Zoekresultaat: 28 artikelen

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Jaar 2011 x
Artikel

Transnational Divorce in Dutch-Moroccan Families

The Semi-Autonomous Social Field of Legal Aid

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2011
Auteurs Iris Sportel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In transnational Dutch-Moroccan divorce cases, spouses can come into contact with two different legal systems. Many different kinds of organisations are involved, offering social and legal advice and aid in these transnational divorces: advising and referring clients, educating spouses and professionals, and influencing policy. In this article these organisations are analysed as participants in a transnational field of legal aid, using Moore’s concept of the semi-autonomous social field. It becomes clear that these organisations share norms on transnational divorce: they frame transnational divorce as a women’s problem, and one of complex, interacting rules and regulations. These norms form the source of rules on how to handle law in transnational Dutch-Moroccan divorce cases.


Iris Sportel
Iris Sportel is a PhD candidate at the Radboud University Nijmegen. She has a BSc in Cultural Anthropology and a BA and MA in Arabic Language and Culture. Since 2008 she has been working on her PhD project ‘Transnational Divorce: between Dutch, Egyptian and Moroccan Law’. She has also done research on a pilot project on tailor-made conflict resolution at the court of Den Bosch and on Islamic saint veneration in Egypt.
Discussie

Facing Up to the ICC’s Crisis of Legitimacy

A Critique of The Reckoning and Its Representation of International Criminal Justice

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2011
Auteurs Jeff Handmaker
Auteursinformatie

Jeff Handmaker
Jeff Handmaker is senior lecturer in law, human rights and development at the International Institute of Social Studies (ISS) of Erasmus University Rotterdam and honorary research fellow at the School of Law of the University of the Witwatersrand.
Artikel

Citizenship in Transnational Social Spaces

New Ways to Study Socio-legal Boundaries

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2011
Auteurs Thomas Faist
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In order to establish and evaluate the significance of changing socio-legal boundaries and how these are mirrored in citizenship, cross-border formations of the social and citizenship rules must be discussed. The first part of this paper deals with changes in social boundaries across state borders and presents three generations of transnational studies. Based on this, the second part asks how legal boundaries have changed in the case of dual citizenship and supranational social citizenship. Citizenship is a particularly important issue because it sits at the intersection of social and legal boundaries. There is a growing tolerance toward dual citizenship and the evolution of supranational citizenship, one in which migrants enjoy a transnational life that is supported by the implementation of human rights principles in national constitutions, legislation and in European Union court rulings.


Thomas Faist
Thomas Faist is professor in the Department of Sociology, Bielefeld University. His fields of interest are transnational relations, citizenship, development and migration. He held visiting professorships at Brandeis University, Malmö University and the University of Toronto. Thomas Faist serves on the editorial board of The Sociological Quarterly, Ethnic and Racial Studies, Migration Letters, and South Asian Diaspora. He recently co-edited Migration, Development and Transnationalisation: A Critical Stance (Berghahn 2010), Diaspora and Transnationalism: Concepts, Theories and Methods (Amsterdam University Press 2010) and The Migration Development Nexus: Transnational Perspectives (Palgrave Macmillan 2011).

    In this feature authors review recently published books on subjects of interest to readers of Recht der Werkelijkheid.


Adriaan Bedner
Adriaan Bedner is a senior lecturer at the Van Vollenhoven Institute for Law, Governance and Development of Leiden University. Most of his research has been on law in Indonesia, with a particular focus on access to justice, dispute resolution and the judiciary. He has also done work of a more theoretical and comparative nature, notable on rule of law and access to justice.
Artikel

Transnational Supermarket Standards in Global Supply Chains

The Emergence and Evolution of GlobalGAP

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2011
Auteurs Jaap Van der Kloet
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In recent years, West European supermarkets have been playing an active role in the global regulation of food safety. They have developed several transnational food safety standards and compelled suppliers of food products around the world to acquire certification under these standards. Why and how did supermarkets do this? This article explores the emergence and evolution of transnational supermarket standards by analyzing the development of GlobalGAP, one of the most commonly implemented supermarket standards on farms throughout the world. In the literature, the emergence of transnational regulation is often attributed to one or two factors that play an important role at a particular moment in time. The main argument made in this article is that the emergence of transnational supermarket standards is best understood when it is studied as a process. The development of GlobalGAP includes four main characteristics which may be helpful in analyzing the emergence of other transnational private standards.


Jaap Van der Kloet
Jaap Van der Kloet is a PhD candidate at the Institute for Sociology of Law of the Radboud University Nijmegen, the Netherlands. His PhD research focuses on comparing the social working of transnational private food safety standards between local farmers in the Netherlands and Kenya. He has a Master’s degree in International Development Studies. He worked as junior researcher at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and as project leader at the Dutch NGO Fairfood.

Jeff Handmaker
Jeff Handmaker is lecturer in law, development and human rights at the International Institute of Social Studies of Erasmus University Rotterdam and honorary research fellow in the School of Law of the University of the Witwatersrand.
Artikel

Transnationalism, Legal Pluralism and Types of Conflicts

Contractual Norms Concerning Domestic Workers

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2011
Auteurs Antoinette Vlieger
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Transnationalism and migration are recognised contributors to legal pluralism. Scholars of legal pluralism state that in conflicts, social actors sustain their claims with arguments from coexisting legal systems. They manoeuvre between different legal systems, or contradicting norms within one system, to achieve the most satisfactory decision in a conflict. In doing so, they use norms as discursive tools. Indeed, according to data on domestic workers in Saudi Arabia and the Emirates, this manoeuvring with norms as discursive tools is often recognisable in conflicts between workers and their employers. However, transnational contractual norms and the legal pluralism they create are not merely discursive tools in existing conflicts; they are also regularly the cause of conflicts. Domestic workers conclude agreements with agents in their countries of origin, while employers conclude agreements with different agents in the destination countries. Both parties believe the other party has signed the same contract, while in reality that is not the case. Because of the differences between the two sets of contractual norms, these norms cause conflicts; they are not merely discursive tools. This finding calls for a division between different types of conflicts, which is proposed here for the purpose of socio-legal analysis of conflicts in general and particularly in situations of transnationalism and legal pluralism.


Antoinette Vlieger
Antoinette Vlieger is a researcher and lecturer at the Law School of the University of Amsterdam. For the last five years she has been researching conflicts between domestic workers and their employers in Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. Her PhD thesis on this topic is to be published in fall 2011. Thereafter she hopes to do research on the question of why there is little labour protection on the Arabian Peninsula, combining this with hands-on human rights work in the Middle East.

    For a common market, a common patent and a common patent litigation seem self-evident. Although efforts to introduce these common market institutions in Europe started early in the history of the Economic Community, they remained unsuccessful. The reconstruction of this legal history is focused on two theoretical issues.The first concerns the question of power and influence in the EU, in particular the configuration of stakeholders responsible for the non-decision making on this policy issue. The basic mechanism underlying the lack of success of this dossier appears to be a balance of power between the two opposing groups of stakeholders (France and European institutions vs. Germany, UK, supported by their patenting industry and legal experts). This suggests that transnational rule making, proceeding under similar conditions, is likely to have a long (if not unsuccessful) ‘issue career’.The second theoretical issue concerns the agenda-setting mechanisms of recent decades. All initiatives on international or transnational patent policy have mainly been the product of ‘high politics’, although the input of patent legal experts (representatives of ‘low politics’) has increased considerably in recent decades. Further, this history would seem to defy simple schemes of agenda setting. There is no simple sequence of issue initiation, specification, expansion and entrance. At best, it is a series of such sequences.


Alex Jettinghoff
Alex Jettinghoff is a researcher at the Institute for Sociology of Law of the Radboud University Nijmegen. His main research interests are: business contracting and litigation, the role of lawyers in legal change, war and legal transformation, and the practices of intellectual property.
Artikel

Slachtofferbewegingen en herstelrecht

Over het belang van de realiteit achter de stereotypes

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 4 2011
Trefwoorden victimology, victim movements, social movements, restorative justice
Auteurs Antony Pemberton
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The position of victims of crime has shown marked improvement over the past 30 years. The rise of the victim has been associated with the growth of a unified ‘victim movement’; a social movement that strives to improve the position of victims of crime. However, it is questionable whether the victim movement should be viewed as a unitary phenomenon. Instead of one movement, there appear to be a number of victim movements. There are differences between the victim advocates in the United States, Victim Support in Europe, the violence against women movement and proponents of restorative justice.. In this article, reasons for these differences are sought in victim-endogenous factors: differences in victims’ characteristics and the idealtypes employed by the different movements are an important explanation for the divergent development in organisations representing victims interests, which in turn influences their policy preferences. It is argued that advocates of restorative justice would benefit from understanding both the reality and the distortion involved in the idealtypes, including their own. This would allow proponents of restorative justice to adapt their practices in a manner that is both suitable and convincing to the representative and target group of the different victim movements.


Antony Pemberton
Dr. Antony Pemberton is sociaalwetenschapper en universitair hoofddocent bij het International Victimology Institute Tilburg (INTERVICT) van de Universiteit van Tilburg.
Artikel

Mediation training in Russia

Past experience and latest legislative innovations

Tijdschrift Nederlands-Vlaams tijdschrift voor mediation en conflictmanagement, Aflevering 4 2011
Trefwoorden mediator training, mediation standards, legal reforms in Russia, russian mediation law
Auteurs Vadim Abolonin en Ksenia Sergeeva
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The goal of this article is to examine key problems of training standards for mediators in Russia and to identify possible solutions that may address these issues. In considering the question of mediation training in the context of mediation development in Russia, one can distinguish two periods: (1) before the enactment of the Law on mediation, or the period of private initiatives, and (2) after this Law entered into force, which can be entitled as the period of governmental regulation.During the first period, there were no special legal regulations and thus, private institutions had been offering their own diverse and numerous mediation training programs. The situation has changed due to the active force of the Federal Law on mediation by implementing provisions that require creation of a special unified training program for professional mediators and approval by the Government of the Russian Federation. This program was adopted on 14 February 2011. The approach of the Russian legislature to the establishment of a consistent educational standard for Russian mediators can be considered as the implementation of the woldwide shift toward standards unification. However, the Law itself contains some contradictions, and also contains a number of provisions that cast serious doubts upon the success of this effort.


Vadim Abolonin
Vadim Abolonin, PhD (Russia), LL.M. (Hanover, Lisbon), is Associate Professor of Civil Procedure, Ural State Law Academy (Yekaterinburg, Russia), German Chancellor Fellow (Alexander von Humboldt Foundation), Guest Researcher at the Institute of East European Law, Christian-Albrecht University of Kiel (Germany) and Executive Director of the Interregional Chamber of Mediation (Russia).

Ksenia Sergeeva
Ksenia Sergeeva is a PhD candidate (Ural State Law Academy), Master of Jurisprudence (Russian School of Private Law) and Master in Law Economics and Finance candidate (International University College of Turin).

    The Dutch Labour Inspectorate, that is allotted with the task of supervising the Dutch Working Conditions Legislation, is one of the public bodies currently envisaged by the Dutch government for a reduction in staff. Also, the Inspectorate is being amalgamated with two other supervising bodies under the responsibility of the minister of Social Affairs. This article analyses whether these developments are in line with international labour law (notably ILO convention 81, the Labour Inspection Convention 1947). It is asserted that both the reduction in staff and the reorganisation constitute a breach of ILO Convention 81. Instead of reducing the number of inspectors, the number should in fact be doubled to meet the ILO Standard in this respect. Also, the Inspectorate should be given the means to further build its expertise (notably in the field of occupational diseases and emerging risks). Furthermore, the independence from politically motivated policies should be strenghtened.


Dr. Jan Popma
Artikel

Het Europees burgerinitiatief

Symboolwetgeving of daadwerkelijke democratische versterking van de Unie?

Tijdschrift Nederlands tijdschrift voor Europees recht, Aflevering 9 2011
Trefwoorden Europees burgerinitiatief, unieburgerschap, directe democratie, legitimiteit, verdrag van Lissabon
Auteurs Prof. mr. L.A.J. Senden
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Het Europees burgerinitiatief (EBI) is een noviteit in het EU-recht, ingevoerd door het Verdrag van Lissabon. In deze bijdrage wordt de potentiële bijdrage van het EBI aan de democratische fundamenten van de Unie besproken, in het licht van de nadere uitwerking en vormgeving daarvan in Verordening (EU) nr. 211/2011. Krachtens deze Verordening zullen burgerinitiatieven kunnen worden ingediend vanaf 1 april 2012.


Prof. mr. L.A.J. Senden
Prof. mr. L.A.J. Senden is hoogleraar Europees recht aan het Europa Instituut van de Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

Access_open Transnational Fundamental Rights: Horizontal Effect?

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 3 2011
Trefwoorden fundamental rights, societal constitutionalism, inclusionary and exclusionary effects, anonymous matrix
Auteurs Gunther Teubner
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Violations of human rights by transnational corporations and by other ‘private’ global actors raise problems that signal the limits of the traditional doctrine of ‘horizontal effects’. To overcome them, constitutional law doctrine needs to be complemented by perspectives from legal theory and sociology of law. This allows new answers to the following questions: What is the validity basis of human rights in transnational ‘private’ regimes – extraterritorial effect, colère public or external pressures on autonomous law making in global regimes? Do they result in protective duties of the states or in direct human rights obligations of private transnational actors? What does it mean to generalise state-directed human rights and to respecify them for different social spheres? Are societal human rights limited to ‘negative’ rights or is institutional imagination capable of developing ‘positive’ rights – rights of inclusion and participation in various social fields? Are societal human rights directed exclusively against corporate actors or can they be extended to counteract structural violence of anonymous social processes? Can such broadened perspectives of human rights be re-translated into the practice of public interest litigation?


Gunther Teubner
Gunther Teubner is Professor of Private Law and Legal Sociology and Principal Investigator of the Excellence Cluster ‘The Formation of Normative Orders’ at the Goethe-University, Frankfurt/Main. He is also Professor at the International University College, Torino, Italy.
Discussie

Access_open Against the ‘Pestilential Gods’

Teubner on Human Rights

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 3 2011
Trefwoorden semiosphera, paranomia, Drittwirkung, matrix argument
Auteurs Pasquale Femia
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Examining the function of human rights in the semiosphere requires a strategy of differentiation: the dissolution of politics into political moments (politics, it is argued, is not a system, but a form of discourse); the distinction between discourse and communication; the concept of systemic paranomic functionings. Paranomia is a situation generated by the pathological closure of discourses, in which knowledge of valid and observed norms obscures power. Fundamental rights are the movement of communication, claims about redistributing powers, directed against paranomic functionings. Rethinking the debate about the third party effect implies that validity and coherence must be differentiated for the development of the ‘matrix argument’.


Pasquale Femia
Pasquale Femia is Professor of Private Law at the Faculty of Political Studies of the University of Naples II, Italy.
Discussie

Access_open The Destruction and Reconstruction of the Tower of Babel

A Comment to Gunther Teubner’s Plea for a ‘Common Law Constitution’

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 3 2011
Trefwoorden global society, constitutionalism, social systems theory, Teubner, law and order
Auteurs Bart van Klink
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article presents some critical comments concerning the conceptual, normative and institutional foundations of Teubner’s plea for a ‘common law constitution’. My comments question the desirability of the means chosen for attaining this objective as well as their efficacy. In particular, I have difficulties with the ambivalent role that is assigned to man, either as a person or as a human being; with the reduction of social problems to problems of communication; and, finally and most importantly, with the attempt to conceive of law and politics beyond established legal and political institutions, which in my view is doomed to fail. The conclusion offers some tentative suggestions for an alternative approach.


Bart van Klink
Bart van Klink is Professor of Legal Methodology at the Faculty of Law of the VU University Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
Artikel

Access_open Approaching Law through Conflicts

Tijdschrift Law and Method, 2011
Trefwoorden Latour, modernity of law, legal procedure, proof, qualification of facts
Auteurs Niels van Dijk
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article the author presents Latour’s negative analysis of modernity and his positive ethnographical studies of the modes of existence of our modern world. I will discuss the merits and disadvantages of his specific approach on law – an institutional ethnography of the French Conseil d’Etat – within this framework. The analysis will be supplemented with the results of a conflict-based approach to a case study in patent law at a law firm.


Niels van Dijk
Niels van Dijk LL.M. is onderzoeker bij het Center for Law, Science, Technology & Society (LSTS) van de Vrije Universiteit Brussel.
Artikel

Access_open The Theory and Practice of Teaching and Guiding Legal Research Skills

Tijdschrift Law and Method, 2011
Trefwoorden legal education, legal research skills, legal research methods, Utrecht School of Law
Auteurs Ian Curry-Sumner en Marieke van der Schaaf
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The aim of this article is to present a case study of the development process and its underlying theoretical fundaments of a research skills line in the law degree programme. Broader educational purposes of the article are to give managers and lecturers of law schools suggestions for implementing research skills in their curriculum. Accordingly, the article is aimed at stimulating students’ research skills. This article will discuss the background to the decisions that were made in the Utrecht School of Law, then discuss the ultimate end result, namely the implementation of a new research skills line and the publication of a standard research skills instruction. Furthermore, each section will commence with a brief outline of the theoretical framework, followed by an explanation of how this theory has been practically implemented in the Bachelor of Law in Utrecht.


Ian Curry-Sumner
Dr. Ian Curry-Sumner is als senior universitair docent verbonden aan het Molengraaff instituut voor privaatrecht (Universiteit Utrecht). Ook is hij coördinator van het research skills-project in Utrecht. Recentelijk publiceerde hij Research Skills: Instruction for Lawyers samen met F. Kristen, T. van der Linden-Smith en H. Tigchelaar.

Marieke van der Schaaf
Dr. Marieke van der Schaaf is universitair docent aan de Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen van de Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

Systeem in het financiële toezicht

Tijdschrift RegelMaat, Aflevering 4 2011
Trefwoorden bankentoezicht, systeemtoezicht, risicogebaseerd toezicht, systeemrisico, stelselbreed toezicht, zelfregulering
Auteurs Prof. mr. dr. A.J.C. de Moor-van Vugt en Mr. drs. M.W. Wessel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Een van de lessen die algemeen getrokken wordt uit de huidige financiële crisis is dat wereldwijd te weinig aandacht besteed is aan risico-opbouw in het financiële stelsel als geheel. In dit artikel wordt verkend op welke wijze de Nederlandse wetgever en toezichthouders geconstateerde lacunes in regelgeving en praktijk aanvullen. Gekeken wordt met name hoe De Nederlandsche Bank (DNB) en de Autoriteit Financiële Markten (AFM) toezicht houden op de bedrijfsvoering van financiële instellingen (systeemtoezicht), welke accenten daarin zijn aangebracht als gevolg van de crisis, en hoe dit toezicht kan bijdragen aan het bewaken van het financiële stelsel als geheel (stelselbreed toezicht). De conclusie luidt dat voor herstel van vertrouwen in de financiële sector – fundament van systeemtoezicht – een eenvoudiger structuur van financiële instellingen, markten en producten noodzakelijk is.


Prof. mr. dr. A.J.C. de Moor-van Vugt
Prof. mr. dr. A.J.C. de Moor-van Vugt is hoogleraar Staats- en Bestuursrecht aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam. a.j.c.demoor-vanvugt@uva.nl

Mr. drs. M.W. Wessel
Mr. drs. M.W. Wessel is promovenda staats- en bestuursrecht aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam. m.w.wessel@uva.nl
Boekbespreking

Rechtsordes, internationale ondernemingen en criminologie

Gedachten over Wim Huismans Business as usual?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 3 2011
Trefwoorden book review, international crimes, criminality by corporations
Auteurs Prof. dr. Nicholas Dorn
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this contribution the author reviews: Business as usual? Corporate involvement in international crimes, by Wim Huisman.


Prof. dr. Nicholas Dorn
Prof. dr. N. Dorn is professor International Safety and Governance aan de faculteit der rechtsgeleerdheid, sectie criminologie, van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, dorn@frg.eur.nl.
Artikel

Obstakels voor samenwerking

Bevindingen uit de procesevaluatie van de programmatische aanpak mensenhandel

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2011
Auteurs B. van Gestel en M. Verhoeven
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The recent approach to combating organised crime in the Netherlands emphasizes the importance of interventions aimed at the underlying ‘facilitating structure’ of crime. A great deal of attention is being devoted to professions, companies and services that - consciously or unconsciously - facilitate crime in a structural manner. In addition to a repressive approach to this type of crime, structural hindrances should also be created to aid in combating organised crime. This means that investigative services have to work closely together with each other and other relevant agencies. On the basis of this perspective, the Public Prosecution Service developed the ‘programmatic approach’. The programma-based approach was first tried out as a pilote in 2006 in the field of Human trafficking (trafficking for sexual exploitation). This article investigates what kind of problems have occurred in practice during the pilote, and focuses on an explanation of why cooperation fails.


B. van Gestel
Dr. Barbra van Gestel is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het WODC.

M. Verhoeven
Drs. Maite Verhoeven is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het WODC.
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