaming the victim, victimology
Auteurs Lisa van Reemst
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Emergency responders are often sent to the front line and are often confronted with aggression and violence in interaction with citizens. According to previous studies, some professionals experience more workplace violence than others. In this article, the theoretical framework to study variations in workplace violence against emergency responders is described. According to criminal opportunity theories, which integrate the routine activity theory and lifestyle/exposure theory, victimisation is largely dependent on the lifestyle and routine activities of persons. Situational characteristics that could be related to workplace violence are organisational or task characteristics, such as having more contact with citizens or working at night. However, they do not provide insight in all aspects of influence, and their usefulness to reduce victimisation is limited. Therefore, it is important to consider the role of personal characteristics of the emergency responders that may be more or less ‘attractive’, which is elaborated upon by the victim precipitation theory. Psychological and behavioural characteristics of emergency responders may be relevant to reduce external workplace violence. The author argues that, despite the risk of being considered as blaming the victim, studying characteristics that might prevent victimisation is needed. Directions for future studies about workplace violence are discussed. These future studies should address a combination of victim and situation characteristics, use a longitudinal design and focus on emergency responders. In addition, differences between professions in relationships between characteristics and workplace violence should be explored.


Lisa van Reemst
Lisa van Reemst, M.Sc., is a Ph.D. candidate at the Erasmus University Rotterdam.
Article

Access_open A World Apart? Private Investigations in the Corporate Sector

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 4 2016
Trefwoorden Corporate security, private investigations, private troubles, public/private differentiation
Auteurs Clarissa Meerts
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article explores the investigative methods used by corporate security within organisations concerned about property misappropriation by their own staff and/or others. The research methods are qualitative: interviews, observations and case studies carried out between October 2012 and November 2015. The findings include that, even though corporate investigators do not have the formal investigative powers enjoyed by police and other public agencies, they do have multiple methods of investigation at their disposal, some of which are less used by public investigative agencies, for example the in-depth investigation of internal systems. Corporate investigators also rely heavily on interviews, the investigation of documentation and financial administration and the investigation of communication devices and open sources. However, there are many additional sources of information (for example, site visits or observations), which might be available to corporate investigators. The influences from people from different backgrounds, most notably (forensic) accountants, (former) police officers, private investigators and lawyers, together with the creativity that is necessary (and possible) when working without formal investigative powers, make corporate security a diverse field. It is argued that these factors contribute to a differentiation between public and private actors in the field of corporate security.


Clarissa Meerts
Clarissa Meerts, MSc., is a PhD student at the Criminology Department of the Erasmus University Rotterdam.
Artikel

The precaution controversy: an analysis through the lens of Ulrich Beck and Michel Foucault

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden Precautionary principle, risk society, governmentality, risk governance, environmental law
Auteurs Tobias Arnoldussen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    According to the precautionary principle lack of scientific evidence for the existence of a certain (environmental) risk should not be a reason not to take preventative policy measures. The precautionary principle had a stormy career in International environmental law and made its mark on many treaties, including the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). However it remains controversial. Proponents see it as the necessary legal curb to keep the dangerous tendencies of industrial production and technology in check. Opponents regard it with suspicion. They fear it will lead to a decrease in freedom and fear the powers to intervene that it grants the state. In this article the principle is reviewed from the perspectives of Ulrich Beck’s ‘reflexive modernisation’ and Michel Foucault’s notion of governmentality. It is argued that from Beck’s perspective the precautionary principle is the result of a learning process in which mankind gradually comes to adopt a reflexive attitude to the risks modernity has given rise to. It represents the wish to devise more inclusive and democratic policies on risks and environmental hazards. From the perspective of Michel Foucault however, the principle is part and parcel of neo-liberal tendencies of responsibilisation. Risk management and prudency are devolved to the public in an attempt to minimise risk taking, while at the same time optimising production. Moreover, it grants legitimacy to state intervention if the public does not live up to the responsibilities foisted on it. Both perspectives are at odds, but represent different sides of the same coin and might learn from each other concerns.


Tobias Arnoldussen
Tobias Arnoldussen is a socio-legal scholar affiliated with the University of Amsterdam Law School and the PPLE honours college. Next to lecturing on a variety of subjects, he focusses on interdisciplinary legal research into the possibilities of law to deal with contemporary social problems.
Artikel

Autonomy of law in Indonesia

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden Rule of law, Indonesia, Socio-legal studies, Legal scholarhip, Judiciary
Auteurs Professor Adriaan Bedner
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article seeks to answer how useful the theoretical approaches developed in Europe and the United States are for explaining or understanding the autonomy of law in Indonesia – a nation that is on the verge of becoming a lower-middle-income country and whose legal system presents many of the features found in other developing countries’ legal systems. The article first sketches three lines of theoretical thought that have dominated the inquiry into autonomy of law in (Western) sociology and then assesses to what extent they are represented in the socio-legal studies of Indonesian law. The conclusion is that although socio-legal scholars studying developing countries need supplementary concepts and theories, they can use the Western ones as their point of departure in understanding the functioning of law in a setting that is very different from the one in which these theories were developed.


Professor Adriaan Bedner
Adriaan Bedner is professor of law and society in Indonesia at the Van Vollenhoven Institute (Leiden Law School). He has worked on many different subjects within this field, including family law, administrative courts, and environmental law. His present focus is on the Indonesian Ombudsman and on legal education.
Artikel

Access_open What Does it Mean to Justify Basic Rights?

Reply to Düwell, Newey, Rummens and Valentini

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 3 2016
Auteurs Rainer Forst
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this paper, I reply to the four comments on my paper ‘The Justification of Basic Rights: A Discourse-Theoretical Approach’ given by Laura Valentini, Marcus Düwell, Stefan Rummens and Glen Newey.


Rainer Forst
Professor of Political Theory and Philosophy at the Goethe Universität, Frankfurt am Main.

    Quantitative empirical research into legal decisions must be conducted using statistical tools that are appropriate for the data involved. Court decisions are one example of a domain where the data is intrinsically hierarchical (i.e., multilevel), since decisions are made on individual cases by decision-makers in courts located across geographical (or jurisdictional) areas. Past research into court decisions has often either neglected higher level variables or incorrectly used single-level statistical models to analyze multilevel data. The lack of a clear understanding about when and why multilevel statistical models are required may have contributed to this situation. In this paper, we identify the problems of estimating single-level models on hierarchically structured data, and consider the advantages of conducting multilevel analyses under these circumstances. We use the example of criminal sentencing research to illustrate the arguments for the use of multilevel models and against a single-level approach. We also highlight some issues to be addressed in future sentencing studies.


Mandeep Dhami

Ian Keith Belton

    This article examines the main assumptions and theoretical underpinnings of case study method in legal studies. It considers the importance of research design, including the crucial roles of the academic literature review, the research question and the use of rival theories to develop hypotheses and the practice of identifying the observable implications of those hypotheses. It considers the selection of data sources and modes of analysis to allow for valid analytical inferences to be drawn in respect of them. In doing so it considers, in brief, the importance of case study selection and variations such as single or multi case approaches. Finally it provides thoughts about the strengths and weaknesses associated with undertaking socio-legal and comparative legal research via a case study method, addressing frequent stumbling blocks encountered by legal researchers, as well as ways to militate them. It is written with those new to the method in mind.


Lisa Webley
Artikel

Positieve veiligheid en positieve vrijheid

Meningen van wijkbewoners in Rotterdam-Zuid over Buurt Bestuurt

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden Big Society, Isaiah Berlin, Charles Taylor, positive liberty, security management
Auteurs dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The article is an ethnographical study of Rotterdam’s experience with a program called ‘Community Governs’ (Buurt Bestuurt). Community Governs, a Dutch version of the Chicago Alternative Policing Strategy (CAPS), is a community-based program which goal is to solve neighbourhood crime and disorder problems. Community commitment and involvement are a main component of this program. The article emphasizes the effects that this program had on three levels of trust (performances, intentions and skills) of the residents in police officers and municipal service agencies as partners in the fight against crime and disorder. The results indicate that a ‘positive exercise’ of liberty through political participation of civilians is difficult to realise in poor, inner city, neighbourhoods.


dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg
Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg is universitair docent Strafrecht en Criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

Safe havens voor onrechtmatig in Nederland verblijvende vreemdelingen

Veiligheid en het toezicht op irreguliere migratie via hulpverleningsorganisaties

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden unauthorized migrants, civil society, safety, migration control, policing non-citizens, NGOs
Auteurs prof. dr. Richard Staring en Mieke Kox MA
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) within Dutch civil society provide material and immaterial assistance to unauthorized migrants in the Netherlands. Based on long-term qualitative fieldwork in the life worlds of unauthorized migrants, the authors describe how the migrants experience these NGOs as a safe haven where they feel at home and secure for the risks of apprehension and deportation. We argue that these safe havens are also beneficial for the society at large. These NGOs contribute to preventing unauthorized migrants from sleeping in public places and employing illegitimate survival strategies. In addition, the NGOs’ empowerment of these migrants is advantageous for their willingness to access healthcare and employ legal rights. Recent attempts of the Dutch government to restrict the number of these NGOs, lead amongst other things to NGOs who are increasingly focusing on the unauthorized migrants’ return. We argue that these governmental efforts of controlling unauthorized migration through NGOs, will result in unauthorized migrants loosing trust in these safe havens. Ultimately, this governmental control through NGOs will have a negative impact on feelings of security in the society at large as it fundamentally diminishes the significance of these NGOs in civil society for unauthorized migrants without offering an alternative.


prof. dr. Richard Staring
Prof. dr. Richard Staring is bijzonder hoogleraar mobiliteit, toezicht en criminaliteit aanp de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

Mieke Kox MA
Mieke Kox, MA, is PhD kandidaat bij de sectie criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
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