Zoekresultaat: 32 artikelen

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Jaar 2020 x
Article

Access_open Mechanisms for Correcting Judicial Errors in Germany

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 4 2020
Trefwoorden criminal proceedings, retrial in favour of the convicted, retrial to the disadvantage of the defendant, Germany, judicial errors
Auteurs Michael Lindemann en Fabienne Lienau
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The article presents the status quo of the law of retrial in Germany and gives an overview of the law and practice of the latter in favour of the convicted and to the disadvantage of the defendant. Particularly, the formal and material prerequisites for a successful petition to retry the criminal case are subject to a detailed presentation and evaluation. Because no official statistics are kept regarding successful retrial processes in Germany, the actual number of judicial errors is primarily the subject of more or less well-founded estimates by legal practitioners and journalists. However, there are a few newer empirical studies devoted to different facets of the subject. These studies will be discussed in this article in order to outline the state of empirical research on the legal reality of the retrial procedure. Against this background, the article will ultimately highlight currently discussed reforms and subject these to a critical evaluation as well. The aim of the recent reform efforts is to add a ground for retrial to the disadvantage of the defendant for cases in which new facts or evidence indicate that the acquitted person was guilty. After detailed discussion, the proposal in question is rejected, inter alia for constitutional reasons.


Michael Lindemann
Michael Lindemann is Professor for Criminal Law, Criminal Procedure and Criminology at the Faculty of Law of Bielefeld University, Germany.

Fabienne Lienau
Fabienne Lienau is Research Assistant at the Chair held by Michael Lindemann.
Artikel

Access_open Bescherming van derdelandmigranten tegen arbeidsuitbuiting in de EU

Tijdschrift Arbeidsrechtelijke Annotaties, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden Migratie, Derdelanders, Arbeidsuitbuiting
Auteurs Mr. drs. Gerrie Lodder
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Arbeidsmigratie is in de EU een belangrijk en actueel onderwerp. Enerzijds, omdat steeds meer landen in de EU te kennen geven dat ze voor het op peil houden van het arbeidspotentieel hun toevlucht moeten nemen tot het aantrekken van arbeidsmigranten van buiten de EU. Anderzijds blijkt dat er regelmatig sprake is van uitbuiting van deze arbeidsmigranten. In EU-wetgeving in het algemeen en de regulering van migratie van onderdanen van derde landen (derdelanders) naar de EU in het bijzonder wordt aandacht besteed aan de kwetsbare positie van derdelanders en een eerlijke behandeling. Het doel van migratiewetgeving is echter met name ook het beheersen van migratie, het bestrijden van illegale migratie en het stimuleren van economische ontwikkeling. Deze verschillende doelen kunnen met elkaar botsen. In dit artikel wordt onderzocht wat de invloed is van de EU-migratiewetgeving op de uitbuiting van arbeidsmigranten.


Mr. drs. Gerrie Lodder
Mr. drs. G.G. Lodder is werkzaam als onderzoeker en docent bij het Europa Instituut van de Universiteit Leiden.

    This article focuses on the posting of workers in the aviation industry. The main problem is that it is not clear in which situations the Posting of Workers Directive should be applied to aircrew (i.e. cabin crew and pilots). The aviation sector is characterised by a very mobile workforce in which it is possible for employees to provide services from different countries in a very short timeframe. This makes it, to a certain extent, easier for employers to choose the applicable social legislation, which can lead to detrimental working conditions for their aircrew. This article looks into how the Posting of Workers Directive can prevent some air carriers from unilaterally determining the applicable social legislation and makes some suggestions to end unfair social competition in the sector. This article is based on a research report which the authors drafted in 2019 with funding from the European Commission (hereafter the ‘Report’)


Gautier Busschaert
Gautier Busschaert (PhD) is senior associate at the Brussels law firm Van Olmen & Wynant.

Pieter Pecinovsky
Pieter Pecinovsky (PhD) is counsel at the Brussels law firm Van Olmen & Wynant.
Artikel

Access_open Witwassen als bedrijfsmatige activiteit: de verborgen netwerken van witwassers

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2020
Trefwoorden money laundering, financial facilitators, networked criminology, organized crime
Auteurs Jo-Anne Kramer, Arjan Blokland en Melvin Soudijn
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Financial Action Task Force reported that money launderers may operate in professional money laundering networks. Whether such money laundering networks operate in the Netherlands is unclear. In this article the authors therefore explore whether professional money launderers collaborate in network structures and the business-like manner in which they offer their services. Business-like refers to their involvement in multiple cases, the amount of repeat customers, and excludes family relations. The research is based on Dutch police registrations of 236 professional money launderers. Our results suggest that professional money laundering networks are indeed active in the Netherlands and that money launderers in these networks offer their services in a business-like manner to a varying extent. An important caveat to the current findings is that the criminal cases analyzed predominantly pertain drug-related offenses, leaving the existence and professionalism of money laundering networks in other types of crime, like large-scale fraud, a question open for future research.


Jo-Anne Kramer
J. Kramer MSc is onderzoeker en docent Criminologie bij de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en was als junior onderzoeker verbonden aan het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) in Amsterdam.

Arjan Blokland
Prof. dr. mr. A.A.J. Blokland is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) in Amsterdam en bijzonder hoogleraar Criminology & Criminal Justice bij het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Melvin Soudijn
Dr. M.R.J. Soudijn is research fellow bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) in Amsterdam en Operationeel Specialist bij de Nationale Politie.
Artikel

De Dark Triad persoonlijkheidskenmerken en online en offline agressie: een verkennende studie op basis van zelfrapportages van jonge adolescenten

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2020
Trefwoorden Dark Triad, self-reported aggression, psychopathy, narcissism, Machiavellianism
Auteurs Clio Lambrechts, Lieven Pauwels en Wim Hardyns
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The current study investigates the relationship between the Dark Triad personality traits (consisting of narcissism, psychopathy and Machiavellianism) and three different forms of aggression: online aggression, overt aggression and relational aggression. The sample consisted of 1,051 adolescents between 12 and 16 years old. Results show that psychopathy and Machiavellianism are positive predictors of the three forms of aggression, while narcissism is a positive predictor of online aggression only.


Clio Lambrechts
C. Lambrechts is doctoraatsonderzoekster aan de Vakgroep Criminologie, Strafrecht en Sociaal Recht (Universiteit Gent) en lid van het Institute for International Research on Criminal Policy (IRCP).

Lieven Pauwels
Prof. dr. L. Pauwels is professor aan de Vakgroep Criminologie, Strafrecht en Sociaal Recht (Universiteit Gent) en directeur van het Institute for International Research on Criminal Policy (IRCP).

Wim Hardyns
Prof. dr. W. Hardyns is professor aan de Vakgroep Criminologie, Strafrecht en Sociaal Recht (Universiteit Gent) en lid van het Institute for International Research on Criminal Policy (IRCP). Daarnaast is hij als gastprofessor verbonden aan de master in de Veiligheidswetenschappen van de Universiteit Antwerpen.
Artikel

De aanpak van kunstcriminaliteit in Europa

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2020
Trefwoorden Art crime, European Union, United Kingdom, policing, prosecution
Auteurs Saskia Hufnagel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article provides a short overview of art crime policing and gives some insights as to why art crime policing is an especially arduous task while specifically providing examples from the European Union (EU) and the United Kingdom (UK). The article focuses first on the detection of art crime, exploring why many crimes do not enter the criminal justice system. Here, the fact that art crimes are often not detected at all or, if they are, not reported to the police is discussed in some depth in particular with a view to art theft and forgeries. The article then addresses the investigation and prosecution of art crime cases in the EU and how they are facilitated and inhibited in various member states. Finally, the challenges and possible improvements at the European level are discussed and future directions of the fight against art crime are debated.


Saskia Hufnagel
Dr. S. Hufnagel is als senior wetenschappelijk medewerker verbonden aan de afdeling Strafrecht van de School of Law van Queen Mary University of London.
Article

Access_open Overturning Wrongful Convictions by Way of the Extraordinary Review

The Spanish Experience

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 4 2020
Trefwoorden extraordinary review, remedies, fair trial, wrongful convictions, criminal justice, innocence, procedural safeguards, justice
Auteurs Lorena Bachmaier Winter en Antonio Martínez Santos
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    According to the traditional view, the ultimate aim of the extraordinary review (recurso de revisión) provided in the Spanish justice system was to deal with wrongful criminal convictions and correct those serious miscarriages of justice which became apparent only after the judgment had become final. However, the 2015 reform called this traditional view into question by formally including two additional grounds for review that are not necessarily related to the correcting miscarriages or blatant mistakes in the assessment of the facts made by the sentencing court. This paper aims to give an overview of the extraordinary review in Spain. To that end it will first address the legal framework and its practical implementation, as well as present pitfalls and best practices. Finally, future trends and challenges will be identified in order to improve the protection of defendants who have suffered a wrongful conviction.


Lorena Bachmaier Winter
Lorena Bachmaier Winter is Professor of Law at the Universidad Complutense de Madrid.

Antonio Martínez Santos
Antonio Martínez Santos is Associate Professor of Law, Francisco de Vitoria University, Madrid.
Artikel

Exploring narrative, convictions and autoethnography as a convict criminologist

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden convict criminology, narrative, autoethnography, reflexivity, post-colonial perspective
Auteurs Dr. Rod Earle
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Convict criminology draws from personal experience of imprisonment to offer critical criminological perspectives on punishment and prisons. In this article I discuss how some of these are aligned with questions of narrative and post-colonial perspectives in criminology. I use autoethnographic vignettes to communicate the experiences of imprisonment that inform the development of convict criminology, and I explore their relationship to narrative criminology’s interest in personal stories.


Dr. Rod Earle
Dr. Rod Earle is a Senior Lecturer at the School of Health, Wellbeing and Social Care, The Open University, UK.
Article

Access_open A European Approach to Revision in Criminal Matters?

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 4 2020
Auteurs Joost Nan, Nina Holvast en Sjarai Lestrade
Auteursinformatie

Joost Nan
Joost Nan is Associate Professor at the Erasmus University Rotterdam.

Nina Holvast
Nina Holvast is Assistant Professor at the Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

Sjarai Lestrade
Sjarai Lestrade is Assistant Professor at the Radboud University Nijmegen.
Article

Access_open Between Legal Certainty and Doubt

The Developments in the Procedure to Overturn Wrongful Convictions in the Netherlands

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 4 2020
Trefwoorden revision law, post-conviction review, wrongful convictions, miscarriages of justice, criminal law, empirical research
Auteurs Nina Holvast, Joost Nan en Sjarai Lestrade
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Dutch legislature has recently (2012) altered the legislation for post-conviction revision of criminal cases. The legislature aimed to improve the balance between the competing interests of individual justice and the finality of verdicts, by making post-conviction revision more accessible. In this article we describe the current legal framework for revising cases. We also study how the revision procedure functions in practice, by looking at the types and numbers of (successful) requests for further investigations and applications for revision. We observe three challenges in finding the right balance in the revision process in the Netherlands. These challenges concern: 1) the scope of the novum criterion (which is strict), 2) the appropriate role of an advisory committee (the ACAS) in revision cases (functioning too much as a pre-filter for the Supreme Court) and, 3) the difficulties that arise due to requiring a defence council when requesting a revision (e.g., financial burdens).


Nina Holvast
Nina Holvast is Assistant Professor at the Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

Joost Nan
Joost Nan is Associate Professor at the Erasmus University Rotterdam.

Sjarai Lestrade
Sjarai Lestrade is Assistant Professor at the Radboud University Nijmegen.
Artikel

De ontwikkelingen op het gebied van fiscale mediation in Nederland

Tijdschrift Nederlands-Vlaams tijdschrift voor mediation en conflictmanagement, Aflevering 4 2020
Trefwoorden Mediation, Fiscale bemiddeling, Fiscale strafzaken, Mediationwetgeving
Auteurs Roelof Vos en Diede Molenaars
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article the authors summarize the current position of tax mediation in the Netherlands and pay attention to several differences between mediation in Belgium and the Netherlands. They also outline the recent developments in order to the proposed mediation legislation and the options for using mediation in tax fraud cases. Mediation legislation could be the incentive that tax mediation needs.


Roelof Vos
Roelof Vos is advocaat bij Hertoghs advocaten en MfN-registermediator.

Diede Molenaars
Diede Molenaars is advocaat bij Hertoghs advocaten.
Article

Access_open Migration and Time: Duration as an Instrument to Welcome or Restrict

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden Migration, EU migration law, time
Auteurs Gerrie Lodder
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    States apply different material conditions to attract or restrict residence of certain types of migrants. But states can also make use of time as an instrument to design more welcoming or more restrictive policies. States can apply faster application procedures for desired migrants. Furthermore, time can be used in a more favourable way to attract desired migrants in regard to duration of residence, access to a form of permanent residence and protection against loss of residence. This contribution makes an analysis of how time is used as an instrument in shaping migration policy by the European Union (EU) legislator in the context of making migration more or less attractive. This analysis shows that two groups are treated more favourably in regard to the use of time in several aspects: EU citizens and economic- and knowledge-related third-country nationals. However, when it comes to the acquisition of permanent residence after a certain period of time, the welcoming policy towards economic- and knowledge-related migrants is no longer obvious.


Gerrie Lodder
Gerrie Lodder is lecturer and researcher at the Europa Institute of Leiden University.
Artikel

Woekeren met andermans talent

Over de handel en wandel en het zelfbeeld van spelersagenten

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden football agents, fraud, money laundering, regulation, self-image
Auteurs Prof. dr. Hans Nelen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The focus of this article is on the role that football agents play in the world of professional football. Their role has also been associated with criminal activities such as money laundering, tax evasion, corruption and the exploitation of under-age players. The article pays attention to recent developments in the world of football and the shady business practices in relation to the transfer of football players. Moreover, the article addresses the self-image of football agents and raises the question whether they should take more responsibility themselves in containing fraud and money laundering in the world of football.


Prof. dr. Hans Nelen
Prof. dr. Hans Nelen is hoogleraar criminologie aan de Universiteit Maastricht en redacteur voor Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit.
Rulings

ECJ 2 April 2020, joined cases C-370/17 and C-37/18 (CRPNPAC), Social Insurance

Caisse de retraite du personnel navigant professionnel de l’aéronautique civile (CRPNPAC) – v – Vueling Airlines SA (C-370/17); Vueling Airlines SA – v – Jean-Luc Poignant (C-37/18), French cases

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden Social Insurance
Samenvatting

    E101 certificates which were fraudulently obtained can only be disregarded under specified conditions.

    The UK Employment Tribunals and England and Wales Court of Appeal (case [2018] EWCA Civ 2748) have ruled that any Uber driver who has the Uber App switched on, is in the territory where he/she is authorised to work, and is able and willing to accept assignments, is working for Uber under a worker contract. The UK courts disregarded some of the provisions of Uber’s driver agreement. They had been entitled to do so because the relevant provisions of the driver agreement did not reflect the reality of the bargain made between the parties. The fact that Uber interviews and recruits drivers, controls the key information, requires drivers to accept trips, sets the route, fixes the fare, imposes numerous conditions on drivers, determines remuneration, amends the driver’s terms unilaterally, and handles complaints by passengers, makes it a transportation or passenger carrier, not an information and electronic technology provider. Therefore the UK courts resolved the central issue of for whom (Uber) and under a contract with whom (Uber), drivers perform their services. Uber is a modern business phenomenon. Regardless of its special position in business, Uber is obliged to follow the rules according to which work is neither a commodity nor an online technology.


Andrzej Świątkowski
Andrzej Marian Świątkowski is a professor at Jesuit University Ignatianum in Krakow. ((ORCID: 0000-0003-1753-7810))
Discussie en debat

Aandeelhouderskapitalisme en excessieve beloningen wakkeren fraude aan

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden shareholder capitalism, excessive rewards, fraude, shareholder idealism, long-term value creation
Auteurs Prof. dr. mr. Marcel Pheijffer
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution examines shareholder capitalism and shareholder idealism. It is also argued that excessive rewards – often a result of shareholder capitalism – fuel fraud. Supervisory directors and shareholders should therefore act as a counterforce and fulfil a corrective role.


Prof. dr. mr. Marcel Pheijffer
Prof. dr. mr. M. Pheijffer RA is hoogleraar Accountancy aan de Nyenrode Business Universiteit en de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Online jeugdcriminaliteit en ‘verkeerde vrienden’: wanneer is de samenhang het sterkst?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2-3 2020
Trefwoorden cyber delinquency, cyber offenders, peer deviance, social network
Auteurs Yaloe van der Toolen MSc, Dr. Marleen Weulen Kranenbarg en Prof. dr. Frank Weerman
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article investigates whether cyber delinquent behaviour of school friends, other offline friends and online contacts is related to cyber delinquent behaviour of individuals, and whether this relation differs for cyber dependent, cyber enabled and traditional crime. We used both direct and indirect measures of cyber delinquency of friends. We employed data from the first wave of a large-scale study on the causes of online delinquency among Dutch juveniles (n=889; mean age=16.8 years). The results suggest that both direct and indirect measures of levels of friend delinquency were related to levels of individual cyber offending. However, indirect measures had a stronger association with individual online delinquency than direct measures. This suggests that respondents make incorrect estimates of their friends’ levels of online delinquency. Moreover, no differences were found in the strength of the relation between individual online offending and indirect measures of online offending of school friends, offline friends and online friends. This suggests that friends of different types all play an important role in individual online offending.


Yaloe van der Toolen MSc
Y. van der Toolen MSc is junior onderzoeker bij de sectie Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en junior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) in Amsterdam.

Dr. Marleen Weulen Kranenbarg
Dr. M. Weulen Kranenbarg is universitair docent Criminologie bij de sectie Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Prof. dr. Frank Weerman
Prof. dr. F.M. Weerman is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) in Amsterdam en bijzonder hoogleraar Jeugdcriminologie bij de sectie Criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Jurisprudentie

Kroniek ondernemingsstrafrecht

Eerste helft 2020

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Bijzonder Strafrecht & Handhaving, Aflevering 4 2020
Auteurs Prof. mr. H.J.B. Sackers (red.), Mr. J. Boonstra-Verhaert, Mr. dr. S.S. Buisman e.a.

Prof. mr. H.J.B. Sackers (red.)

Mr. J. Boonstra-Verhaert

Mr. dr. S.S. Buisman

Mr. A.A. Feenstra

Mr. K.M.T. Helwegen

Mr. dr. I. Koopmans

Mr. V.S.Y. Liem

Prof. mr. M. Nelemans

Mr. dr. J.S. Nan

Mr. dr. E. Sikkema

Mr. dr. drs. B. van de Vorm

Mr. dr. W.S. de Zanger

    In this article, the authors draw on a netnographic study conducted between May and July 2019 on phishing on Telegram Messenger. The results indicate that Telegram, just like cryptomarkets and online forums, seems to function as a criminal marketplace. In the groups analyzed the authors see users who both offer and are looking for specific goods and services related to the crime script of phishing. Furthermore, the information on Telegram contains specific modi operandi that are offering comprehensive and step-by-step guides to successfully complete specific financial cybercrimes. Therefore, based on this explorative study the authors argue that Telegram can be seen as a digital offender convergence setting.


Dr. Robby Roks
Dr. R.A. Roks is als universitair docent verbonden aan de sectie Criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

Nahom Monshouwer MSc
R.N. Monshouwer MSc is CCD Analist bij Rabobank.
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