Zoekresultaat: 33 artikelen

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Jaar 2012 x

    In this paper I test the thesis that the different fortunes of the secular state in the predominantly Jewish, Christian and Muslim countries depend significantly, although not exclusively, on their different religious background and, in particular, on the conception of God’s law that developed in the theological and legal traditions of these three religions. My analysis will focus primarily on Sunni Islam, Orthodox Judaism and Roman Catholic Christianity. The model of the secular state appears to be connected to the Christian theological concept. It is not neutral and thus, it is futile to attempt to export this model to religious and legal traditions that do not meet the conditions for accepting it.


Silvio Ferrari
Prof. dr. Silvio Ferrari is hoogleraar Canoniek recht aan de Universiteit van Milaan en hoogleraar Verhouding tussen kerk en staat aan de faculteit Kerkelijk Recht van de Katholieke Universiteit Leuven. silvio.ferrari@unimi.it.

    A historical analysis demonstrates that religious minorities and their protection needs played an important role in the emergence and the first developments of fundamental rights. It is indeed possible to denote a close correlation between the protection needs of religious minorities on the one hand and the fundamental rights enshrined in declarations and treaties on the other. Closer scrutiny reveals that this correlation can actually be explained by evolving views about the special vulnerability of religious minorities in the periods concerned. More recent developments of the human rights paradigm reveal that in the meantime other groups in particular are considered vulnerable and thus in need of special protection.


Kristin Henrard
Prof. dr. K. Henrard is hoogleraar Minderhedenbescherming aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam (EUR). khenrard@yahoo.com.
Artikel

Access_open Relational Jurisprudence

Vulnerability between Fact and Value

Tijdschrift Law and Method, februari 2012
Trefwoorden fact/value separation, vulnerability, relational jurisprudence, empirical methodology, normative methodology
Auteurs Maksymilian Del Mar
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Relational jurisprudence is an approach to law that situates it in five relational contexts: (1) relations between individuals; (2) relations between individuals and communities; (3) relations between communities; (4) relations between individuals or communities on the one hand, and institutions on the other; and (5) relations between institutions. Thus, part of what makes relational jurisprudence distinctive is its object: the study of law in the context of certain relations, including investigating what factors affect and influence the quality of those relations. Relational jurisprudence is also distinctive, however, in its method. One of its methodological commitments is to avoid the dichotomy, without losing the benefits of a distinction, between facts and values. In trying to avoid this dichotomy, the approach identifies and uses devices that have both factual and evaluative dimensions, called here ‘factual-evaluative complexes’. These devices are then used to investigate the quality of different relations. One such device is ‘vulnerability’. The argument of this paper is that at least some of law can be profitably understood as managing vulnerability, i.e. recognising some vulnerabilities as worthy of protection and others not, or balancing the protection of different vulnerabilities in different relational contexts. Avoiding the dichotomy while retaining the usefulness of the distinction between facts and values in the above-outlined way means that we ought to employ a mix of empirical and normative methodology in the study of law.


Maksymilian Del Mar
Maksymilian Del Mar is lecturer in Legal and Social Philosophy, Department of Law, Queen Mary University of London.
Discussie

Access_open Who is ‘we’?

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 3 2012
Trefwoorden democracy, we, world, self-government, democratic impulse
Auteurs Evert van der Zweerde
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Which human material forms the real basis of a democratic polity, i.e. of the preconditions of a ‘we’ that inhabits a ‘world’? How is a political ‘we’ related to the ‘we’ that is created by systemic processes of subjectivization? These questions presents themselves with new relevance in a ‘globalized’ world, in which democratic spurts and waves spread from other parts of the world to the West, and in which the liberal-democratic rule of law state appears to be undermining its own moral preconditions. The real task ahead is to find out what ‘we’ denotes politically.


Evert van der Zweerde
Evert van der Zweerde is Professor of Political Philosophy at Radboud University, Nijmegen.
Discussie

Access_open ‘Nothing Spells Freedom Like a Hooters Meal’

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 3 2012
Trefwoorden Enlightenment universalism, self-governance, freedom, moral point of view, political participation
Auteurs Ronald Tinnevelt
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Winter’s criticism of the conventional account of freedom and democracy is best understood against the background of the history of Enlightenment critique. Winter claims that our current misunderstanding of freedom and self-governance is the result of the strict dichotomy between subject and object. This paper critically reconstructs Winter’s notion of freedom and self-governance which does not adequately address (a) the details of his anti-collectivist claim, and (b) the necessary conditions for the possibility of a moral point of view. This makes it difficult to determine how Winter can distinguish between freedom and lack of freedom, and to assess the limited or radical nature of his critique of Enlightenment universalism.


Ronald Tinnevelt
Ronald Tinnevelt is Associate Professor Philosophy of Law at Radboud University, Nijmegen.
Artikel

Access_open ‘Down Freedom’s Main Line’

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 3 2012
Trefwoorden democracy, radical freedom, free market economy, consumerism, collective action
Auteurs Steven L. Winter
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Two waves of democratization define the post-Cold War era of globalization. The first one saw democracies emerge in post-communist countries and post-Apartheid South Africa. The current wave began with the uprisings in the Middle East. The first focused on the formal institutions of the market and the liberal state, the second is participatory and rooted in collective action. The individualistic conception of freedom and democracy that underlies the first wave is false and fetishistic. The second wave shows democracy’s moral appeal is the commitment to equal participation in determining the terms and conditions of social life. Freedom, thus, requires collective action under conditions of equality, mutual recognition, and respect.


Steven L. Winter
Steven L. Winter is Walter S. Gibbs Professor of Constitutional Law at Wayne State University Law School, Detroit, Michigan.
Discussie

Access_open Political Freedom after Economic Freefall and Democratic Revolt

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 3 2012
Trefwoorden globalisation, civic tradition, Enlightenment, free-market economy, autonomy
Auteurs Tinneke Beeckman
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Can globalisation lead to more democracy? And if so, what concept of freedom lies at the basis of this development? The ideal of liberal freedom, supposedly exercised by the autonomous, rational individual is no longer tenable. Finding a new way of interpreting self-rule beyond self-interested choice has become a crucial aspect of regenerating democratic spirit. This paper formulates three comments on Winter’s paper. The first comment concerns the resemblance between the attitudes of consumers and voters. A second comment reflects on the positive heritage of the Enlightenment. A third comment focuses on the recent Tahrir Square protests and reflects on the republican civic tradition.


Tinneke Beeckman
Tinneke Beeckman is postdoctoral researcher at the Fund for Scientific Research, Flanders, University of Brussels.

    In this reply, Steven L. Winter adresses his critics.


Steven L. Winter

Fiore Geelhoed
Dr. Fiore Geelhoed is docent bij de sectie criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. E-mail: f.geelhoed@vu.nl.
Artikel

Detentiebeleving en overleving van Nederlandse mulas in een Peruaanse gevangenis

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 3 2012
Trefwoorden Imprisonment, Coping, detention experience, Ethnography, Dutch mulas
Auteurs Drs. Elga Sikkens en Dr. Marion van San
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the Netherlands, not much research has been done on the ways that Dutch women experience and try to survive a detention abroad. The research, on which this article is based, did focus on Dutch female prisoners abroad, using an ethnographic research method. This study looks at the ways Dutch mulas experience their prison term in Peru and focuses on their strategies of survival. The ways these women react upon their detention can be traced back to existing literature on the importation theory and deprivation theory. Also it became apparent that various coping strategies are used to survive their Peruvian imprisonment. These coping strategies proof to be related to the life experiences of the women (importation theory) and the experienced prison environment (deprivation theory).


Drs. Elga Sikkens
Drs. E.M. Sikkens is promovendus aan de faculteit der sociale wetenschappen van de Universiteit Utrecht en junior onderzoeker bij FORUM, Instituut voor Multiculturele Vraagstukken.

Dr. Marion van San
Dr. M. van San is wetenschappelijk docent aan de faculteit der sociale wetenschappen van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam en senior onderzoeker bij Risbo (EUR).
Artikel

Access_open De liberale canon: argumenten voor vrijheid

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2012
Trefwoorden enforcement of morals, liberalism, liberty, political liberalism, Rawls
Auteurs Alex Bood
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article examines how a liberal public morality can be most successfully defended against perfectionism. First of all the five most important liberal arguments for freedom are taken from what is called the liberal canon: a number of characteristic works of John Locke, Immanuel Kant, John Stuart Mill, Isaiah Berlin, Joseph Raz, Ronald Dworkin, and John Rawls. These five arguments are identified as: social and political realism, respect for autonomy, fallibility of ideas, pluralism, and respect for reasonableness. Next, the persuasiveness of these arguments is assessed, starting with the argument of respect for reasonableness, which is at the heart of Rawls’s political liberalism. It is concluded that in itself this argument is not strong enough to persuade perfectionists. A powerful defence of a liberal public morality needs the other arguments for freedom as well. Finally, the paper outlines how these other arguments can strengthen the argument of respect for reasonableness in a coherent manner.


Alex Bood
Alex Bood is Research Manager at the Dutch Public Prosecution’s Office for Criminal Law Studies (WBOM).
Artikel

Access_open Globalization as a Factor in General Jurisprudence

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2012
Trefwoorden general jurisprudence, globalization, global legal pluralism, legal positivism, analytical jurisprudence
Auteurs Sidney Richards
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Globalization is commonly cited as an important factor in theorising legal phenomena in the contemporary world. Although many legal disciplines have sought to adapt their theories to globalization, progress has been comparatively modest within contemporary analytical jurisprudence. This paper aims to offer a survey of recent scholarship on legal theory and globalization and suggests various ways in which these writings are relevant to the project of jurisprudence. This paper argues, more specifically, that the dominant interpretation of globalization frames it as a particular form of legal pluralism. The resulting concept – global legal pluralism – comes in two broad varieties, depending on whether it emphasizes normative or institutional pluralism. This paper goes on to argue that these concepts coincide with two central themes of jurisprudence, namely its concern with normativity and institutionality. Finally, this paper reflects on the feasibility of constructing a ‘general’ and ‘descriptive’ jurisprudence in light of globalization.


Sidney Richards
Sidney Richards is Doctoral candidate in Law at Pembroke College at the University of Cambridge.
Artikel

Access_open Belediging van de islam en geweld tegen de openbare orde

Kanttekeningen bij de rechtstoepassing van artikel 137c lid 1 Wetboek van Strafrecht in het eindvonnis van het strafproces tegen G. Wilders

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 2 2012
Auteurs Hans Rutten
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In 2011 the Dutch Parliamentarian Geert Wilders was acquitted of group defamation pursuant to article 137c of the Penal Code. The court ruled that the qualification ‘concerning a group of people because of their religion’ had not been fulfilled because Wilders had spoken about the religion of Islam but not about people. This recent juridical shortcut has various foundational problems in semantics and jurisprudence. In view of the impact that defamation of religion can have via the modern media, violent disturbance of public order should be reintroduced as a ground of liability.


Hans Rutten
J.A.G.M. Rutten is bachelor of Laws, research master Theologie en master Wijsbegeerte. hru@xs4all.nl

    Dutch society is continually faced with conflicting interests in the context of religious expression by ethnic minorities in particular. In such instances, the constitutional freedom of religion clashes with other rights and interests, including other fundamental rights. This article provides a guideline for approaching such conflicts. It demonstrates the juridical need to seek compromise, as a means of overcoming the dilemma posed by conflicting interests. The article contains a moral call for an open mind and tolerance, as a favourable condition for achieving compromise.


Jan Piet van Berkel
Mr. J.P. van Berkel is manager van InterCoach, een rijksbrede organisatie voor collega-coaching. jpvanberkel@casema.nl
Artikel

Access_open Scheiding tussen kerk en staat als bevrijding

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 2 2012
Trefwoorden church and state, France, history, The Netherlands
Auteurs Ben Koolen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article sketches the relationship between the churches and the State since the end of the reign of the Stadtholders (1795). The decision of the Batavian Republic to recognize independence and equal rights of each church (1796) appears to be effective not before the midst of the 19th century, under influence of liberal policy. It opened the way to co-operation between church and state, aimed at a democratic society. The churches should not be reluctant in implementing their freedom to act as free partners in the social debate.


Ben Koolen
Dr. G.M.J.M. Koolen heeft diverse studies over de relatie tussen religie en samenleving in historisch perspectief gepubliceerd. Hij is redactielid van het Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid. gmjmkoolen@tele2.nl
Artikel

Access_open Religie en maatschappelijk verantwoord ondernemen: een (deels) gemiste kans

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 2 2012
Trefwoorden CSR, empirical research, religiosity, values
Auteurs Corrie Mazereeuw-van der Duijn Schouten
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Nowadays the interest in and valuation of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is impressive, but when it comes to the effective implementation of CSR in business practices there seems to be a large gap. In order to advance CSR, it is important to know what motivates executives to contribute to CSR. Religiosity may be a motivational driver of CSR. I investigated whether religiosity influences executives’ view of and contribution to CSR. Based on empirical research conducted among 473 executives, I find that traditional religiosity leads to a philanthropic orientation towards CSR and a significant higher contribution to CSR in terms of charity. Otherwise, I find that non-traditional religiosity leads to a financial orientation towards CSR and a significant higher contribution to CSR in terms of diversity.


Corrie Mazereeuw-van der Duijn Schouten
Dr. C. Mazereeuw-van der Duijn Schouten is bedrijfskundige (management van verandering) en algemeen directeur van een metaalverwerkingsbedrijf. Zij promoveerde in 2010 op een onderzoek naar de relatie tussen religie en maatschappelijk verantwoord ondernemen. cmvdds@gmail.com
Artikel

Access_open ‘Meneer De Leeuw, mag ik hier bidden?’

Een filosofische beschouwing over bidden op openbare scholen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 2 2012
Trefwoorden Pray, Tolerance, School, Policy, Law
Auteurs Niels de Leeuw
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Student requests for praying space are posing schools for important questions about their policy. These questions cannot be answered within the scope of relevant principles of law in the Netherlands. On the basis of religious studies research the author suggests that schools should respond to those questions with positive tolerance. Such a policy is most effective in promoting order and other educational objectives. However this tolerance should be bound to a responsibility of praying students towards the position of secular and moderate religious students.


Niels de Leeuw
N.C.W.M. de Leeuw MA studeerde aan de opleiding Religie in Samenleving en Cultuur aan de Universiteit van Tilburg. Hij is eerstegraads docent levensbeschouwing. ncdeleeuw@gmail.com
Artikel

Access_open Burgerschap en islam sluiten elkaar niet uit

Indonesische moslims in Nederland

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 2 2012
Trefwoorden Indonesian Muslims, migrants, citizenship, integration
Auteurs Jennifer Vos en Sandra van Groningen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The policy document Integration, commitment and citizenship concludes that the Islam ‘worries parts of the Dutch society’ because of beliefs that according to them are incompatible with the democratic constitutional state. In this article we look at the relationship between Islam en citizenship from within the Indonesian Muslim community in the Netherlands. This article is based on research on positioning and self-definition of Indonesian Muslims in the Netherlands. Indonesian Muslims are in general well integrated in Dutch society. They work or study in the Netherlands and they are active in social life. Newcomers respect the pluriform and democratic legal order they already know from Indonesia. At the same time Indonesian Muslims are remarkably silent in the public debate on Islam. On the one hand this derives from their individualistic and inward interpretation of Islam, on the other hand it derives from their Indonesian national character and it partially comes from the changed political climate in the Netherlands.


Jennifer Vos
J.C.A. Vos MA is master of arts in International Business Communication en master of arts in Religious Studies. Zij is junior onderzoeker bij het Centre for World Christianity and Interreligious Studies, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen. Zij doet onderzoek naar relaties tussen christen- en moslimmigranten in Nederland. j.vos@ftr.ru.nl

Sandra van Groningen
A.J.B. van Groningen BA is bachelor of arts in Religious Studies en masterstudent Religiewetenschappen en Bestuurskunde aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen. Voor haar masterstage Religiewetenschappen werkte zij mee aan het onderzoek naar relaties tussen christen- en moslimmigranten in Nederland van het Centre for World Christianity and Interreligious Studies. svangroningen@student.ru.nl
Artikel

Burgerschap en niet-statelijk recht: een reconstructie

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 1 2012
Trefwoorden cities, citizenship, exclusion, social formations
Auteurs Robert Knegt
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In recent discussions on ‘citizenship’, the concept is oddly dealt with as if it would have originated shortly before the French Revolution and would have meaning in a nation state context only. During at least seven centuries before that, however, it had a crucial importance in the development of Western-European cities. Citizenship, being primarily based on an exclusion from the jurisdiction of local rulers (privilege) which then opens opportunities for the inclusion of citizens in systems of self-rule, has been closely connected with law as from the start. In the article a model developed by Sassen (2006) is used to reconstruct the development of ‘citizenship’ with special reference to the transfer of its elements, often with a considerable change of meaning and function, from one into the other of the four social formations to be distinguished. It is argued that an extended perspective, that acknowledges citizenship and law before its usurpation by the nation state, may be relevant to our assessment of recent developments towards ‘transnational’ forms of citizenship.


Robert Knegt
Robert Knegt is als directeur onderzoek verbonden aan het Hugo Sinzheimer Instituut, centrum voor onderzoek van ‘arbeid en recht’ aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam. Hij doet daar onderzoek naar de praktijk van arbeidsrechtelijke regelingen (ontslagrecht, flexwerk, arbeidstijden) en werkt aan een bij uitstek interdisciplinair project over ‘langetermijnontwikkelingen in de regulering van arbeid’. In 2008 verscheen The employment contract as an exclusionary device (Antwerp/Oxford/Portland: Intersentia).
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