Zoekresultaat: 28 artikelen

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Jaar 2014 x
Artikel

Over pragmatisme en strategie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2014
Trefwoorden corporate security, private investigations, private settlements, forum shopping
Auteurs Clarissa Meerts MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article data derived from observations and interviews are used to examine private methods of investigation as used by corporate security providers in the Netherlands, and the private settlement options which follow those investigations. It is argued that, rather than leadership being exercised by public actors and institutions (police, prosecutors, criminal courts and also civil courts), those actors are selectively and strategically mobilised by corporate security, on behalf of their private sector clients. Corporate security and its clients have a ‘pick and choose’ approach when searching for an optimal solution for the incident at hand (forum shopping).


Clarissa Meerts MSc
C.A. Meerts, MSc is promovenda en wetenschappelijk docent bij de Sectie Criminologie aan de Erasmus School of Law, Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Article

Access_open Legal Advice in Police Custody: From Europe to a Local Police Station

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 4 2014
Trefwoorden legal advice, police interrogation, European Union, England and Wales, France
Auteurs Anna Ogorodova en Taru Spronken
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In October 2013, the European Union adopted a Directive, which guarantees, inter alia, the right of access to a lawyer to suspects of criminal offences from the outset of police custody and during police interrogation. However, adoption of the relevant legislation is not sufficient to ensure that this right becomes effective in practice. A range of practical measures will have to be taken by the Member States’ authorities and the legal profession to effectuate the implementation of the right to custodial legal advice. This article aims to identify the practical factors that may influence the implementation of the Directive, based on the findings of a recent normative and empirical study conducted by the authors. The research was carried out in four European jurisdictions (England and Wales, France, the Netherlands and Scotland), and it consisted of analysis of regulations, observations of daily practice in police stations, accompanying lawyers who provided custodial legal advice, and interviews with criminal justice practitioners. The article provides a range of recommendations on the practical measures to be undertaken by the EU Member States and national Bar associations aiming at improving the protection of suspects’ rights in police custody in practice.


Anna Ogorodova
Anna Ogorodova, LLM is PhD researcher at the University of Maastricht.

Taru Spronken
Dr Taru Spronken is Professor of Criminal Law and Criminal Procedure at Maastricht University and Advocate General at the Supreme Court in the Netherlands.
Article

Access_open False Confessions in the Lab: A Review

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 4 2014
Trefwoorden confession, interrogation, evidence
Auteurs Eric Rassin Ph.D. en Han Israëls
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Intuitively, confession is a strong piece of evidence, because it appears unlikely that a suspect would confess to a crime he did not commit, thereby acting against his own best interest. Surprisingly, experimental studies show that innocent and well-educated individuals do tend to confess falsely when questioned about something they did not in fact do. In this contribution, an overview is presented of the experimental research on confession evidence. Limitations and implications of the scientific insights are discussed.


Eric Rassin Ph.D.
Eric Rassin is Endowed Professor of Legal Psychology at the Faculty of Social Sciences and the School of Law at Erasmus University Rotterdam.

Han Israëls
Han Israëls is Assistant Professor in Legal Psychology at the Maastricht University.
Artikel

Civiel recht als ultimum remedium?

Over de verstoorde verhouding van de bankbreuk tot de pauliana

Tijdschrift Maandblad voor Vermogensrecht, Aflevering 12 2014
Trefwoorden bedrieglijke bankbreuk, faillissementspauliana, reorganisaties, fraudebestrijding
Auteurs Mr. R.J. de Weijs en Mr. T. Reker
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Door de opmars van het strafrecht binnen het insolventierecht dreigt een vergaande gelijkschakeling tussen de faillissementspauliana en de bankbreukbepalingen. Ten onrechte dreigen daarbij schuldeisersbenadelende handelingen die met fraude niets te maken hebben, toch binnen het bereik van het strafrecht te komen.


Mr. R.J. de Weijs
Mr. R.J. de Weijs is docent en onderzoeker aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam en advocaat te Amsterdam.

Mr. T. Reker
Mr. T. Reker is recent afgestudeerd aan de Universiteit Leiden.
Article

Access_open Faith and Scepticism in Private International Law: Trust, Governance, Politics, and Foreign Judgments

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden private international law, conflict of laws, foreign judgments, European Union, United States
Auteurs Christopher Whytock M.S., Ph.D., J.D.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In both the European Union (EU) and the United States (US), the law governing the enforcement of foreign judgments is evolving, but in different directions. EU law, especially after the elimination of exequatur by the 2012 ’Recast’ of the Brussels I Regulation, increasingly facilitates enforcement in member states of judgments of other member states’ courts, reflecting growing faith in a multilateral private international law approach to foreign judgments. In US law, on the other hand, increasingly widespread adoption of state legislation based on the 2005 Uniform Foreign-Country Money Judgments Recognition Act (2005 Act), which adds new case-specific grounds for refusing enforcement, suggests growing scepticism. In this essay, I explore possible reasons for these diverging trends. I begin with the most obvious explanation: the Brussels framework governs the effect of internal EU member state judgments within the EU, whereas the 2005 Act governs the effect of external foreign country judgments within the US. One would expect more mutual trust – and thus more faith in foreign judgment enforcement – internally than externally. But I argue that this mutual trust explanation is only partially satisfactory. I therefore sketch out two other possible explanations. One is that the different trends in EU and US law are a result of an emphasis on ’governance values’ in EU law and an emphasis on ’rights values’ in US law. Another explanation – and perhaps the most fundamental one – is that these trends are ultimately traceable to politics.


Christopher Whytock M.S., Ph.D., J.D.
Christopher Whytock is Professor of Law and Political Science at the University of California, Irvine School of Law.

Laura Carballo Piñeiro
Associate Professor at the Faculty of Law, University of Santiago de Compostela.

Xandra Kramer
Professor at Erasmus School of Law, Erasmus University Rotterdam, visiting scholar at Stanford Law School.
Artikel

National variations in the implementation and enforcement of European food hygiene regulations

Comparing the structure of food controls and regulations between Scotland and the Netherlands

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden food regulation, official controls, EU food law, implementation, enforcement
Auteurs Tetty Havinga
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Over the course of time the European Union has increased its powers considerably. Currently, almost all food safety regulations in the member states rest on European law. Despite this common legal base, several differences between member states still exist. This article compares the way Scottish and Dutch authorities deal with a particular item of European food law: the development of national guides to good practice for hygiene and for the application of HACCP principles by the food industry. The results of this investigation are consistent with the conclusion of Falkner et al. that the implementation of EU law in both the Netherlands and the UK depends on domestic issues. The dominant issue in Scotland (and the UK) is the FSA objective to bring consistent food controls and independency from industry which results in the development of governmental guidance. The prevailing issue in the Netherlands is making industry responsible for food safety which helps explain the extensive use of industry guides. This study shows that in order to understand what happens on the ground it is important to look beyond transposition or direct effect and also to investigate the implementation of regulations and to dig deeper than just their transposition.


Tetty Havinga
Tetty Havinga is Associate Professor at the Institute for the Sociology of Law, Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands. She has published on the regulation of food safety, policy implementation and law enforcement, equal opportunities law, asylum migration and migrant workers. Her recent research projects deal with the development and effects of private regulation of food safety, oversight and official controls in the food industry, and the experiences of large companies with Dutch special courts. She is co-editor of The Changing Landscape of Food Governance (to be published by Edward Elgar, 2015).
Artikel

The food label as governance space: free-range eggs and the fallacy of consumer choice

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden food label, free-range eggs, animal welfare, regulatory governance
Auteurs Christine Parker
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In a neoliberal age governments, NGOs, food producers and retailers all state that the food system can be governed via consumer choice aka voting with your fork. This makes the retail food label an important space for contests between different actors who each seek to govern the food system according to their own interests and priorities. The paper argues that this makes it crucial to ‘backwards map’ the regulatory governance networks behind the governance claims staked on food labels. The paper uses the example of the contested meaning of ‘free-range’ claims on animal products in Australia to propose and illustrate a methodology for this backwards mapping.


Christine Parker
Christine Parker is a Professor of Law at Monash University, Melbourne Australia. She conducts socio-legal research on business regulation enforcement and compliance and lawyer ethics. Her books include The Open Corporation (2002), Explaining Compliance (edited with Vibeke Nielsen, 2011), and Inside Lawyers Ethics (with Adrian Evans, 2014).
Artikel

The need for an integrated comparison of the effectiveness of international sustainable forestry, coffee and cocoa initiatives

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden effectiveness, private sustainability standards, certification, FSC, UTZ Certified
Auteurs Martijn Scheltema
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    To date the effectiveness of private sustainability standards has been assessed from different angles which attribute different meanings to effectiveness. This contribution compares the effectiveness of two international certification initiatives (i.e. sustainable forestry (Forest Stewardship Council, FSC) and sustainable coffee and cacoa (UTZ Certified)) from three different angles (legal, impact, acceptance/legitimacy/governance). Based on publicly available data, it is shown that FSC scores better on some dimensions of these three angles (e.g. enforcement, cost and price premium, and government acceptance), while UTZ Certified scores better on others (e.g. verifiable evaluation criteria, regular evaluation, innovation). Hence, this analysis shows that a comparative evaluation of both initiatives would have been biased if it would have been based on a single angle approach. There is all the more reason to use such an integrated approach, since the different angles are intertwined. Therefore, it has been established that in order to establish the effectiveness of private certification initiatives an integrated approach is needed which combines different angles. This contribution shows such an approach is feasible.


Martijn Scheltema
Martijn Scheltema is professor at Erasmus University Rotterdam (the Netherlands). He researches the effectiveness of international private regulation in the CSR arena. He is board member of ACCESS Facility (www.accessfacility.org.) Beside this, he is board member of the CSR committee of the International Bar Association and attorney at law/partner with Pels Rijcken & Droogleever Fortuijn (The Hague, the Netherlands).

Roland Pierik PhD
Artikel

Het bestrijden van uitkeringsfraude: mogelijkheden en moeilijkheden

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden social security fraud, social assistance benefits, detecting fraud, municipalities, local policies
Auteurs M. Fenger en W. Voorberg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article focuses on the role of local municipalities in detecting and sanctioning benefit fraud, specifically fraud with social assistance benefits. Since the early 2000's, the government's attention for benefit fraud has been increased, resulting in the strengthening of the tasks and responsibilities of local municipalities in combatting and detecting fraud. There are indications that this has been successful: there is an increase in detection and the number of people that claims to offend the rules is decreasing. However, there is a significant amount of variety between municipalities in their performance with this regard. The authors argue that these differences are related to the design and implementation of local policies concerning the detection of benefit fraud. They offer several recommendations for more effective policies at the local level. These recommendations include a better use of available data and knowledge about the background of offenders and social assistance recipients.


M. Fenger
Dr. Menno Fenger is universitair hoofddocent aan de opleiding Bestuurskunde van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

W. Voorberg
William Voorberg MSc is promovendus aan de opleiding Bestuurskunde van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Redactioneel

Voorwoord

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2014
Auteurs Bert Berghuis en Marit Scheepmaker
Auteursinformatie

Bert Berghuis
Gastredacteur Bert Berghuis is als raadadviseur verbonden aan de Directie Rechtshandhaving en Criminaliteitsbestrijding van het ministerie van Veiligheid & Justitie. Hij is tevens redactieraadlid van Justitiële verkenningen.

Marit Scheepmaker
Marit Scheepmaker is hoofdredacteur van Justitiële verkenningen.
Artikel

Als je merkt dat niemand het merkt

Over fraude in de wetenschap

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden categories of science fraud, history of science fraud, causes of science fraud, publication pressure, supervision
Auteurs C.J.M. Schuyt
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article the author deals with some issues concerning fraud in science. First, he wonders if this is a new phenomenon. After exploring the definition of scientific fraud he sets the inquiry to the prevalence of this phenomenon. Various recent science fraud cases are discussed, as well as possible explanations for science fraud. Finally, the author formulates a criminological-oriented hypothetical explanation, which opposes frequently heard explanations dealing with contemporary problems in the universities, such as the publication pressure.


C.J.M. Schuyt
Prof. dr. mr. Kees Schuyt is lid van de Koninklijke Nederlandse Academie van Wetenschappen, voorzitter van het Landelijk Orgaan Wetenschappelijke Integriteit en emeritus hoogleraar Sociologie aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam.
Artikel

Oorzaken van fraude in de zorgsector

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden health care fraud, reimbursement system, lack of transparency, compliance, cultural change
Auteurs W. Groot en H. Maassen van den Brink
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Health care fraud and abuse has long been ignored or downplayed in the Netherlands. Increased media attention has put the issue more on the agenda. Health care fraud can erode the willingness to pay the compulsory contributions for health care among the population. Exact figures on health care fraud are still unavailable, although examples of fraudulent behavior are manifold. The risk of health care fraud is high due to the complexity and lack of transparency of the reimbursement system, the autonomy of the health care professional, the lack of adequate control, governance and attention for compliance in health care. What is needed to combat fraud in health care is a ‘zero tolerance’ policy. For this more attention to compliance and a change in the culture that ignores and condones fraud in health care are necessary.


W. Groot
Prof.dr. Wim Groot is hoogleraar Gezondheidseconomie en hoogleraar Evidence based education aan de Universiteit Maastricht. E-mail: w.groot@maastrichtuniversity.nl.

H. Maassen van den Brink
Prof.dr. Henriette Maassen van den Brink is hoogleraar Economie aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam en hoogleraar Evidence based education aan de Universiteit Maastricht. E-mail: h.maassenvandenbrink@uva.nl.
Artikel

Drie drijvende krachten achter bedrijfscriminaliteit

Een empirisch onderzoek naar fraude in het midden- en kleinbedrijf

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden business crime, small and medium sized enterprises, control, opportunity, motivation
Auteurs G.W. Brummelkamp, W. Huisman en T. Flikweert
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article gives a report of an empirical study on business crime among small and medium sized enterprises (< 250 employees). The researchers examined 37 cases of business crime by interviewing the entrepreneurs. They were asked how the offence occurred, about their personal stake and their reflections on the interests that were impaired. Although the concept of business crime covers a huge amount of unlawful actions committed with various intentions, in the end there are three main driving forces: control, opportunity and motivation. Control refers to the entrepreneurs’ professionalism and ability to bring business processes – that can be rather complex – in line with regulations. Opportunity refers to the economic interest c.q. the (opportunity) costs of compliance. Motivation refers to the entrepreneurs’ perception of responsibility toward direct stakeholders and social values.


G.W. Brummelkamp
Drs. Guido Brummelkamp is senior onderzoeker bij Panteia.

W. Huisman
Prof. dr. mr. Wim Huisman is als hoogleraar Criminologie verbonden aan de Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.

T. Flikweert
Mr. drs. Tamara Flikweert is als junior onderzoeker verbonden aan de Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.
Artikel

Faillissementsfraude: een hardnekkig fenomeen

Pleidooi voor een preventieve aanpak

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden Bankruptcy fraud, Preventive approach, Prosecution, Trade Register, New legislation
Auteurs F. Kemp
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the Netherlands new criminal law measures will be introduced to prevent and combat bankruptcy fraud. In this article the author argues that the emphasis on criminal law measures is not sufficient to effectively tackle the phenomenon of bankruptcy fraud because prosecution and punishment always occur after the damage is done. What is needed is an integrated approach realising preventive measures, such as tools to detect fraud at an early stage. Fraud is, after all, characterised by typical behaviour that throws up digital red flags. After detecting those red flags subsequent action can be taken to stop the fraud. Also modernising the Trade Register would contribute considerably to the protection of creditors.


F. Kemp
Mr. Frits Kemp is als advocaat en curator verbonden aan Fort advocaten te Amsterdam. Hij is lid van de initiatiefgroep 1Overheid en docent Insolventierecht bij verschillende universiteiten en instellingen.
Artikel

Kapitalistische banken als criminele ondernemingen: de casus Wall Street

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden finance crime, financial crisis, financial networks, white collar crime, Goldman Sachs
Auteurs D.O. Friedrichs
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The central thesis of this article is that the structure of the present financial system, its culture, and its collective practices and policies are fundamentally criminal and criminogenic. The harms emanating from this financial system are exponentially greater than those emanating from the disadvantaged environments that generate a disproportionate percentage of conventional crime. Accordingly, on various levels, there is much at stake in more fully and directly recognizing and identifying many core policies and practices of the financial system for what they are: crimes on a very large scale.


D.O. Friedrichs
Prof. David O. Friedrichs is als distinguished professor verbonden aan het Department of Sociology, Criminal Justice & Criminology van de University of Scranton. Hij is tevens gasthoogleraar aan de School of Law van de University of Western Australia (Perth).
Artikel

De rol van Europol in de strijd tegen voedselcriminaliteit

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2014
Trefwoorden food crime, counterfeit, Europol, counterfeit wine, international police cooperation
Auteurs Ch. Vansteenkiste en T. Schotte
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Food fraud can be seen as a form of counterfeit, which has increased globally because of technological developments. The authors, both working for the European Union police agency Europol, give several examples of the involvement of organized crime groups in food fraud. They describe the cooperation between Europol in its coordinating role with various national police forces in tracing food crime and arresting the perpetrators. Also the involvement of the European Union agencies Eurojust and Frontex in special operations like OPSON to unmask illegal trade in counterfeit foodstuff are described.


Ch. Vansteenkiste
Chris Vansteenkiste is werkzaam als projectmanager bij de Dienst Namaak van het Serious and Organised Crime Department Europol. Europol (European Police Agency) is een EU-agentschap gevestigd in Den Haag.

T. Schotte
Tamara Schotte is projectmanager van het SOCTA 2013 en leidt de strategische-analyseafdeling van het Serious and Organised Crime Department, Europol.
Artikel

Naar een Europese aanpak van voedselfraude

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2014
Trefwoorden food fraud, European Parliament, EP Resolution on food fraud, crisis in the food chain, horse meat
Auteurs J.A. van den Akker en E.M.R. de Lange
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Have recent food fraud cases, combined with a lack of priority and regulatory framework for combating food fraud and increased involvement of organized crime, caused a crisis of the European food chain? To what extent does this necessitate a European response? This article argues that the crisis in consumer confidence caused by cross-border fraud must be urgently addressed at national and EU level and that combating food fraud should be a priority next to the enforcement of food safety rules. Necessary changes of EU rules applicable to the sector and its controls should be made through the EU decision-making process. The European Parliament recommends an approach that should define food fraud to enable the development of EU policy, facilitate cross-border cooperation and information-sharing between member states and encourage sector initiatives, whereas its enforcement should focus on altering the type of controls by public authorities and installing tougher penalties.


J.A. van den Akker
Mr. Joost van den Akker, MA is beleidsmedewerker Europees Parlement voor de fractie van de Europese Volkspartij (EVP).

E.M.R. de Lange
Esther de Lange, MA is lid van het Europees Parlement. Zij maakt namens het CDA deel uit van de fractie van de Europese Volkspartij (EVP).
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