Zoekresultaat: 21 artikelen

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Jaar 2010 x

    Hoewel diverse grondrechten al sinds jaar en dag worden ingeroepen in Europese mededingingsprocedures, komen op deze grondrechten gebaseerde verweren nog iets minder voor in Nederlandse mededingingszaken. In deze bijdrage, die wegens haar omvang geen uitputtend overzicht vormt, zal nader worden ingegaan op een aantal grondrechtelijke leerstukken die in dat kader met name relevant lijken.


Mr. H.M.H. Speyart
Mr. H.M.H. Speyart is advocaat bij NautaDutilh N.V. te Amsterdam.
Artikel

Openbaar brandmeldsysteem: historie, kosten en opbrengst

Onderzoek naar historie, kosten en opbrengst van het openbaar brandmeldsysteem in de veiligheidsregio Twente

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2010
Trefwoorden Brandmelding, Kosten-baten analyse, Veiligheidsopbrengst, Openbaar meldsysteem, Incidentrapporten
Auteurs Ron de Wit en Ira Helsloot
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Netherlands fire safety regulations require certain types of buildings to have a direct connection between the building fire alarm system and the dispatch centre of the fire brigade. These automatic fire alarm systems are mandatory for example in premises where inhabitants such as small children or elderly people have limited self-evacuation capabilites in case of fire. These automatic fire alarms aim at saving lives by a faster response of the fire brigade. However, the fast majority of these automatic alarms are false. As a result these calls constitute a considerable and undesirable drain on the fire brigade resources. These calls cause unwanted direct costs (salaries) and indirect costs (road accidents due to fire brigade mobilisation) apart from the regular maintenance costs. Up to now no data is available for the costs and benefits of the system of automatic fire alarms. This article describes the results of a study of the automatic fire alarm system in the region Twente. The yearly social costs are calculated at about € 3 million. In order to calculate the benefits all incident reports from automatic fire alarms during a period of 29 months have been investigated. In this period no call form an automatic fire alarm system has occured in which the fire brigade had to deploy its resources for a live saving or evacuation action.


Ron de Wit
Ir. Ron de Wit is brandweerofficier en plaatsvervangend regionaal commandant brandweer in de veiligheidsregio Twente. Daarnaast is hij onderzoeker bij crisislab aan de Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam. Contactadres: R.A.C. de Wit, Lansinkweg 33, 7553 AG Hengelo. E-mail: rac.dewit@kpnmail.nl.

Ira Helsloot
Prof. dr. Ira Helsloot is hoogleraar crisisbeheersing en fysieke veiligheid aan de Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam.
Discussie

Access_open Plugging the Legitimacy Gap? The Ubiquity of Human Rights and the Rhetoric of Global Constitutionalism

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 3 2010
Trefwoorden global constitutionalism, legitimacy, human rights, Neil Walker, post-state democracy
Auteurs Morag Goodwin
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This paper approaches Walker’s work from the perspective of the ubiquity of human rights language within the rhetoric of global constitutionalism. Building on Walker’s description of the relationship between constitutionalism and democracy, what I wish to suggest is that the spread of human rights discourse is intimately connected with attempts to apply constitutional discourse beyond the state. By highlighting the way in which human rights have become place-takers for political legitimacy in discussions of international constitutionalism, the paper is intended to challenge Walker to state his own position more forcefully and to develop further his insight concerning the irresolvable tension in the iterative relationship between constitutionalism and democracy.


Morag Goodwin
Morag Goodwin is Assistant Professor of Law and Development at the Tilburg Institute for Law, Technology and Society at Tilburg Law School, the Netherlands.
Artikel

Access_open Constitutionalism and the Incompleteness of Democracy: An Iterative Relationship

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 3 2010
Trefwoorden constitutionalism, globalization, democracy, modernity, postnational
Auteurs Neil Walker
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The complexity of the relationship between democracy and modern constitutionalism is revealed by treating democracy as an incomplete ideal. This refers both to the empirical incompleteness of democracy as unable to supply its own terms of application – the internal dimension – and to the normative incompleteness of democracy as guide to good government – the external dimension. Constitutionalism is a necessary response to democratic incompleteness – seeking to realize (the internal dimension) and to supplement and qualify democracy (the external dimension). How democratic incompleteness manifests itself, and how constitutionalism responds to incompleteness evolves and alters, revealing the relationship between constitutionalism and democracy as iterative. The paper concentrates on the iteration emerging from the current globalizing wave. The fact that states are no longer the exclusive sites of democratic authority compounds democratic incompleteness and complicates how constitutionalism responds. Nevertheless, the key role of constitutionalism in addressing the double incompleteness of democracy persists under globalization. This continuity reflects how the deep moral order of political modernity, in particular the emphasis on individualism, equality, collective agency and progress, remains constant while its institutional architecture, including the forms of its commitment to democracy, evolves. Constitutionalism, itself both a basic orientation and a set of design principles for that architecture, remains a necessary support for and supplement to democracy. Yet post-national constitutionalism, even more than its state-centred predecessor, remains contingent upon non-democratic considerations, so reinforcing constitutionalism’s normative and sociological vulnerability. This conclusion challenges two opposing understandings of the constitutionalism of the global age – that which indicts global constitutionalism because of its weakened democratic credentials and that which assumes that these weakened democratic credentials pose no problem for post-national constitutionalism, which may instead thrive through a heightened emphasis on non-democratic values.


Neil Walker
Neil Walker is Regius Professor of Public Law and the Law of Nature and Nations at the University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
Discussie

Access_open The Globalizing Turn in the Relationship Between Constitutionalism and Democracy

Some Reiterations from the Perspective of Constitutional Law

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 3 2010
Trefwoorden constitutional law, constitutionalism, historic constitutions, revolutionary constitutions, pouvoir constituant (irrelevance of)
Auteurs Leonard F.M. Besselink
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This essay complements Walker’s essay with some historical and constitutional observations. It submits that Walker’s analysis is based to a large extent on reasoning derived from a particular continental European constitutional tradition. This creates certain problems of its own, that do not arise in a different constitutional tradition. This is not to say, however, that this invalidates his conclusions, but rather underpins them in an alternative manner.


Leonard F.M. Besselink
Leonard Besselink is Professor of European Constitutional Law in the Faculty of Law of the University of Utrecht, the Netherlands.
Discussie

Access_open Democracy, Constitutionalism and the Question of Authority

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 3 2010
Trefwoorden international constitutionalism, democracy, international law, fragmentation, international politics
Auteurs Wouter G. Werner
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This paper agrees with Walker on the existence of a tension between democracy and constitutionalism, but questions whether democracy and (international) constitutionalism necessarily depend on each other. While democracy needs constitutionalism on normative grounds, as an empirical matter it may also rest on alternative political structures. Moreover, it is questionable whether democracy is indeed the solution to the incompleteness of international constitutionalism. Traditional forms of democracy do not lend themselves well to transplantation to the international level and could even intensify some problems of international governance. Attempts to democratize international relations should be carried out prudentially, with due regard for possible counterproductive effects.


Wouter G. Werner
Wouter Werner is Professor of Public International Law at VU University, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
Artikel

Het herstelrechtelijk ongeloof in het concept bestraffing

Een verkenning op basis van het ‘last resort’-principe

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 3 2010
Trefwoorden bestraffing, abolitionisme, last resort, criminele gedragingen, leedtoevoeging
Auteurs Vicky De Mesmaecker
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Discussions in the movement of restorative justice about the fundamental question, whether its interventions are alternatives to punishment or alternative punishments, have become repetitive and seem to be in a dead end. The author reviews the arguments against the background of the ‘last resort’ principle in Husak’s work. Husak distinguishes between last resort in terms of sentencing and last resort in terms of criminalization. Since the restorative justice movement does not fundamentally reject the primary criminalisations, but accepts the definitions of certain forms of conduct as crime, it merely strives to offer alternatives to punishments that would otherwise be imposed. If protagonists of restorative justice want to avoid this, they should consider an abolitionist option to strive for decriminalization.


Vicky De Mesmaecker
Vicky De Mesmaecker is werkzaam aan het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie, K.U.Leuven.
Artikel

Hoe landelijke inspectiediensten omgaan met systeemtoezicht

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Toezicht, Aflevering 3 2010
Trefwoorden systeemtoezicht, compliance management, metaregulation, zelfregulering, systeemgericht toezicht, toezicht
Auteurs Dr. ing. M.A. de Bree MBA
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Dit artikel beschrijft wat inspectiediensten verstaan onder systeemtoezicht en hoe zij dit toepassen. Er blijken grote verschillen te zijn in zowel de gebruikte definities als in de praktische toepassing. De toezichthouder kan met behulp van systeemtoezicht, mits juist toegepast, ervoor zorgen dat grote bedrijven maatschappelijke belangen borgen in hun organisatie. De toezichthouder moet hierbij enerzijds niet te goedgelovig zijn en altijd fysieke controles blijven doen. Anderzijds moet hij ervoor waken niet overmatig te controleren waardoor de voordelen van systeemtoezicht weer teniet zouden worden gedaan. Systeemtoezicht en bestraffing verdragen elkaar slecht doordat bestraffing het leereffect negatief kan beïnvloeden.


Dr. ing. M.A. de Bree MBA
Dr. ing. M.A. de Bree MBA is directeur van Next Step Management B.V. en verbonden aan het Erasmus Instituut Toezicht & Compliance.
Artikel

Access_open De droom van Beccaria

Over het strafrecht en de nodale veiligheidszorg

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2010
Trefwoorden Beccaria, criminal law, nodal governance, social contract
Auteurs Klaas Rozemond
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Les Johnston and Clifford Shearing argue in their book, Governing Security, that the state has lost its monopoly on the governance of security. Private security arrangements have formed a networked governance of security in which the criminal law of the state is just one of the many knots or ‘nodes’ of the security network. Johnston and Shearing consider On Crimes and Punishment, written by Cesare Beccaria in the 18th century, as the most important statement of the classical security program which has withered away in the networked governance of the risk society. This article critizes the way Johnston and Shearing analyze Beccaria’s social contract theory and it formulates a Beccarian theory of the criminal law and nodal governance which explains the causes of crime and the rise of nodal governance and defends the central role of the state in anchoring security arrangements based on private contracts and property rights.


Klaas Rozemond
Klaas Rozemond is associate professor at the Department of Criminal Law, Faculty of Law, VU University Amsterdam.
Artikel

Strategisch gedrag in netwerksectoren

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Toezicht, Aflevering 2 2010
Trefwoorden netwerksectoren, incumbents, strategisch gedrag
Auteurs Prof. mr. dr. E.F. ten Heuvelhof en Prof. mr. dr. H.D. Stout
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    De wereld van infrastructuren en nutsdiensten was tot voor kort een rustige wereld. Stabiele publieke bedrijven leverden, jaar in jaar uit, dezelfde producten en diensten. Echter, technische ontwikkelingen, liberalisering, privatisering, verzakelijking en internationalisering hebben deze wereld op zijn kop gezet. De veranderingen in netwerksectoren zijn buitengewoon groot geweest.


Prof. mr. dr. E.F. ten Heuvelhof
Prof. mr. dr. E.F. ten Heuvelhof is hoogleraar Beleidskunde aan de Technische Universiteit Delft alsmede aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

Prof. mr. dr. H.D. Stout
Prof. mr. dr. H.D. Stout is hoogleraar Recht aan de Technische Universiteit Delft alsmede fellow van het Netherlands Institute for Advanced Study in the Humanities and Social Sciences.
Artikel

Draagt aansprakelijkheidsrecht bij aan de voedselveiligheid?

Over de preventieve werking van schadeclaims en aansprakelijkheidsverzekering

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 1 2010
Trefwoorden voedselveiligheid, regulering, aansprakelijkheid, aansprakelijkheidsverzekering, preventie, schadeclaim, ‘moreel risico’, voedingsindustrie, productaansprakelijkheid, sociale werking
Auteurs Tetty Havinga
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Most research on food safety has focussed on direct forms of food safety regulation. This paper explores the opportunities for product liability law to encourage food safety measures within firms. It aims to contribute to the discussion on the role public and private actors could have in providing an effective food safety system. Liability law is assumed to promote food safety. The author distinguishes three ways in which liability law could act as an incentive for firms to implement enhanced food safety controls: liability claims, liability insurance and direct effects of liability law on management strategy. The paper concludes that the assumption that liability laws make firms sensitive to prevention of food safety risks is too optimistic. However, liability law could stimulate a culture within firms to take responsibility for food safety. Existing economic and legal analysis could gain from a sociological analysis of the actual impact of liability on company decisions.


Tetty Havinga
Tetty Havinga is universitair hoofddocent bij het Instituut voor Rechtssociologie van de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen. Zij verricht rechtssociologisch onderzoek op diverse terreinen, waaronder de relaties tussen het bedrijfsleven en recht, regulering van voedsel, beleidsuitvoering, arbeidsrecht en gelijke behandeling. Ze is co-auteur van Specialisatie loont?! Ervaringen van ondernemingen met specialistische rechtspraakvoorzieningen (2010).

Simon Deakin
Centre for Business Research and Faculty of Law, University of Cambridge. E-mail: s.deakin@cbr.cam.ac.uk.
Artikel

De maximalistische visie op herstelrecht onder vuur

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 1 2010
Trefwoorden maximalisme, rechtsorde, slachtoffers, rehabilitatie
Auteurs Lode Walgrave
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The authors latest book on Restorative Justice, Self-Interest and Responsible Citizenship has been discussed in this journal in 2009 and the author now responds to the critiques, which came from three jurists and therefore had a predominantly juristic character. Themes discussed are ‘criminal justice and punishment’, ‘restorative justice and the law’, ‘restorative justice, the victim and public interest’, ‘restorative justice and the legal order’ and finally ‘restorative justice and offender rehabilitation’. Walgrave maintains and clarifies the views he developed in the book explaining why it is correct to claim that criminal justice can be identified as fundamentally punitive (although it does not always punish, as one critic has observed) and that it should be possible to elaborate restorative justice into a completely new legal system, offering legal guarantees fitting to what restorative justice is trying to achieve. Legal guarantees as they exist today in criminal procedure cannot be taken as the benchmark for restorative procedures in view of the totally different aims and procedures. Furthermore, it is not true that the victim gets too much power in restorative justice – as one critic stated – because restorative justice is and should be conceived as a system of public law, involving the legal agencies and authorities such as courts in a proper role as guardians of every citizin’s dominion. It is because of the safeguarding of dominion that the victim should have a key-role to play in restorative justice, although not obliged to participate.One critic has mentioned that Walgraves ideas seem to imply that the legal order is only something being imposed upon the citizens ‘top down’, while in many respects one could maintain that the law and the principles of the legal order have been produced ‘bottom-up’ or at least should be the result of democracy. The response is that restorative procedures offer more opportunities for citizens for this democratic participation in producing the norms of the law.Finally some have argued that the rehabilitative interests of the offender should have a more central place in the definition of restorative justice, more or less of the same importance as restoring the harms of the victim. Walgraves experiences with the Belgian model of juvenile protection made him cautious of the risks of doing so, not only in terms of serving the victims needs, but also in terms of the legal protection of the juvenile offender against arbitrary interventions.


Lode Walgrave
Lode Walgrave is emeritus hoogleraar jeugdcriminologie van de Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
Artikel

Mix op maat

De gevolgen van privatisering van het bouwtoezicht in Australië en Canada

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Toezicht, Aflevering 1 2010
Trefwoorden regelgeving, handhaving, privatisering, gebouwde omgeving
Auteurs Dr. ir. J.J. van der Heijden
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Wat gebeurt er als het toezicht op en de handhaving van bouwregelgeving wordt geprivatiseerd? Deze vraag staat centraal in de Australische en Canadese casestudies die dit artikel presenteert. Het antwoord lijkt eenvoudig: privatisering van toezichtstaken draagt bij aan een verbeterde efficiëntie en effectiviteit van het bouwtoezicht. Gelijktijdig roepen conflicterende belangen vragen op over de mate waarin het wenselijk is het toezicht op en de handhaving van bouwregelgeving te privatiseren. Als weg uit deze problematiek raadt het artikel aan om publiek en privaat toezicht te combineren. Daarnaast onderstreept het artikel het belang van toezicht op toezicht als noodzakelijk element van een toezichtsysteem.


Dr. ir. J.J. van der Heijden
Dr.ir. J.J. van der Heijden is als universitair docent verbonden aan de faculteit Techniek, Bestuur en Management van de Technische Universiteit Delft.

Mireille Hildebrandt
Mireille Hildebrandt is associate professor of Jurisprudence at Erasmus University Rotterdam and Senior Researcher at the Centre for Law Science Technology and Society, Vrije Universiteit Brussel.

Nick Huls
Professor of Socio-Legal Studies, Erasmus School of Law and Leiden Law School.

Ann-Sophie Vandenberghe
Ann-Sophie Vandenberghe is Assistant Professor of Law and Economics, Rotterdam Institute of Law and Economics, Erasmus School of Law.

Gerhard Wagner
Dr. Gerhard Wagner LL.M. is Professor of Fundamentals of Private Law at Erasmus University, Rotterdam, as well as, Professor of German and European Private Law and Civil Procedure at the University of Bonn.

Alessandra Arcuri
Associate Professor of International Economic Law and Law and Economics, Erasmus School of Law, Erasmus University Rotterdam. I am grateful to the Editorial Board of the Erasmus Law Review, and in particular to Andria Naudé-Fourie for her precious support. Thanks also to Professor Yuwen Li, to all the referees who provided valuable feedback regarding the contributions in this issue, and to the participants in the Symposium on ‘Food Regulatory Regimes and the Challenges Ahead’, held during the Society for Risk Analysis — Europe Conference, King's College London, 21–23 June 2010, where some of the articles published in this issue were originally presented.

Alberto Alemanno
Associate Professor of Law, HEC Paris, and Editor of the European Journal of Risk Regulation. The author wishes to thank two anonymous referees for their valuable inputs. Comments are welcome at: <alemanno@hec.fr>.
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