Zoekresultaat: 137 artikelen

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Jaar 2009 x

    This paper focuses on how organized crime in Bulgaria uses political corruption to achieve its goals. It focuses, though, on one specific type of criminal structures, the ones controlled by former security officers. More specifically it analyzes the criminal careers of two well known Bulgarian crime figures and former security officers. The way they use the instrument of corruption changes though the years when they evolve from relatively unimportant racketeers into powerful local oligarchs.


P. Gounev
Philip Gounev (philip.gounev@online.bg) is als research fellow verbonden aan het Center for the Study of Democracy in Londen. De auteurs bedanken Ruth van Leeuwen voor de vertaling van dit artikel en voor haar bijdrage aan het onderzoek.

T. Bezlov
Tihomir Bezlov (tiho@online.bg) is als senior analyst verbonden aan het Center for the Study of Democracy in Londen.

    In the years 2000-2003 crime on Curaçao seemed to be going out of control and the economy was virtually stagnant with low growth and high unemployment. This situation has changed significantly since 2005. The author shows that a targeted approach by the authorities pushed back major crime problems like the smuggling of cocaine on passenger flights, armed robberies and homicides. However only a permanent effort can guarantee the continuation of this success. Corruption and nepotism are still vibrant, but mainly concern individuals, not institutions as a whole, while the judiciary actively prosecutes corrupt officials. In the long run not only repression, but preventive measures are needed as well. A major cause of corruption and nepotism is the small scale of island life, in combination with economic protectionism and state ownership of companies. Structural adjustments in economic institutions and policy in recent years heralded the return of economic growth and employment. More adjustments in economic policy and institutions could further reduce incentives for corruption; these might also lead to the opening up of Curaçao's rigid labour markets for the many unemployed youngsters. A more autonomous Curaçao faces serious challenges, but the island's record so far gives no reason for despondency.


A.W. Weenink
Dr. Anton Weenink is senior onderzoeker bij de Dienst Nationale Recherche van het Korps Landelijke Politiediensten (KLPD).

    There is currently no legal base for financial supervision and crisis management at the European level. Powers are nationally based. This article develops the financial trilemma, which states that a stable financial system, an integrated financial system and national financial autonomy are incompatible. Any two of the three objectives can be combined, but not all three; one has to give. Assuming that a stable financial system is desirable, this article explores the trade-off between national financial autonomy and financial integration in Europe. Policymakers face a clear choice. If they want to preserve the benefits of the single market for financial services (financial integration), financial supervision and crisis management have to be based on a European footing. This article stresses that a strong legal base is needed for such European arrangements. Voluntary cooperation does not work in a crisis, as national governments tend to follow their national interests. The alternative to European arrangements is preserving the current national powers. This article predicts that banking will then become national: each country has its own national banks.


D. Schoenmaker
Prof. dr. Dirk Schoenmaker is decaan van de Duisenberg School of Finance.

    Charles Kindleberger unravelled the anatomy of a typical financial crisis in his famous book Manias, panics and crashes (1978). He stresses that during a boom the tendency to swindle and be swindled runs parallel to the tendency to speculate. In this article five famous and non-famous swindles over the past ninety years are analyzed. Each financial boom, and each financial crisis during this period of modern capitalism experienced at least one famous financial swindle, which is to be seen as typical for the boom and the subsequent deception. The five swindlers described are Charles (Carlo) Ponzi in the 1920s, Ivar Krueger around 1930, Bernie Cornfeld in the 1960s/1970s, Michael Milken in the 1980s and - very recently - Bernard Madoff. His 65 billion dollar fraud is to be seen as the first worldwide Ponzi scheme - a fraud that lasted longer, reached wider and cut deeper than any similar scheme in history. An analysis of these five cases yields several striking similarities. It is concluded that financial swindles are no random events, but the result of both structural changes and circular waves of economic and financial boom and bust.


B.M.J. Slot
Dr. Brigitte Slot is beleidsmedewerker bij de Directie Financiële Markten van het ministerie van Financiën. Zij is tevens redactieraadlid van Justitiële verkenningen.

    Many actors have been blamed for the financial crisis: Greenspan, banks, rating agencies, careless mortgage takers and incompetent mainstream economists. This paper however focusses on other explanations for the crisis which are usually neglected in mainstream economics. The imbalances in the income and wealth distribution worldwide have become so large, that the poor cannot buy the goods produced by rich countries anymore, while the rich have become so rich that they cannot spend all their income anymore in the real sector. This lack of demand for goods has artificially been filled by unsecured debts given to the poor, but eventually led to a taking off of financial markets, and to a crisis. When imbalances are too large, this backfires. Government packages aimed at stabilizing the economy should therefore not forget the income and wealth distribution in order to be successful in the long run.


B. Unger
Prof. dr. Brigitte Unger is hoogleraar economie van de publieke sector bij de Utrecht School of Economics.
Boekbespreking

Beheer en gebruik van grond in voorstedelijke gebieden in Ghana

Lokaal gewoonterecht en traditionele hoofden in een veranderende rechtswerkelijkheid

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 01 2009
Auteurs Els Baerends
Auteursinformatie

Els Baerends
Els Baerends is antropoloog met specialisatie rechtsantropologie. Zij deed in de jaren zeventig van de vorige eeuw uitgebreid rechtsantropologisch onderzoek bij de Anufom (Noord Togo, West Afrika) en promoveerde op een studie van huwelijksuitwisseling en schuldrelaties bij de Anufom. Van 1983-2008 werkte zij als UHD bij de vakgroep Rechtstheorie van de RUGroningen. Sinds 1999 is zij betrokken bij de Masters opleiding in Humanitarian Action (NOHA) aan de RUGroningen. Haar interessegebieden zijn exchange theory, human ethology, kinship and gender en grondenrecht.
Artikel

Constitutioneel bewustzijn in Nederland:

Van burgerzin, burgerschap en de onzichtbare Grondwet

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 02 2009
Auteurs Barbara Oomen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Faced with increased individualization, debates on immigration and interna-tionalization, the Dutch government has recently appointed a Constitutional Review Commission to strengthen the Dutch constitution and enhance its social relevance. It is against this background that this article examines the place that the Dutch constitution currently holds in empirical and discursive understand-ings of citizenship in the Netherlands. From the vantage point of citizenship discourse, the interpretation of citizenship (burgerschap) in the Netherlands amongst policy-makers and the public at large hinges on civicness rather than on democratic citizenship, and departs from a strongly assimilationist perspec-tive: ‘burgerschap’ is essentially about participating in and adapting to the dominant culture. From the vantage point of the constitution, the current consti-tution’s main function is legal: constituting government powers and limiting their exercise. Legal scholars emphasize that the Dutch constitution hardly has a more symbolic or social role. These facts are contrasted with data from a representative survey under the Dutch adult population, which demonstrates how the Dutch hardly know anything about the contents of the constitution, but do have great confidence in the document, and consider it to be very important. Interestingly, respondents also emphasize the symbolic and societal function, in addition to the legal function of the constitution. This seems to point towards the possibility of an understanding of Dutch citizenship more firmly based upon the values embodied in the constitution.


Barbara Oomen
Barbara Oomenis docent rechten aan de Roosevelt Academy en is bij-zonder hoogleraar rechtspluralisme aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam. Haar belangstelling gaat uit naar rechtssociologische vraagstukken op het terrein van culturele diversiteit, constitutionalisme en de doorwerking van internationale mensenrechten. Zij is voorzitter van het Platform Mensenrechteneducatie, lid van de Commissie Mensenrechten van de Adviesraad Internationale Vraag-stukken en lid van de Staatscommissie Grondwet.

J.T.H.L. Stappers

J.W. van de Gronden

A.C. Hendriks
Artikel

Medisch onderzoek in het kader van de asielprocedure

Enkele kanttekeningen vanuit bestuursrechtelijk en gezondheidsrechtelijk perspectief

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Gezondheidsrecht, Aflevering 8 2009
Auteurs M.L. Bosman

M.L. Bosman

M.C. Ploem

J.K.M. Geevers

E.B. van Veen

J.C.J. Dute

C.B.M.M. Hoegen-van Tiel
Artikel

Internationale pensioenverevening

Welk pensioen is WVP-pensioen? (II)

Tijdschrift EstateTip Review, Aflevering 8 2009
Trefwoorden internationaal
Auteurs Mr. F.H.M. Hoens

Mr. F.H.M. Hoens
Artikel

De 'Italiaanse' weduwe en de 'Barbier'

Het Europeesrechtelijk knippen en scheren van ons recht van overgang

Tijdschrift EstateTip Review, Aflevering 10 2009
Trefwoorden internationaal
Artikel

Internationale pensioenverevening

Welk pensioen is WVP-pensioen?

Tijdschrift EstateTip Review, Aflevering 3 2009
Trefwoorden internationaal
Auteurs Mr. F.H.M. Hoens

Mr. F.H.M. Hoens

    This article describes the development of the Dutch bar, which seems to follow the international trends, the Anglo-Saxon trends in particular. These trends are internationalization, commercialization, organizational professionalization, specialization and differentiation. The Dutch bar nowadays consists of approximately 15.000 advocates, working in approximately 3.800 law firms. Approximately 3.500 advocates work in the Top 30 law firms, whereas the firms consisting of one advocate form the majority of the bar. Particularly during the last decade the bar has grown tremendously due to an increase in demand for specialistic legal service and advice. Due to new developments the client has become more prominent when it comes to determining the quality of the legal service, a phenomenon also known as ‘simultaneity’.


R. van Otterlo
Prof. mr. dr. Rob van Otterlo is als bijzonder hoogleraar organisatie van de juridische dienstverlening verbonden aan de faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit van Amsterdam. Hij is tevens werkzaam bij de Nederlandse Orde van Advocaten in Den Haag.
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