Zoekresultaat: 37 artikelen

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Jaar 2019 x
Artikel

Access_open Het aanpassingsdilemma online: een verkennend onderzoek naar extreemrechts op social media

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 3 2019
Trefwoorden far-right, online extremism, ideology, resistance, social media
Auteurs Dr. Robby Roks en Jolijn van der Schoot MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article focuses on the ways the NVU, Pegida and Voorpost - three far-right groups from the Netherlands - make use of social media platforms in the year 2017. Our results show that these extreme right-wing groups use social media to spread their ideology, to construct a group identity, and to call for (democratic) forms of resistances. In addition, our findings illustrate that these far-right groups seem to adjust to their digital surroundings: they do not change or conceal their extremist ideas, but rather manage their online content to ensure that their ideologies can be disseminated through social media.


Dr. Robby Roks
Dr. R.A. Roks is universitair docent Criminologie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

Jolijn van der Schoot MSc
J.M.W.A. van der Schoot MSc is Sociotherapeut bij de Forensische Zorgspecialisten. Haar scriptie ‘Extreemrechts Online’ (2018), geschreven als masterscriptie Criminologie aan de Erasmus Universiteit vormde de basis van het onderhavige artikel.
Artikel

Researching elites at the margins of research ethics frameworks

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden code of ethics, corporate crime, research ethics, gaining access, interviewing elites
Auteurs Daniel Beizsley PhD
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    For social scientists undertaking critical research on elites in organisational contexts securing access is a challenging exercise that may rely on the use of several access strategies over extended periods. This process is further complicated by the existence of research ethics frameworks that establish boundaries to access strategies, posing dilemmas on how to best balance access needs with a commitment to ethical practices. This article focuses on such dilemmas – or the ‘ethics of access’ – through a reflection on PhD fieldwork during 2016-2017 in Luxembourg spent researching the European Investment Bank. The paper will conclude by calling for an overhaul of existing frameworks in order to foster more research on elites.


Daniel Beizsley PhD
Daniel Beizsley is a PhD candidate on the European Commission funded Doctorate in Cultural and Global Criminology (DCGC) programme supervised by Utrecht University and ELTE University.
Artikel

Religie, belangenafweging en neutraliteit

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 3 2019
Trefwoorden Religie, Belangenafweging, Neutraliteit, Beperkingen, Proportionaliteit, Staatsrecht
Auteurs Mr. dr. Jos Vleugel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Restrictions imposed by the state on the exercise of religion are always the result of a weighing of interests by a judge, an administrative body or a legislator. This weighing of interests is strongly influenced by the context within the exercise of religion take place. In this article four different spheres are distinguished: the internal religious sphere, the public sphere, the sphere of private institutions and the government sphere. The particular relationship that these spheres have with neutrality characterizes the balancing of interests. This explains and justifies why wearing religious clothing may be restricted in some situations and not in others.


Mr. dr. Jos Vleugel
Mr. dr. A. Vleugel is als universitair docent werkzaam bij de afdeling Staats-, Bestuursrecht en Rechtstheorie van het departement Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Utrecht. Hij promoveerde in 2018 op een proefschrift met de titel Het juridische begrip van godsdienst.
Artikel

Sharia in het Westen (I)

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 3 2019
Trefwoorden Sharia in het Westen, islamitisch recht, religieus recht, rechtsvergelijking, juridisch pluralisme
Auteurs Prof. dr. mr. Maurits S. Berger
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The notion of ‘sharia in the West’ is by now fairly well established, both in social, political and scientific circles, but both the terms ‘sharia’ and ‘West’ remain difficult to define. It is therefore striking that the combination of these two terms is used with such self-evidence. This article wants to answer the question: what exactly is the sharia that Western Muslims arguably want, and how is this sharia received in the West? To this end, a model is presented that provides a description of the complex interaction between sharia as practiced by Western Muslims on the one hand, and the conditions that the Western environment sets for it on the other. The model shows that ‘sharia’ cannot be compared to a law system, and that the Western environment has a major influence on the extent and ways in which Muslims apply sharia. From a Western perspective, the model shows that sharia issues are mainly discussed in legal terms, while most controversies are not of a legal nature, but rather a cultural one.


Prof. dr. mr. Maurits S. Berger
Prof. dr. mr. M.S. Berger is hoogleraar Islam en het Westen aan de Universiteit Leiden en directeur van de Leiden Islam Academie. Tevens is hij senior research associate aan Instituut Clingendael, en hoofdredacteur van het Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid.
Jurisprudentie en wetgeving

Lachiri/België: het Europees Hof voor de Rechten van de Mens blijft worstelen met de hoofddoek

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 3 2019
Trefwoorden Islamitisch recht;, sharia in Europa;, hoofddoek;, vrijheid van religie, Mensenrechten
Auteurs Prof. dr. mr. Maurits S. Berger
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the ruling on Lachiri/Belgium, commentators discern a new development in the ECHR’s jurisprudence on the relationship between the headscarf and freedom of religion. According to the author, that is not the case: in fact, he observes a continued bias of the Court towards the headscarf.


Prof. dr. mr. Maurits S. Berger
Prof. dr. mr. M.S. Berger is hoogleraar Islam en het Westen aan de Universiteit Leiden en directeur van de Leiden Islam Academie. Tevens is hij senior research associate aan Instituut Clingendael, en hoofdredacteur van het Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid.
Artikel

Het beroepsgeheim van predikanten in België

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 3 2019
Trefwoorden bedienaar van de eredienst, Beroepsgeheim, Biechtgeheim, Predikant, protestants-evangelisch
Auteurs Prof. dr. Geert W. Lorein
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Belgian Law mentions professional secrecy at different places. In recent years, professional secrecy has been nuanced or even eroded. It remains, however, an important item for certain professional groups, for some perhaps a privilege, for others a burden. Enough indications exist that ministers of the Protestant-Evangelical religion (pastors), even though they are not bound by priest-penitent privilege, are bound by professional secrecy. This makes it necessary to have a clear definition of ‘pastors’. Due to the relative ignorance about Protestantism in Belgium, this has taken some time. The article ends with the discussion of some practical aspects of the professional secrecy of pastors.


Prof. dr. Geert W. Lorein
Prof. dr. G.W. Lorein publiceert vooral als oudtestamenticus, maar werd met de problematiek van zijn bijdrage in dit nummer geconfronteerd als voorzitter van de Federale Synode van Protestantse en Evangelische Kerken in België en covoorzitter van de Administratieve Raad van de Protestants-Evangelische Eredienst.
Artikel

Access_open Voorbij het ongemak over religie

Sociaalliberalisme en religie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 3 2019
Trefwoorden Religie, Liberalisme, sociaalliberalisme, Christendom, Islam
Auteurs Drs. ds. Joost Röselaers
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Dutch social-liberal party D66 was founded in 1966, in the aftermath of the pillarisation (on religious grounds) of Dutch society. The founders of D66 wanted to ‘blow up’ the pillarised political system. They strongly took distance from religions that were in their views oppressing. A certain anti-religion attitude was a part of the DNA of the party. For decades it was ‘bon ton’ to criticise religion. A turning point has recently been observed by the writer. There is still a discomfort in relation to religion, but this discomfort is more related to not-knowing than being against. The writer pleads for going beyond the discomfort. Religion – in the broad sense of the word – has a lot to offer to society. We indeed can’t live without binding stories, places that are loaded with meaning and festivities that reminds ourselves of who we are and who we would want to be. Finally the modernity and religion can strengthen each other: where modernity is skilled in criticising religion, the Christian religion can make a contribution by criticising modernity.


Drs. ds. Joost Röselaers
Drs. ds. J.H. Röselaers is remonstrants predikant te Amsterdam. Daarnaast is hij hoofdredacteur van Idee, het tijdschrift van de Mr. Hans van Mierlostichting (gelieerd aan D66). Joost Röselaers studeerde theologie in Leiden en Kaapstad. Van 2013 tot 2017 was hij predikant van de Nederlandse Kerk in Londen.

    Relying on the prohibition of age discrimination stemming from Directive 2000/78, the Labour Tribunal of Leuven refused to apply a Collective Labour Agreement establishing the minimum monthly salary for employees depending on their work experience even if not relevant and the Royal Decree enforcing it. The jurisdiction grounded its decision on the fact that this gave a strong advantage to older employees without objective justification.


Gautier Busschaert
Gautier Busschaert is an attorney-at-law at Van Olmen & Wynant, Brussels, Belgium.
Artikel

Prepping and verstehen

A narrative criminological perspective

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2019
Trefwoorden Verstehen, narrative, prepping, experience, ethnography
Auteurs Michael F. Mills en Jennifer Fleetwood
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Talk, chat, and stories are ubiquitous in ethnographic research. Engaging with the recently burgeoning literature around narrative criminology, this article argues that considerations of stories and storytelling can add much to cultural criminologists’ pursuit of ‘criminological verstehen’ (Ferrell, 1997). In doing so, we focus on one case study: ethnographic research grounded within the USA’s contemporary ‘doomsday’ prepping subculture. The article considers the value of attending to narrative during the pursuit of verstehen at two levels. First, we address the importance of storytelling upon entry to the ethnographic field – drawing attention to how the narratives researchers share, and their respect for certain stories, can facilitate deep and experiential access to stigmatized fields of activity (such as prepping). Second, we explore how narrative remains in play during immediate experiences. In particular, we argue that fleeting excitements featured in prepping lifestyles are often shaped by the significance of the ‘moments’ in which they occur to numerous personal narratives. We therefore contend that, for ethnographers interested in verstehen, a consideration of narrative offers a means to expand and deepen empathetic appreciation of participants’ worldviews and activities.


Michael F. Mills
Michael F. Mills is Lecturer in Criminology, School of Social Policy, Sociology and Social Research, University of Kent.

Jennifer Fleetwood
Jennifer Fleetwood is Senior lecturer in Criminology, Department of Sociology, Goldsmiths, University of London.
Artikel

Conflict narratives and conflict handling strategies in intercultural contexts

Reflections from an action research project based on restorative praxis

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2019
Trefwoorden action research, conflict, restorative justice, intercultural contexts
Auteurs Brunilda Pali
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    A rapidly growing field of research and practice, restorative justice has primarily found its gravitational centre within the criminal justice system, as an alternative of dealing with the aftermath of crime. Less explored remains the application of restorative justice in complex, urban, or intercultural contexts, an application which raises a whole set of conceptual and practical challenges. This article is based on an action project which aimed to research conflict narratives in intercultural contexts and transform them through restorative praxis. Mostly used in educational, organizational, and health care settings, action research remains an underused but a highly interesting methodology for criminology and criminal justice research. Its alternative epistemology makes it particularly apt for scientific projects that aim both at investigating crime and justice related issues and at engendering change, either at the level of criminal justice or communities. Although action research has focused mostly on creating change at the level of practical knowledge, when conceived in a critical manner, action research aims not only at improving the work of practitioners, but also at assisting them to arrive at a critique of their social or work settings. Practice concerns at the same time problem setting or problem framing. By zooming into one of the case studies of the project, more specifically the social housing estates in Vienna, I focus in this article specifically on the tensions and dilemmas created by processes of engagement in a problematizing approach to the context and to practice. During these processes, together with other social actors, such as inhabitants and professionals, we named problems (in our case social conflicts) and framed the context in which we addressed them. I argue that participatory forms of inquiry, such as action research, should actively reframe rather than merely describe contexts and problems they work with.


Brunilda Pali
Brunilda Pali is FWO Postdoctoral researcher, Leuven Institute of Criminology, Leuven, Belgium.
Case Reports

2019/26 List of discrimination criteria (PL)

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 3 2019
Trefwoorden Age discrimination
Auteurs Marcin Wujczyk
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Polish Supreme Court has held that a criterion of discrimination may also be a relationship of a social or familial nature that exists in the workplace and whose existence or absence on the part of the employee results in different treatment by the employer.


Marcin Wujczyk
Marcin Wujczyk is an attorney at law at Wardyński & Partners, Poland (https://www.wardynski.com.pl).

    In two appeal cases considered jointly, the Court of Appeal (CA) has ruled that it is not direct or indirect sex discrimination, nor a breach of equal pay rights, to provide enhanced pay for maternity leave and statutory pay only for shared parental leave (SPL).


Richard Lister
Richard Lister is a Managing Practice Development Lawyer at Lewis Silkin LLP.

    The author discusses the recent ECJ judgments in the cases Egenberger and IR on religious discrimination.


Andrzej Marian Świątkowski
Andrzej Marian Świątkowski, is a Jean Monet Professor of European Labour Law and Social Security, Jesuit University Ignatianum, Krakow, Poland and a member of the EELC Academic Board.
Pending Cases

Case C-341/19, Religious discrimination

MH Müller Handels GmbH – v – MJ, reference lodged by the Bundesarbeitsgericht (Germany) on 30 April 2019

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 3 2019
Trefwoorden Religious discrimination
Samenvatting

Case Reports

2019/27 No additional public holiday pay for working on Good Friday – Discrimination based on religion? (AT)

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 3 2019
Trefwoorden Religious discrimination
Auteurs Dr. Jana Eichmeyer LL.M en Dr. Karolin Andréewitch
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Under a former Austrian law effective until February 2019, Good Friday was a public holiday only for a minority belonging to certain Christian Evangelical churches. In the case at hand, Austrian courts had to assess if this regulation and its legal consequences were valid under European Union law, or if they constituted discrimination.


Dr. Jana Eichmeyer LL.M
Dr. Jana Eichmeyer, LL.M is a lawyer at Eisenberger & Herzog in Vienna (www.ehlaw.at).

Dr. Karolin Andréewitch
Dr. Karolin Andréewitch is a lawyer at Eisenberger & Herzog in Vienna (www.ehlaw.at).

    Both the French Supreme Court and the Versailles Court of Appeal held that an employer, who must ensure that liberties and fundamental rights of each employee are respected in the working community, may lawfully prohibit the wearing of any visible sign of political, philosophical or religious beliefs in the workplace, provided that the rule contained in the company rules and regulations applies without distinction to employees in direct contact with the customers of the company only. But in the absence of such rules, sanctioning an employee who refuses to remove her Islamic veil based on the wish of a customer, which does not qualify as a genuine and determining occupational requirement, amounts to an unlawful direct discrimination and should consequently be held null and void.


Claire Toumieux
Claire Toumieux is partner and Thomas Robert is an attorney at Allen & Overy LLP in Paris, France.

Thomas Robert
Case Reports

2019/29 Eweida versus Achbita: a storm in a teacup? (EU)

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 3 2019
Trefwoorden Religious discrimination
Auteurs Morwarid Hashemi LLM
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Most scholars have argued that the Achbita judgment is not in line with the jurisprudence of the ECtHR, in particular with the Eweida judgment, and gives less protection to the employee than granted by the ECtHR. In this article, I provide a different perspective on the relation between both judgments and nuance the criticisms that followed the Achbita judgment.


Morwarid Hashemi LLM
Morwarid Hashemi LLM is a former student of Erasmus University Rotterdam
Artikel

Afketsende of gedeelde verbeeldingswerelden?

Kijkervaringen van moslimjongeren en politiestudenten met ISIS-video’s en Hollywoodfictie in Nederland

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden Dutch youth, ISIS videos, Hollywood, Visual skills
Auteurs Heidi de Mare, Sigrid Burg, Gawie Keyser e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Between 2013-2017 there were many ISIS videos circulating. It was generally assumed that these videos would encourage young Muslims to radicalize and join ISIS. But what do we actually know about the imaginary world of young people? Do sociological aspects such as the economic, cultural and religious background play a decisive role in this? Can we use the films and TV series that young people see as an entry into their imaginary world? To what extent can image analysis provide knowledge that contributes to safety issues? Commissioned by the Department of Counterterrorism, Radicalization and Extremism (CTER) of the Dutch National Police, the IVMV Foundation invited, in a comparative pilot study, twenty Dutch youngsters (10 with a Muslim background and 10 police students) to share their viewing experiences with five trailers (3 Hollywood, 1 Netflix, 1 not explicit violent ISIS video) that touched on the ISIS issue. This resulted in a research report and a film (in Dutch as well as in English) that was presented in November 2017 (De Mare et al. 2017a; De Mare 2017b). A remarkable result was that their viewing experiences and feelings showed a lot of similarity.


Heidi de Mare
Heidi de Mare is gepromoveerd beeldwetenschapper en directeur van stichting IVMV, instituut voor maatschappelijke verbeelding, www.ivmv.nl.

Sigrid Burg
Sigrid Burg is beeldonderzoeker, beeldmaker en ondernemer.

Gawie Keyser
Gawie Keyser is filmrecensent bij de Groene Amsterdammer.

Dick de Ruijter
Dick de Ruijter is cultuurpsycholoog en zelfstandig onderzoeker, www.dickderuijter.nl.

Gabriël van den Brink
Gabriël van den Brink was hoogleraar Maatschappelijke bestuurskunde, Universiteit Tilburg en is hoogleraar Filosofie van Cultuur en Bestuur bij Centrum Ethos, VU Amsterdam, www.vu.centrumethos.nl.

    In deze bijdrage staat General Comment No. 20 van het VN-Kinderrechtencomité, over het implementeren van kinderrechten tijdens de adolescentie, centraal. De aanleiding voor en inhoud van de General Comment worden in hoofdlijnen besproken. Daarnaast wordt specifiek aandacht besteed aan een onderwerp dat door het Kinderrechtencomité in het bijzonder van belang wordt geacht voor de bescherming van de rechten van adolescenten: het strafrecht. In dat kader wordt ook de positie van adolescenten in het Nederlandse straf(proces)recht behandeld.


E.P. Schmidt LLM, BSc
E.P. (Eva) Schmidt is promovenda bij de afdeling Jeugdrecht van de Universiteit Leiden.
Pending Cases

Case C-804/18, Religious Discrimination

IX – v – WABE e. V., reference lodged by the Arbeitsgericht Hamburg (Germany) on 20 December 2018

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 2 2019
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