Zoekresultaat: 35 artikelen

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Jaar 2011 x
Artikel

Een victimologisch perspectief op het internationale strafrecht

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2011
Trefwoorden international crimes, victimology, (international) criminal justice, victims’ rights
Auteurs Dr. Antony Pemberton, Prof. mr. dr. Rianne Letschert, Dr. mr. Anne-Marie de Brouwer e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article develops a victimological perspective on international criminal justice, based on a review of the main victimological characteristics of international crimes. These include the complicity or active involvement of government agencies, the large numbers of victims and the peculiar position of international crime victims who, at the time the crimes are committed, are usually not viewed as victims by the perpetrators, but placed outside the moral sphere or even depicted as perpetrators rather than victims.Key elements of this perspective concern the external coherence of the criminal justice reaction - the interlinking of criminal justice with other reparative efforts - as well as its internal coherence - the extent to which the procedures of international criminal justice are aligned with what it realistically can and should achieve. With internal coherence in mind, the article examines the victimological findings relating to the main rights of victims in the criminal procedure (recognition/acknowledgement, information/participation and compensation/reparation) and subsequently analyzes how the specifics of international crimes moderate them.


Dr. Antony Pemberton
Dr. A. Pemberton is associate professor of victimology aan het International Victimology Institute Tilburg van Tilburg University, a.pemberton@uvt.nl.

Prof. mr. dr. Rianne Letschert
Prof. mr. dr. R.M. Letschert is professor of victimology and international law aan het International Victimology Institute Tilburg van Tilburg University, r.m.letschert@uvt.nl.

Dr. mr. Anne-Marie de Brouwer
Dr. mr. A.-M. de Brouwer is associate professor of international criminal law aan het Department of Criminal Law van Tilburg University, a.l.m.debrouwer@uvt.nl.

Mr. dr. Roelof Haveman
Mr. dr. R.H. Haveman is freelance Rule of Law Consultant, momenteel gestationeerd in Côte d’Ivoire, roelof.haveman@gmail.com.
Artikel

Door een gekleurde bril?

Bespreking van een verkennend onderzoek naar de percepties en ervaringen van allochtone en autochtone jongeren ten aanzien van oneigenlijk selectief politiewerk

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 6 2011
Trefwoorden racial profiling, actuarial justice, discretionairy powers, police
Auteurs Mr. dr. drs. Maartje van der Woude, Prof. dr. Joanne van der Leun, Fleur van Barneveld e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    By expanding preventive powers, the Dutch criminal justice system is increasingly aimed at detecting risky people and groups as soon as possible. This so-called actuarial justice is accompanied by a great deal of discretionary power in the hands of those who have to enforce the law, bearing the risk that such powers may be carried out (in part) on the basis of generalizations relating to race, ethnicity, religion or nationality instead of on the basis of individual behavior and/or objective evidence. By presenting the results of an exploratory study into the perceptions of minorities with regard to racial profiling, the main conclusion of this article is that there is a clear necessity for further empirical research into this area.


Mr. dr. drs. Maartje van der Woude
Mr. dr. Maartje van der Woude is universitair docent bij het Instituut voor Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Prof. dr. Joanne van der Leun
Prof. dr. Joanne van der Leun is hoogleraar Criminologie bij het Instituut voor Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Fleur van Barneveld
Fleur van Barneveld is masterstudent Criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Yannick van Eijk
Yannick van Eijk is masterstudent Criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Roel Holman
Roel Holman is masterstudent Criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Madelin Mooijer
Madelin Mooijer is masterstudent Criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Slachtoffers van loverboys als daders bij de reclassering

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 6 2011
Trefwoorden loverboys, probation service, human trafficking
Auteurs Damiaan van den Eijnden
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    One of the defining characteristics of so-called ‘loverboys’ is their exploitation of victims in any possible way, including forcing these exploited women to commit crimes. In this way, victims become criminal offenders. After a critical review of the use of the term ‘loverboy’, the first part of this article discusses the responsibility of the Dutch probation service in addressing the problem. The second part describes various ways in which probation officers come into contact with this particular group of offenders and how this contact could then be maintained.


Damiaan van den Eijnden
Damiaan van den Eijnden is beleidsmedewerker bij Reclassering Nederland, regio Limburg.
Artikel

Over objectieve en subjectieve onveiligheid

En de (on)zin van het rationaliteitdebat

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2011
Trefwoorden fear of crime, fear victimization paradox, rationality debate
Auteurs Stefaan Pleysier
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution focuses on ‘fear of crime’ research. Departing from the classic distinction between crime and victimization as objective threats, on the one hand, and fear of crime as a subjective and emotional interpretation of that threat, on the other hand, the research tradition is confronted with the so-called fear victimization paradox. This paradox emerges from the observation that fear of crime is greater among women and elderly people, while these groups actually are less at risk of becoming a crime victim. It has immersed the research tradition in a dominant debate on the rationality of the fear of crime, with two opposing paradigms: rationalist and symbolic.Whilst both the paradox and the different paradigms in the debate offer a view at the core of fear of crime research, and illustrate how similar empirical observations can lead to differing explanations, and policy implications for that matter, we argue that the fear victimization paradox and the rationality debate surrounding this paradox, has occupied the bulk of research on fear of crime with what is essentially a nonsensical and redundant debate.


Stefaan Pleysier
Prof. dr. S. (Stefaan) Pleysier is docent Jeugdcriminologie en Methoden van onderzoek aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de K.U.Leuven, en verbonden aan het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie (LINC) waar hij co-coördinator is van de onderzoekslijn Jeugdcriminologie. E-mail: stefaan.pleysier@law.kuleuven.be
Artikel

De emotionele hond en zijn rationele staart in recent onderzoek naar slachtoffers van een misdrijf

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 4 2011
Trefwoorden moral psychology, victimology, restorative justice, victim impact statements
Auteurs Antony Pemberton
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the past decades the social intuitionist approach to moral psychology has eclipsed rationalist models. The social intutionist approach considers emotions to be a driving force in moral judgement, while reasoning most often functions as a post hoc rationalisation of the initial emotion. This article argues that the social intutionist approach is also applicable to the choice and preferences victims make and have while navigating the criminal justice system. This is illustrated through two recent evaluations of victims experiences in the Netherlands: an evaluation of the Dutch victim-offender encounters and the oral and written Victim Impact Statements (VIS). It is shown that participation in the former programme is a function of low emotional impact, while participants in the VIS-schemes present with high levels of anxiety and anger, and exhibit signs of possible posttraumatic disorder. The implications of these findings are discussed and framed in terms of the social intuitionist model of moral psychology.


Antony Pemberton
Dr. Antony Pemberton is sociaalwetenschapper en universitair hoofddocent bij het International Victimology Institute Tilburg (INTERVICT) van de Universiteit van Tilburg.
Artikel

Hersteldimensies in de slachtofferzorg

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 4 2011
Trefwoorden victim policy, victim restoration, victim assistance, restorative justice
Auteurs Ivo Aertsen en Inge Vanfraechem
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article sketches some important tendencies in the attention for victims of crime, including in supranational regulation, with regard to the position of the offender and possibilities for restorative justice. The evaluation of victim policy in Belgium offers a view on this topic: victims have certain expectations towards the justice system and pose questions with regard to the offender. A third issue regards the place of restoration within the whole range of consequences of crime for victims: what is the meaning of ‘harm’ and what is the content of ‘restoration’ for victims? A last topic considers the openness of victim assistance programmes with regard to the offender dimension and possibilities of restorative justice. This article thus evaluates the possible link between victim assistance and restorative justice.


Ivo Aertsen
Prof. Dr. Ivo Aertsen is hoogleraar aan het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie (LINC), K.U.Leuven.

Inge Vanfraechem
Dr. Inge Vanfraechem is coördinator van het project ‘Victims and restorative justice’ bij het European Forum for Restorative Justice en het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie (LINC), K.U.Leuven.
Artikel

Slachtofferbewegingen en herstelrecht

Over het belang van de realiteit achter de stereotypes

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 4 2011
Trefwoorden victimology, victim movements, social movements, restorative justice
Auteurs Antony Pemberton
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The position of victims of crime has shown marked improvement over the past 30 years. The rise of the victim has been associated with the growth of a unified ‘victim movement’; a social movement that strives to improve the position of victims of crime. However, it is questionable whether the victim movement should be viewed as a unitary phenomenon. Instead of one movement, there appear to be a number of victim movements. There are differences between the victim advocates in the United States, Victim Support in Europe, the violence against women movement and proponents of restorative justice.. In this article, reasons for these differences are sought in victim-endogenous factors: differences in victims’ characteristics and the idealtypes employed by the different movements are an important explanation for the divergent development in organisations representing victims interests, which in turn influences their policy preferences. It is argued that advocates of restorative justice would benefit from understanding both the reality and the distortion involved in the idealtypes, including their own. This would allow proponents of restorative justice to adapt their practices in a manner that is both suitable and convincing to the representative and target group of the different victim movements.


Antony Pemberton
Dr. Antony Pemberton is sociaalwetenschapper en universitair hoofddocent bij het International Victimology Institute Tilburg (INTERVICT) van de Universiteit van Tilburg.
Artikel

Etnografie en criminologie in het tropisch regenwoud

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 0 2011
Trefwoorden green criminology, ethnography, rainforests, illegal logging
Auteurs Tim Boekhout van Solinge
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article discusses tropical deforestation from a cultural criminological perspective, by using qualitative methods such as ethnography and interviews, and by emphasizing the difficulties, dangers and dilemmas of ethnographic research. Case studies include timber smuggling from Indonesia to Malaysia and deforestation for bauxite, soy and timber in Brazil’s Amazon. Also described are meetings with (Dutch) timber traders, policy makers and law enforcers. Tropical deforestation is responsible for a great deal of harm, crime and violence, mainly committed by ranchers and loggers. Victims are humans (including humanity’s oldest societies), future generations (considering the impact on greenhouse gas emissions and climate change) and non-humans (with risks of extinctions).


Tim Boekhout van Solinge
Dr. Tim Boekhout van Solinge is sociaal-geograaf en universitair docent Criminologie aan het Willem Pompe Instituut voor Strafrechtwetenschappen, Universiteit Utrecht. E-mail: t.boekhoutvansolinge@uu.nl.
Artikel

Alles stroomt...?

Over ‘cultuur’ in de culturele criminologie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 0 2011
Trefwoorden cultural criminology, essentialism, constructivism, structure-agency debate, globalization
Auteurs Brenda Carina Oude Breuil
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Cultural criminology has been criticized for not taking enough notice of classical anthropological debates on the concept of ‘culture’. This article responds to that. It analyses anthropological conceptualization from an initial essentialist to a social constructivist approach of ‘culture’. The constructivist approach can prevent cultural criminologists from focusing too much on ‘exotic subcultures’ and neglecting broader socio-cultural developments. The article treats the structure-agency debate and its relevance to cultural criminology. In conclusion, cultural criminology from a dynamic constructivist concept of culture is best equipped for studying crime and reactions to crime in the current era of globalization.


Brenda Carina Oude Breuil
Dr. Brenda Carina Oude Breuil is universitair docent/onderzoeker bij het Willem Pompe Instituut voor Strafrechtswetenschappen, Universiteit Utrecht. E-mail: b.oudebreuil@uu.nl.
Artikel

‘Boeven vangen’ via internet

Beelden over criminaliteit in opsporingsberichtgeving

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 0 2011
Trefwoorden crime & media, responsibilization, internet, citizen participation
Auteurs Judith van Erp
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article studies community notification of suspects, as in Crimewatch and its Dutch equivalent, Opsporing Verzocht, and on police websites. It explores how these messages frame crime, and how these frames change when police messages are copied by private websites. Publication of suspects by the police is characterized as responsibilization, because it legitimizes the authority of the police and reinforces existing relations between police and the public. The new media, however, undermine the frame of authority as it is presented by the police, either because publications aiming to detect suspects are transformed into news or entertainment, or because private websites select those publications that give room to the questioning of police performance. As for the presentation of the publications, this article compares the Dutch TV program Opsporing Verzocht and the website GeenStijl. Opsporing Verzocht centers around the victim, while GeenStijl presents the subject from an enforcement point of view. GeenStijl users are not addressed as the police’s helping hands, but as autonomous agents of social control, sometimes standing in for the police. Community notification of suspects therefore not only influences detection rates, but also the relation between the police, the public, and offenders in society.


Judith van Erp
Dr. Judith van Erp is universitair hoofddocent Criminologie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. E-mail: vanerp@law.eur.nl.
Artikel

Gedetineerden met een licht verstandelijke beperking

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 5 2011
Trefwoorden intellectual disability, prisoners
Auteurs Dr. Hendrien Kaal
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Signs that a more or less substantial group of people in Dutch prison experience problems as a result of an intellectual disability, suggest that it makes sense to track this group and subsequently offer them the support they need. The reason this does not happen in practice is a lack of knowledge on various fronts. As it is, it is not clear how large the group of people with an intellectual disability in Dutch prisons is, what problems they face, and what could aid them. This article highlights what we do know and what we do not know with regards to this group.


Dr. Hendrien Kaal
Dr. H.L. Kaal is als onderzoeker en docent verbonden aan de afdeling Toegepaste Psychologie van de Hogeschool Leiden.
Artikel

Actief burgerschap binnen herstelrecht

Een inventarisatie van participatievormen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 3 2011
Trefwoorden Citizenship, Participation, Mediators, Activism
Auteurs Brunilda Pali
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Seemingly a difficult concept, participation in restorative justice can be understood better once the notion is broadened and operationalized. Therefore a proposal will be made here to first broaden the meaning of participation beyond participation of stakeholders and ‘community’ in the process as it is generally understood in restorative justice literature, and second break down the concept of participation into five different levels: (1) involvement of the stakeholders and the ‘community’ in the restorative process; (2) participation of citizens as volunteer mediators/facilitators in the process; (3) self-referrals from citizens; (4) voluntary participation of experts in restorative justice organisations; (5) promotion from ex-victims of crime and ex-offenders. Based on this approach, in the end, the author opens up the discussion on the meaning of active citizenship for restorative justice in continental Europe. Before discussing how the broadening of the concept of participation is concretely envisioned, the author argues on the importance of prioritizing the notion of citizenship instead of ‘community’ in the continental European restorative justice discourse.


Brunilda Pali
Brunilda Pali verricht promotieonderzoek aan het Instituut voor Criminologie van de Katholieke Universiteit van Leuven.

    In this feature authors review recently published books on subjects of interest to readers of Beleid en Maatschappij.


Heleen Weyers
Heleen Weyers is universitair docent bij de vakgroep Rechtstheorie van de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen. In haar onderzoek richt ze zich op de totstandkoming en effectiviteit van wetgeving. Qua onderwerpen gaat het daarbij met name om onderzoek naar euthanasieregelgeving, rookverboden en legitimiteitsvraagstukken. Onlangs publiceerde zij samen met Marc Hertogh Recht van Onderop. Antwoorden uit de rechtssociologie (Nijmegen: Ars Aequi Libri), een boek dat een actueel overzicht geeft van de hedendaagse Nederlandse rechtssociologie.
Praktijk

Internationale victimologie

Het spoor terug naar Willem Nagel

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 3 2011
Trefwoorden slachtoffers, victimologie, international crimes
Auteurs Prof. dr. mr. Jan van Dijk en Prof. dr. Rianne Letschert
Auteursinformatie

Prof. dr. mr. Jan van Dijk
Prof. dr. mr. J.J.M. van Dijk is Pieter van Vollenhoven hoogleraar Victimology and Human Security aan de Universiteit van Tilburg (INTERVICT), jan.vandijk@uvt.nl.

Prof. dr. Rianne Letschert
Prof. dr. R.M. Letschert is hoogleraar victimologie en internationaal recht en als adjunct-directeur werkzaam bij het International Victimology Institute Tilburg (INTERVICT), r.m.letschert@uvt.nl.
Artikel

Seks op afstand

Leefstijl, routine-internetactiviteiten en slachtofferschap onder meisjes van seksueel hinderlijk gedrag en seksuele dwang op internet

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 3 2011
Trefwoorden internet, girls, lifestyle theory, routine activity theory
Auteurs drs. Carolien Swier MSc en mr. Miriam Wijkman
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Lifestyle Theory and Routine Activity Theory are used to explain female adolescent victimization of sexual harassment on the internet. Girls completed a questionnaire on the internet about their experiences with these events. Girls’ lifestyle had a strong influence on risk of victimization of sexual harassment on the internet. A risky lifestyle outside the internet (especially having sexual intercourse with many partners) increased chances of victimization on the internet by almost 2.5 times for these girls. Routine activities on the internet did not have a significant influence.


drs. Carolien Swier MSc
Drs. C. Swier, MSc. is onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR), cswier@nscr.nl.

mr. Miriam Wijkman
Mr. M.D.S. Wijkman is docent-onderzoeker aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, m.wijkman@vu.nl.
Artikel

Slachtofferschap onder treinconducteurs

De rol van sociale informatieverwerking

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 3 2011
Trefwoorden Social Information Processing (SIP), victimization, (semi-)public professions, types of victims, violence
Auteurs Stephan Verschuren MSc., Tamar Fischer en Dr. Barbara Zwirs
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This study examined whether variation in victimization among train ticket inspectors can be explained by the Social Information Processing (SIP) model which underlies the process of interaction. The study (N=125) shows that the amount of victimization is associated with encoding and emotions. Ticket inspectors who perceive more ‘neutral’ than ‘hostile’ cues report less victimization. Emotions have an indirect relation with the amount of victimization. The seriousness of the victimization is related to encoding, response generation, and response evaluation. Less serious victimization is found when neutral rather than hostile cues are observed, less aggressive responses are generated, and when aggressive responses are evaluated negatively and social responses positively. The results suggest that two types of victimization exist among ticket inspectors: the victim who is a relatively frequent victim and the victim who is victim of more serious forms of aggression.


Stephan Verschuren MSc.
S.M.J. Verschuren, MSc. is statistisch onderzoeker bij het Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek, smj.verschuren@cbs.nl.

Tamar Fischer
Dr. T.F.C. Fischer is universitair docent bij de sectie criminologie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, fischer@law.eur.nl.

Dr. Barbara Zwirs
Dr. B.W.C. Zwirs is universitair docent bij de sectie criminologie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, zwirs@law.eur.nl.
Artikel

Jeugdige zedendelinquenten

Lange termijn criminele carrières en achtergrondkenmerken

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 3 2011
Trefwoorden juvenile sex offender, developmental criminology, criminal career, trajectory analysis, personality and background characteristics
Auteurs Chantal van den Berg MSc., Prof. dr. mr. Catrien Bijleveld en Prof. dr. Jan Hendriks
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this paper delinquent development from age 12 to 32 of 498 juvenile sex offenders is analyzed. Trajectory analysis distinguished five groups: adolescence-limited, adolescence-limited late bloomers, low chronic, high chronic and high declining. These groups are shown to differ on personality, family and background characteristics and type of sampling offenses.Our first conclusion is that juvenile sex offenders generally do not persist in sexual offending. Although the adolescence-limited and low chronic group correspond to Moffitt’s taxonomy, the offenses and characteristics of the groups do not. Therefore, our second conclusion is that juvenile sex offenders criminal careers only partly fit this general theory for delinquent behavior. A special theory for juvenile sex offending is required.


Chantal van den Berg MSc.
C.J.W. van den Berg, MSc. is junior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR), cvandeberg@nscr.nl.

Prof. dr. mr. Catrien Bijleveld
Prof. dr. mr. C.C.J.H. Bijleveld is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) en hoogleraar methoden & technieken van criminologisch onderzoek aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, cbijleveld@nscr.nl.

Prof. dr. Jan Hendriks
Prof. dr. J. Hendriks is bijzonder hoogleraar forensische psychiatrie en psychologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en klinisch psycholoog bij De Waag in Den Haag, j.hendriks@vu.nl.
Artikel

De overdracht van gewelddadige delinquentie tussen drie generaties mannen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 3 2011
Trefwoorden intergenerational transmission, delinquency, violence, timing
Auteurs Steve van de Weijer MSc., Prof. dr. mr. Catrien Bijleveld en Prof. dr. mr. Arjan Blokland
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The transmission of violent delinquency between men from three consecutive generations is examined. Men with violent fathers are shown to have an increased risk to become violent offenders. This transmission of violent delinquency is larger than the transmission of non-violent delinquency. Moreover, it is shown that the timing of the paternal violent crime plays an important role in the intergenerational transmission of violent delinquency. The results are more in line with dynamic theories than with static theories. Though, more research is necessary to examine the precise mechanisms behind the intergenerational transmission of violent delinquency.


Steve van de Weijer MSc.
S.G.A. van de Weijer, MSc. is promovendus aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, s.vande.weijer@vu.nl.

Prof. dr. mr. Catrien Bijleveld
Prof. dr. mr. C.C.J.H. Bijleveld is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) en hoogleraar methoden & technieken van criminologisch onderzoek aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, cbijleveld@nscr.nl.

Prof. dr. mr. Arjan Blokland
Prof. dr. mr. A. Blokland is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) en bijzonder hoogleraar Criminology and Criminal Justice aan de faculteit der rechtsgeleerdheid van het Instituut voor Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden, ablokland@nscr.nl.
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