Zoekresultaat: 21 artikelen

x
Jaar 2013 x

    Since the mid-1980s American recipes for the fight against crime and nuisance are very popular amongst Dutch policymakers. The question posed in this article is why they rather look at the United States than at European countries far more comparable to the Netherlands. The authors answers this question by pointing at the popularity of neo-liberal recipes in general, an emotional historical bond marked by the time that New York was still called New Amsterdam and the liberation from Nazism in 1945, the (sometimes reluctant) acceptance of the US’ role as ‘the world’s policeman’ and a (mostly unspoken) belief that ‘bigger is better’. Next, the author draws some lessons from research on ‘how policy travels’: 1) crime policies are always in much wider social policies and idea(l)s; 2) if something ‘works’ in country A it doesn’t mean it also ‘works’ in country B; 3) policies are always adopted to national circumstances; 4) policymakers are particularly fond of simple messages and dislike nuances and criticism; 5) you can also look at the US in order to find out where ‘we’ don’t want to go; and 6) you most of all learn more about yourself if you look at other countries. The author concludes with a plea for critical cosmopolitanism and a decolonisation of criminology from national biases.


R. van Swaaningen
Prof. dr. René van Swaaningen is hoogleraar internationale en comparatieve criminologie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, wetenschappelijk directeur van de Erasmus Graduate School of Law en voorzitter van de Nederlandse Vereniging voor Criminologie. E-mail: vanswaaningen@law.eur.nl.
Artikel

The product of design

Veiligheidsbeleid op Amerikaanse leest geschoeid

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 8 2013
Auteurs V. Lub
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In policy development and academic research on urban problems such as poverty, disorder and crime, the United States has served as a model country for the Netherlands for years. This article analyses two Dutch policies in the field of neighbourhood safety that are strongly influenced by American policy. It specifically focuses on the efficacy and applicability of social interventions, i.e. approaches that appeal to residents’ active involvement in the improvement of public safety and quality of life: resident representation comities (I) and neighbourhood watch schemes (II). Available research into the two policy cases illustrates that the ‘hard’ science from the United States can often be complemented with more qualitative information from the Netherlands. American research can thus be used to support Dutch policy designs, provided that knowledge is fine-tuned and contextualised.


V. Lub
Drs. Vasco Lub is oprichter en directeur van het Bureau voor Sociale Argumentatie en tevens promovendus bij de capaciteitsgroep Sociologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Boekbespreking

Geloven in burgers

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2013
Auteurs Prof. dr. Hans Boutellier
Auteursinformatie

Prof. dr. Hans Boutellier
Prof. dr. J.C.J. Boutellier is algemeen directeur van het Verwey-Jonker Instituut en bijzonder hoogleraar Veiligheid & Burgerschap aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

Marginaal gehuisveste arbeidsmigranten en overlast

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2013
Trefwoorden labour migrants, nuisance, housing policy, Central and Eastern Europe, public space
Auteurs B. van Gestel, E.K. van Straalen en M.A. Verhoeven
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Recent labour migration from Central and Eastern Europe has, next to positive economic facets, also negative aspects like nuisance. This article describes the nature of this nuisance and the circumstances causing this. According to key informants who have been interviewed for this study, the nuisances discussed in this article pertain to only a small part of the labour migrants. The nuisance related to labour migrants from Central and Eastern Europe mostly consists of loud ‘noises of living’ around the home and in public space. Considering the nuisance, the following aspects seem to be part of the cause: thin-walled houses and the (illegal) letting per room; poor commitment to the neighbourhood due to temporary stay; quarrels and acts of violence between labour migrants and excessive drinking; lack of privacy and therefore meeting in public space; and housing in neighbourhoods with an accumulation of social issues. In this article the authors describe these aspects and their occurrence.


B. van Gestel
Dr. Barbra van Gestel is werkzaam bij de onderzoeksafdeling Criminaliteit, Rechtshandhaving en Sancties van het WODC.

E.K. van Straalen
Elmarije van Straalen, MSc is werkzaam bij de onderzoeksafdeling Criminaliteit, Rechtshandhaving en Sancties van het WODC.

M.A. Verhoeven
Drs. Maite Verhoeven is werkzaam bij de onderzoeksafdeling Criminaliteit, Rechtshandhaving en Sancties van het WODC.
Artikel

Samen beslissen over je eigen omgeving.

Wijkbewoners aan zet met een Eigen Kracht-conferentie voor groep, wijk of buurt

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 3 2013
Auteurs Hilleke Crum
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Eigen Kracht Centrale is striving for a society based on participation and mutual self reliance of citizens, where citizens remain in charge of their own life, especially when dealing with organizations and government bodies. It is important, in the Eigen Kracht Centrale vision, that everyone is part of society and everyone can participate, everyone has a say and remains in charge of his or her own life, everyone gets support from their own social network: family, friends, neighbors, etc.
    Especially when problems arise that might lead to involvement of various (social care) institutions.
    To implement this vision in daily life, the Eigen Kracht Centrale has introduced the Family Group-conference as a decision making model. This model appears to be effective for citizens to make their own plans. When given responsibility for the situation and the solution, citizens, in every situation thinkable, create, according to themselves and professionals as well, save and creative plans that fit.
    In this article the FG-c for a group, district or neighbourhood is discussed and is illustrated by real life examples. Even when people don’t know each other, they can make a plan to solve conflicts in their street or neighbourhood: they all have a strong interest in living in safe, comfortable surroundings. Although the experience with this variant of FGC is limited in The Netherlands: what are they, what lessons can be learned?


Hilleke Crum
Hilleke Crum is regiomanager Eigen Kracht Centrale Noord-Holland en redacteur van dit tijdschrift.

    In various neighbourhoods in Amsterdam tensions between their inhabitants are felt. Inhabitants are irritated by the behaviour of youths, polluted streets and nuisance from their neighbours. They are incapable or do not dare to address each other about this and to solve their problems by themselves. Instead they look towards the authorities for help, which are dealing with insufficient capacity. As a consequence it is getting harder and harder to address and correct each other. Small problems and conflicts develop into big and complex issues.
    Amsterdam authorities use various policy tools, pointed at both increasing its own decisiveness and credibility and at mobilizing civilians. Those policies are the Bully-approach, Neighbourhood Safety Teams, Self-protective Neighbourhoods and stimulation of civic initiatives. The reality is stubborn, but also shows bottom-up examples which function succesfully and independently from government approaches and programs. In these examples civic force plays an important role.
    These examples, knowledge and persons who play key roles can be brought together and are useful in the search for solutions of problems in other situations. This is most effective when civilians attack issues and are integrated with worthy instruments from the authorities. This will gradually enable a reconstruction of the current system and a social reacquisition of neighbourhoods. In this social ‘football ‘ team civilians would be the strikers, backed up by a strong and professional governmental midfield. This article consecutively defines the current problem, regards the governmental instruments, bottom-up initiatives. It ends up with the suggestion for the construction of a good teamplay between policy tools en bottom up initiatives.


Piet van Diepen
Piet van Diepen is mede-initiator van Wikistad, dat bijdraagt aan een maatschappij waar Eigen Kracht en Burgerkracht het uitgangspunt is bij de aanpak van problemen en de overheid aansluit. Als professionele onderzoeker, conceptontwikkelaar en burger combineert hij kennis op onder meer het gebied van veiligheid en armoedebestrijding met deze doelstelling.

    Afwijken van bestemmingsplan. Bor. Vereiste dat aantal zelfstandige woningen gelijk blijft. Verwijzing naar norm in huisvestingsverordening

Artikel

Het omgevingsplan en de omgevingsvergunning: de voor de praktijk belangrijkste ruimtelijke instrumenten van de Omgevingswet

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Omgevingsrecht, Aflevering 2 2013
Trefwoorden Omgevingswet, ruimtelijke ordening, omgevingsplan, omgevingsvergunning, projectbesluit
Auteurs Mr. W.J. Bosma
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Aan de hand van de toetsversie van de Omgevingswet van februari 2013 beoordeelt de auteur de ruimtelijke-ordeningsinstrumenten in het wetsvoorstel. In het bijzonder wordt aandacht besteed aan het omgevingsplan en de omgevingsvergunning. Daarnaast komen ook het projectbesluit, de algemene regels en de provinciale omgevingsverordening aan bod.


Mr. W.J. Bosma
Mr. W.J. (Willem) Bosma is advocaat bij Van der Feltz advocaten te Den Haag.
Artikel

Kiezen voor stadsrepublieken? Over administratieve afhandeling van overlast in de steden

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2013
Trefwoorden social disorder, incivility, governance, communal sanctions, Mayor
Auteurs Elke Devroe
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The theme of governing anti-social behaviour and incivilities in the public space became more important on the policy and research agenda over the last twenty years. This article describes the law on incivilities in Belgium, namely the ‘administrative communal sanctions’ (GAS). This law is studied in a broader context of contemporary crime control and its organizing patterns. The development of the politics of behaviour can be explained by different characteristics of the period referred to as the late modernity. In the dissertation ‘A culture of control?’ (Devroe 2012) we studied the application and the concrete strategies behind the governance of incivilities on a national and on a city level. The incivility law broadened the competences of the Mayor and the city council especially in the completion of anti social behaviour and public disorder problems in his/her municipality. Instead of being dealt with on a traditional judicial way by the police magistrate, the Mayor can, by this law; himself lay on fines until maximum 250 euro. We mention ‘city republics’ as this punitive sanction became a locally assigned matter, which means that one municipality differs from another in their ‘incivility policy’. Due to the split up of competences of the Belgian state arrangements of 1988, each municipality finds itself framed in different political and organisational executive realities. In this view, Mayors can be called ‘presidents’ of their own municipality, keeping and controlling the process of tackling incivilities as their main responsibility and determining what behaviour had to be controlled and punished and what behaviour can be considered as normal decent behaviour in the public space. Problems of creating a ‘culture of control’, creating inequality for the poor, the beggars and the socially ‘unwanted’ can arise, especially in big cities.


Elke Devroe
Dr. Elke Devroe is Universitair Hoofddocent Criminologie bij het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie, Universiteit Leiden. E-mail: e.devroe@law.leidenuniv.nl

Diederik Cops
Dr. Diederik Cops is postdoctoraal onderzoeker aan het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie, KU Leuven, België. E-mail: Diederik.Cops@law.kuleuven.be

    The Dutch Social Support Act aims at a bigger role for the civil society in informal care. This appeal includes churches. In this article, the question is: do churches indeed want to participate more in social support? And what is subscribed to churches in the Social Support Act?
    Formal documentation of all denominations formulate an active role of churches, both in society in general and more specifically in social support. In national legislation, the Social Support Act does not describe clearly what its expectations of churches are. This is partly so because the Law only gives a general frame for new policy, and local governments make their own policy based on their specific local situation. Local government show a wide variety of possible roles they expect from churches. These roles differ in some aspects from the roles churches describe themselves. Churches themselves do not clearly communicate to governments what they are willing and capable to do in the field of social support; maybe so because they do not realized yet how big the changes induced by the Social Support Act are.


Marja Jager-Vreugdenhil
Dr. ir. M. Jager-Vreugdenhil is onderzoeker bij het Centrum voor Samenlevingsvraagstukken van de Gereformeerde Hogeschool in Zwolle. mjager@gh.nl.
Artikel

Onveiligheid als stedelijkheidsfobie

Angst en onmacht in de hygiënische stad

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2013
Trefwoorden disorder, perception of crime and disorder, urbanism, public familiarity
Auteurs Bas van Stokkom
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article suggests that fears and concerns about disorder and crime are connected with urbanophobia, i.e. a low willingness to identify with public space and a certain incapacity to recognize deviancy and give it a place in one’s mind map. For this reason many citizens may not develop public familiarity. At the same time it is argued that tackling urban disorder is often necessary but not for reasons that proponents of repression and zero tolerance think. Current crime and disorder policies bring forth many counterproductive results, including increased fear and powerlessness. It seems more reasonable to combat disorder to undo the ‘situational normality’ of persistent forms of anti-social behaviour. For many citizens this signals a restoration of expected peaceful interaction.


Bas van Stokkom
Dr. Bas van Stokkom is verbonden aan het Criminologisch Instituut van de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Radboud Universiteit en aan de afdeling bestuurswetenschap & politicologie van de Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam. Email: b.a.m.van.stokkom@vu.nl
Boekbespreking

‘Panta rhei!’ Een dynamisch perspectief op verandering in veiligheidszorg

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2013
Trefwoorden security, Foucault, Deleuze, assemblage
Auteurs Prof. dr. Willem de Haan
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Order in Security. A Dynamic Perspective (Schuilenburg 2012) is a theoretical and empirical study of self-organizing processes of change taking place within what the author calls ‘security assemblages’. In this review, the study is favorably evaluated as a form of empirical philosophy and praised for usefully introducing French philosophy into the field of security studies. In terms of empirical sociological research, however, the study is more critically reviewed as offering little insight into the perceptions, emotions, interpretations and meanings that actors assign to their conduct in this field.


Prof. dr. Willem de Haan
Prof. dr. Willem de Haan is als senior research fellow verbonden aan de afdeling strafrecht & criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. E-mail: w.j.m.de.haan@vu.nl.

Prof. Els Enhus
Prof. E. Enhus is als hoofddocent verbonden aan de vakgroep Criminologie, Onderzoeksgroep Crime and Society (CRiS), faculteit Recht en Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit Brussel.

    Ontvankelijkheid. Hoogtematen. Regeling verbod short stay in bestemmingsplan


Tonny Nijmeijer
Boekbespreking

Vertrouwen in krachtwijken

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 1 2013
Trefwoorden review
Auteurs Heleen Weyers
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this feature authors review recently published books on subjects of interest to readers of Recht der Werkelijkheid.


Heleen Weyers
Heleen Weyers is universitair docent bij de Vakgroep Rechtstheorie van de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen. In haar onderzoek richt ze zich op de totstandkoming en effectiviteit van wetgeving. Qua onderwerpen gaat het daarbij met name om onderzoek naar euthanasieregelgeving, rookverboden en legitimiteitsvraagstukken. Onlangs publiceerde zij samen met Marc Hertogh Recht van onderop. Antwoorden uit de rechtssociologie (Nijmegen, Ars Aequi Libri), een boek dat een actueel overzicht geeft van de hedendaagse Nederlandse rechtssociologie.
Redactioneel

Irreguliere migratie en illegaal verblijf: beleid, conflicten en contradicties

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2013
Trefwoorden Illegal stay, The Netherlands, criminalization, immigration laws and policies
Auteurs Richard Staring en René van Swaaningen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The current phase in which Dutch government increasingly criminalizes the illegal residence of migrants is simultaneously characterized by decreasing numbers of illegal migrants in this country. In the process of crimmigration, some newly developed policies indirectly influence daily lives of specific groups of illegal migrants while other policies and laws more directly try to hinder illegal stay. These policies that aim to exclude and ban illegal migrants are continued even though they are increasingly criticized by academics and divergent (inter)national actors. These policies and laws can be contradictory, sometimes conflict with international treaties, and lead to unforeseen and undesirable outcomes in which human dignity is challenged.


Richard Staring
Prof. dr. Richard Staring is bijzonder hoogleraar mobiliteit, toezicht en criminaliteit aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. E-mail: staring@law.uu.nl

René van Swaaningen
Prof. dr. René van Swaaningen is hoogleraar internationale en comparatieve criminologie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, directeur van de Erasmus Graduate School of Law en voorzitter van de Nederlandse Vereniging voor Criminologie (NVK). E-mail: vanswaaningen@law.eur.nl

Prof. dr. Lieven Pauwels
Prof. dr. L.J.R. Pauwels is directeur van de Onderzoeksgroep Sociale Veiligheidsanalyse binnen de vakgroep Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Gent.
Artikel

Access_open Religie en kerk in de zorgzame samenleving

De Wet maatschappelijke ondersteuning kritisch bekeken als nieuwe verhouding van ‘religie’ en ‘samenleving’

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 1 2013
Trefwoorden katholieke sociale leer, verzorgingsstaat |, Wet maatschappelijke ondersteuning, godsdienstvrijheid, civil society
Auteurs Erik Sengers
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the contemporary reform of the Dutch welfare state, civil society plays a prominent role in the solution of individual needs. This article investigates, from a normative point of view, the consequences for the churches as part of civil society. The outline of this policy is decentralization of welfare to local communities, saving of money, and a more active role of citizens in need to solve their problems alone. Then the normative framework is sketched with the help of the basic principles of Catholic Social Teaching (personality, subsidiarity, solidarity and common good), as well as ‘caritas’. The consequences for the churches are analyzed, first from the perspective of their participation in this legal and policy-framework. There is a great complementarity in theory and practice, but research shows that local governments are reluctant in cooperating with churches, which have to be careful that their own identity will be instrumentalized. Second, the consequences are analyzed for the core business of churches: it appears that the government wants to have an insight in the processes of giving meaning to life of individuals to give the help (financially), efficiently and effectively, according to the policy goals. Thus, although the government wants to appeal to civil society and calls upon the churches explicitly, the paradoxical consequence will be that the free expression of religion will be limited in the functioning of the future welfare state.


Erik Sengers
Dr. E. Sengers (1971) doceert (godsdienst)sociologie aan verschillende instellingen en is diaken en stafmedewerker van de Dienst Diocesane Caritas van het bisdom Haarlem-Amsterdam. Vanuit zijn bureau Society & Spirit verzorgt hij onderwijs, lezingen, onderzoek en publicaties op het gebied van kerk en samenleving. Bestuurlijk is hij onder andere voorzitter van de Wmo-Adviesraad Amsterdam Zuidoost en actief in het Centrum voor de Sociale Leer van de Kerk. dr.sengers@hotmail.com.

    Geen beschermende werking bouwovergangsrecht in geval van bouwvergunning die is aangehouden


Tonny Nijmeijer
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