Zoekresultaat: 50 artikelen

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Jaar 2018 x
Artikel

Het grondrecht op collectief onderhandelen van zelfstandigen versus het Europese mededingingsrecht

Tijdschrift Arbeidsrechtelijke Annotaties, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden Mededingingsrecht, Zelfstandige, Cao-exceptie, Vrijheid van vakvereniging, Recht op collectief onderhandelen
Auteurs Mr. R.F. Hoekstra
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In dit artikel staat centraal dat de beperking van de door het Hof van Justitie geformuleerde ‘cao-exceptie’ op het Europese mededingingsrecht tot ‘werknemers’ en ‘schijnzelfstandigen’ zich moeilijk tot een grondrechtenbenadering lijkt te verhouden. Zelfstandigen met een zwakke arbeidsmarktpositie hebben namelijk evenzeer behoefte aan collectieve middelen om hun arbeidsvoorwaarden te verbeteren en vallen ook onder grondrechtenverdragen. Door een uitgebreide beschouwing van de relevante rechtsinstrumenten van de VN, de IAO en de Raad van Europa en de uitleg die de toezichtorganen hieraan geven blijkt dat het grondrecht op vrijheid van (vak)vereniging, collectief onderhandelen en collectieve actie evenzeer aan deze groep lijkt toe te komen, en een te rigoureuze inperking vanwege het mededingingsrecht niet gerechtvaardigd wordt geacht. De conclusie bevat enkele gedachten over hoe het Europese mededingingsrecht met een grondrechtenbenadering overeenstemming te brengen. Daarbij passeren zowel de recente ontwikkelingen rondom het zelfstandigenvraagstuk in Nederland als initiatieven op Europees niveau de revue.


Mr. R.F. Hoekstra
Mr. R.F. (Robert) Hoekstra is werkzaam als onderzoeker bij de Wiardi Beckman Stichting Den Haag. Daarnaast is hij als promovendus verbonden aan de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam. Zijn promotieonderzoek ziet op het snijvlak van cao’s en grondrechten.
Artikel

Genderdiversiteit en organisatiecriminaliteit: een systematische literatuurreview

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2018
Trefwoorden gender, white-collar crime, old boys network, board diversity, corporate crime
Auteurs Dr. Marieke Kluin MSc. en Mr. Lucy de Ruiter BSc.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Women are less likely to commit criminal acts than men. This gender gap appears to be particularly pronounced in white-collar crime. This systematic literature review examines existing theories, such as the situational hypothesis and the ‘gendered theory of focal concerns’ and evaluates to what extent they find support in empiricism. The results seem to offer the most support to the ‘gendered theory of focal concerns’. This nourishes the hypothesis that with an increase of women at positions in the upper tiers of the company ladder a decrease in the prevalence of white-collar crime can be expected. However, it is also possible that the explanation of corporate crime does not lie in a lack of femininity, but in a lack of gender diversity. Furthermore, limited access to informal criminal networks, the ‘old boys networks’, seems to play an important role in the gender gap of white-collar crime.


Dr. Marieke Kluin MSc.
Dr. M.H.A. Kluin is als universitair docent Criminologie verbonden aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Mr. Lucy de Ruiter BSc.
L.M. de Ruiter heeft rechten en criminologie gestudeerd aan de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Access_open De rechtsfilosofische grondslagen van John Griffiths’ rechtssociologie

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden sociology of law, Hart, Dworkin, Legal Realism, Black
Auteurs Jeroen Kiewiet
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The topic of this article is the legal philosophical foundation of John Griffiths’s sociology of law. Griffiths has developed his foundation of sociology of law in discussion with three positions: legal realism, Hart and Dworkin. These three positions give three different answers on the question ‘what is law?’. In the first part Griffiths’s discussion of legal realism is analyzed. From the outset, a legal realistic approach to law has the benefit of its strong focus on the empirical determinants of predicting the outcomes of cases. Problematic, according to Griffiths, is a naïve instrumentalism, often related to legal realism. The second part on Hart’s theory discussed Hart’s notion of rule-following as the core of Griffiths’s sociology of law. Also the different perspectives on law are discussed. According to Griffiths, Black’s extreme external perspective is problematic, but Hart’s moderate external perspective is also not suitable for the external comparative purpose of sociology of law. In the third part, Dworkin’s theory is discussed. Griffiths, in my opinion, unsuccessfully, tried to reconcile Dworkin’s theory with legal positivism. Dworkin’s theory is an interpretive theory from the participant’s point of view, which makes it hard to use it as an adequate foundation of an empirical theory of law. For a sociologist of law, choosing an adequate conception of law is just as important as the choice for an empirical method. The contribution of Griffiths to sociology of law is in this sense unique and of great value for the sociology of law.


Jeroen Kiewiet
Jeroen Kiewiet was student-assistent bij John Griffiths in de collegejaren 2003/2004 en 2004/2005. In 2002 maakte hij met Griffiths en de rechtssociologie kennis tijdens de ‘contractwerkgroep’ van het vak Inleiding rechtssociologie. Het onderwijs tijdens de ‘contractwerkgroep’ ervoer hij als zeer inspirerend; hij zag een échte wetenschapper aan het werk die de inbreng van studenten uiterst serieus nam. Sinds augustus 2015 werkt Jeroen als universitair docent aan de afdeling Staatsrecht, Bestuursrecht en Rechtstheorie van het departement Rechtsgeleerdheid van de faculteit Recht, Economie, Bestuur en Organisatie van de Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

Heeft John Griffiths de rechtssociologie verder gebracht?

Een evaluatie van zijn werk vanuit het perspectief van het empirisch-theoretische onderzoeksprogramma

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden P-T-O-scheme, sociology of law, concept of law, empirical research, Karl Popper
Auteurs Albert Klijn en Marnix Croes
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    A central ambition that Griffiths expressed rather frequently was to realize progress in the sociology of law by formulating informative theoretical propositions and testing them empirically according to the maxim of the critical-rational metatheoretical program of Karl Popper. Our analysis of Griffiths’s contributions suggests, however, that he actually refrained from following Popper’s path: to put a Problem – formulate a Theory – testing that provisional answer by empirical Observation. Instead, Griffiths focussed mostly on the rigorously clear formulation of concepts accordingly to his strong philosophical inclination.


Albert Klijn
Albert Klijn (1946) studeerde theoretische sociologie en rechtssociologie te Utrecht en Nijmegen (1975). Hij begon zijn onderzoeksloopbaan in 1978 bij het WODC. Zijn eerste onderzoekopdracht was de evaluatie van de door Justitie gesubsidieerde Advokatenkollektieven (De Balie geschetst, 1981). John Griffiths maakte deel uit van de begeleidingscommissie. Sindsdien zijn er professionele en vriendschappelijke contacten gebleven. Zo schreef Griffiths op zijn verzoek een bijdrage aan het themanummer van Justitiële verkenningen ter gelegenheid van het veertigjarige bestaan van de NOVA (JV 1992 nr. 6). Klijn promoveerde bij Griffiths en Wippler op een proefschrift over onderzoek naar de ontwikkelingen in de gesubsidieerde rechtsbijstand in Nederland tussen 1978-1988 (Rechtshulp onderzocht en overdacht, 1991). Hij maakte gedurende de periode 2000-2002 deel uit van het onderzoeksteam dat zich onder leiding van Griffiths bezighield met de regulering van het medisch handelen rondom het stervensproces (MBPSL); zijn aandachtsgebied was de meldingsplicht van de arts.

Marnix Croes
Marnix Croes (1968) studeerde historische en politieke wetenschappen aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam en promoveerde in de sociale wetenschappen aan het Interuniversity Center for Social Science Theory and Methodology (ICS) op een proefschrift over de overlevingskansen van joden in de Nederlandse gemeenten (Gif laten wij niet voortbestaan, 2004). Hij was van 2003-2016 verbonden aan het WODC, waar hij zich in het kader van een onderzoek over de Bruikbare Rechtsorde (2007) intensief met het werk van Griffiths heeft beziggehouden.
Artikel

John Griffiths’ streven naar een theoretisch kader voor de rechtssociologie

Een kritische analyse

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden socio-legal theory, social control, Rules, legal pluralism, Law
Auteurs Roel Pieterman
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution focuses on John Griffiths’ relentless attempt at developing a general theoretical perspective for socio-legal studies. Hence, attention to Griffiths’ important contributions to legal pluralism and the social working of law approach is paid only in passing. Similar to a much earlier assessment, the analysis of Griffiths’ proposal in this contribution is quite critical. Measured against five criteria this author deems important for any socio-legal theoretical framework, the verdict is that Griffiths’ proposal falls short of all of them. The analysis itself focuses primarily on Griffiths’ attempt to redefine the subject for socio-legal studies in terms of social control, the way he uses the concept ‘law’, and his primary focus on rules and rule following. One overall conclusion is that Griffiths remained a legal scholar to a much greater extent than he would have liked.


Roel Pieterman
Roel Pieterman (1953) is hoofddocent rechtssociologie aan Erasmus School of Law. Zijn onderzoeksbelangstelling is vooral gericht op de politiek-juridische omgang met ‘risico’s’. In die lijn schreef hij De voorzorgcultuur (2008) en Gewicht zit niet tussen je oren (2017). Zijn voornaamste onderwijstaak betreft het verzorgen van inleidend onderwijs in de rechtssociologie. In die lijn heeft hij, vooral in de jaren 1990, veel gebruikgemaakt van de door John Griffiths geredigeerde ‘RUG-bundel’. In die periode hield hij zich, evenals John, bezig met onderzoek naar een geschikt theoretisch kader voor de rechtssociologie. Het resultaat daarvan publiceerde hij in 1998 in Recht der Werkelijkheid. In dat tijdschrift discussieerde hij in die periode diverse malen met John over de vraag wat een goede benadering zou zijn.
Artikel

Verdergaan met de sociale-werkingsbenadering

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden Effectiveness of law, social working approach, semi-autonomous social fields, smoking bans, impact assessments
Auteurs Heleen Weyers
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    John Griffiths’ social working approach of legislation tries to estimate the direct effects of laws which prescribe certain behavior. The basic idea of the approach is that rule-guided behavior (direct effect) is influenced by the different groups citizens belong to. Griffiths refers to these groups using the concept coined by Sally Moore (1971) ‘semi-autonomous social fields’. Although Griffiths never formulated hypotheses regarding the relation between SASFs and direct effects, the article explores two of them: If the relevant SASFs accept the new norm, direct effects will occur; and if the relevant SASFs are not ‘though’ (and don’t accept the new norm) direct effects will occur. These two hypotheses are related to the results of smoking bans in bars in the Netherlands. The acceptance of the smoking bans in bars is low. The thoughness of the SASFs in bars and their organization differ in time and so did the compliance with the smoking bans. Because this article is not based on research that depart from the hypotheses, further research based on the hypotheses is needed to draw firm conclusions. The article is rounded up with a plea to use Griffiths approach in impact assessments of legislation.


Heleen Weyers
Heleen Weyers studeerde filosofie en geschiedenis en startte in 1995 haar promotietraject bij John Griffiths. Dat resulteerde in het boek Euthanasie: het proces van rechtsverandering (2002) en een aanstelling als universitair docent bij de Vakgroep Rechtstheorie van de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen. Samen met John (en anderen) schreef/redigeerde ze Euthanasia and Law in the Netherlands (1998) en Euthanasia and Law in Europe (2008) en verzorgde ze de vierde editie van het leerboek De sociale werking van recht. Een kennismaking met de rechtssociologie en rechtsantropologie (2005). Zij heeft zich sedert 2002 niet alleen beziggehouden met de totstandkoming van wetgeving, maar ook met de relatie tussen de totstandkoming en de effectiviteit van rechtsregels.
Artikel

De rol van intermediairs in het Nederlandse prostitutiebeleid

Top-down toepassen of bottom-up aanpassen van regels?

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden regulatory intermediaries, Social Working theory, Regulatory Intermediary Target model, prostitution policy
Auteurs Nicolle Zeegers
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Similar to the more current Regulator Intermediary Target (RIT) model, Griffiths’ Social Working (SW) theory points to the relevance of intermediaries for explaining rule following behavior. In this article, the author applies both theories (RIT and SW) concerning the role of intermediaries in rule following to explain developments in Dutch prostitution policy: the non-implementation of the emancipatory, sex workers’ rights based approach, and its replacement by a more repressive policy of closing down sex facilities. The analysis shows that although both theories contain useful starting point for explaining these developments, the SW theory’s special value is its acknowledgement of how regulatory intermediaries operate in a social field with existing social rules and a specific balance of power. Such rules and power relations have put barriers to the implementation of the Dutch prostitution policy as formulated in 1999. As illustrated in the article, the SW- theory offers more tools than the RIT- model for an analysis of how legal rules work in practice.


Nicolle Zeegers
Nicolle Zeegers is universitair docent politicologie bij de vakgroep Transboundary Legal Studies (TLS), Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen. In haar onderzoek richt zij zich op vraagstukken over invloed en macht in de totstandkoming en werking van wetgeving. In augustus 1998 werd zij lid van de vakgroep Rechtstheorie waarvan John Griffiths de voorzitter was. Zij heeft verschillende malen over de sociale-werkingstheorie gepubliceerd (zie Weyers & Stamhuis 2003 en Zeegers, Witteveen & Van Klink 2005).
Artikel

Empiricism as an ethical enterprise. On the work of Erhard Blankenburg

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden Empiricism, Erhard Blankenburg, mobilization of law, legal instruments, problems and disputes
Auteurs Prof. dr. Pieter Ippel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article gives an interpretation of the empirical work of the well-known sociologist of law Erhard Blankenburg, who passed away in the Spring of 2018. He conducted interesting and intelligent research on the process of ‘mobilization of law’. The thesis of this article is that Blankenburg’s empirical approach is actually guided and stimulated by normative considerations. A complete and coherent picture of the concrete utilization of legal instruments shows that ‘alternative’ ways of dealing with problems and disputes are often morally preferable as they are inspired by a realistic assessment of persons-in-a-social-context.


Prof. dr. Pieter Ippel
Pieter Ippel is professor of law at University College Roosevelt (Middelburg) and Utrecht University. He studied philosophy, criminology and Dutch Law. From 1981-1987 he worked as an assistant with Erhard Blankenburg and finished his PhD in 1989. From 1989-1995 he worked as a civil servant in The Hague and from 1995-2005 he was professor of jurisprudence in Utrecht.
Artikel

An Introduction to the Singapore Convention on Mediation – Perspectives from Singapore

Tijdschrift Nederlands-Vlaams tijdschrift voor mediation en conflictmanagement, Aflevering 4 2018
Trefwoorden Singapore Convention, Dispute resolution, Uncitral, Enforcement
Auteurs Nadja Alexander en Shouyu Chong
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Following a retrospective of the road towards the Convention, incorporating some Singaporean inside views, the authors provide a detailed analysis of the envisaged grounds for refusal of mediated settlements. The authors also highlight various issues around the very concept, and proof, of mediation. These issues are fundamental, as only settlements ensuing from mediation are covered. Another significant aspect is the absence of any provisions pertaining to the status of agreements to mediate, the contract situated at the entry side of mediation.


Nadja Alexander
Nadja Alexander is Professor of Law (Practice) at Singapore Management University School of Law and Director of the Singapore International Dispute Resolution Academy (‘SIDRA’). She may be contacted at nadjaa@smu.edu.sg.

Shouyu Chong
Shouyu Chong is a Researcher at SIDRA, and may be contacted at sychong.2013@smu.edu.sg.
Artikel

Interventions in High-conflict Divorce Cases: The Parenting Examination

Tijdschrift Nederlands-Vlaams tijdschrift voor mediation en conflictmanagement, Aflevering 4 2018
Trefwoorden Parenting examination, high-conflict divorce, child custody, child access, forensic expert
Auteurs Esther Kluwer en Cees van Leuven
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Parenting examination (in Dutch: ouderschapsonderzoek) is a method that is used in high-conflict divorces in the Netherlands since 2008, whereby the court appoints a forensic expert who uses mediation and coaching techniques to support the parents to find a solution for their dispute. When parents fail to reach agreement, the forensic expert reports to the judge who can use this information to make a decision. This article discusses the results of two studies that have been conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the Parenting examination in practice.


Esther Kluwer
Esther Kluwer is professor of Sustainable Relationships and Wellbeing at Radboud University (Nijmegen) and associate professor at the Department of Social Health & Organisational Psychology at Utrecht University.

Cees van Leuven
Cees van Leuven is a judge at the Court of Appeal (‘s-Hertogenbosch) and a lecturer at the Netherlands Training and Study Centre for the Judiciary. He recently published the book ‘Rechter worden, rechter zijn’ (Becoming a judge, being a judge), January 2019.
Artikel

UNCITRAL and a New International Legislative Framework on Mediation

Tijdschrift Nederlands-Vlaams tijdschrift voor mediation en conflictmanagement, Aflevering 4 2018
Trefwoorden Solving disputes, United Nations, Trade law, Uncitral
Auteurs Judith Knieper en Corinne Montineri
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    More than sixty years after the adoption of the New York Convention, UNCITRAL finalised at its annual session, in July 2018, an instrument akin to the New York Convention in the area of mediation: the United Nations Convention on International Settlement Agreements Resulting from Mediation (‘the Singapore Convention on Mediation’ or ‘the Convention’), which was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 20 December 2018. In addition, UNCITRAL adopted the UNCITRAL Model Law on International Commercial Mediation and International Settlement Agreements Resulting from Mediation, (2018, amending the Model Law on International Commercial Conciliation (2002); ‘the revised Model Law’).
    This contribution gives an overview of these two texts and their drafting process, starting with an overview of the works done by UNCITRAL over the past decades in the field of international mediation.


Judith Knieper
Judith Knieper is legal officer at the International Trade Law Division of the United Nations Office of Legal Affairs, which also serves as the Secretariat of UNCITRAL.

Corinne Montineri
Corinne Montineri is legal officer at the International Trade Law Division of the United Nations Office of Legal Affairs, which also serves as the Secretariat of UNCITRAL. The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Organization.
Article

Access_open The Conduit between Technological Change and Regulation

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden technology, socio-technological change, money, windmill, data
Auteurs Marta Katarzyna Kołacz en Alberto Quintavalla
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article discusses how the law has approached disparate socio-technological innovations over the centuries. Precisely, the primary concern of this paper is to investigate the timing of regulatory intervention. To do so, the article makes a selection of particular innovations connected with money, windmills and data storage devices, and analyses them from a historical perspective. The individual insights from the selected innovations should yield a more systematic view on regulation and technological innovations. The result is that technological changes may be less momentous, from a regulatory standpoint, than social changes.


Marta Katarzyna Kołacz
Marta Katarzyna Kołacz, Ph.D. Candidate in the Department of Private Law, Erasmus School of Law, Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Alberto Quintavalla
Alberto Quintavalla, LL.M., Ph.D. Candidate in the Rotterdam Institute of Law and Economics, Erasmus School of Law, Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
Article

Access_open Right to Access Information as a Collective-Based Approach to the GDPR’s Right to Explanation in European Law

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden automated decision-making, right to access information, right to explanation, prohibition on discrimination, public information
Auteurs Joanna Mazur
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article presents a perspective which focuses on the right to access information as a mean to ensure a non-discriminatory character of algorithms by providing an alternative to the right to explanation implemented in the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). I adopt the evidence-based assumption that automated decision-making technologies have an inherent discriminatory potential. The example of a regulatory means which to a certain extent addresses this problem is the approach based on privacy protection in regard to the right to explanation. The Articles 13-15 and 22 of the GDPR provide individual users with certain rights referring to the automated decision-making technologies. However, the right to explanation not only may have a very limited impact, but it also focuses on individuals thus overlooking potentially discriminated groups. Because of this, the article offers an alternative approach on the basis of the right to access information. It explores the possibility of using this right as a tool to receive information on the algorithms determining automated decision-making solutions. Tracking an evolution of the interpretation of Article 10 of the Convention for the Protection of Human Right and Fundamental Freedoms in the relevant case law aims to illustrate how the right to access information may become a collective-based approach towards the right to explanation. I consider both, the potential of this approach, such as its more collective character e.g. due to the unique role played by the media and NGOs in enforcing the right to access information, as well as its limitations.


Joanna Mazur
Joanna Mazur, M.A., PhD student, Faculty of Law and Administration, Uniwersytet Warszawski.
Article

Access_open Personal Data, Algorithms and Profiling in the EU: Overcoming the Binary Notion of Personal Data through Quantum Mechanics

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden data protection, GDPR, bigdata, algorithm, quantum mechanics
Auteurs Alessandro El Khoury
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this paper I propose to analyse the binary notion of personal data and highlight its limits, in order to propose a different conception of personal data. From a risk regulation perspective, the binary notion of personal data is not particularly fit for purpose, considering that data collection and information flows are tremendously big and complex. As a result, the use of a binary system to determine the applicability of EU data protection law may be a simplistic approach. In an effort of bringing physics and law together, certain principles elaborated within the quantum theory are surprisingly applicable to data protection law, and can be used as guidance to shed light on many of today’s data complexities. Lastly, I will discuss the implications and the effects that certain processing operations may have on the possibility of qualifying certain data as personal. In other terms, how the chances to identify certain data as personal is dependent upon the processing operations that a data controller might put in place.


Alessandro El Khoury
Alessandro El Khoury, LLM, Legal and Policy Officer, DG Health & Food Safety, European Commission.

    This article introduces the concepts of play and playfulness within the context of legal-philosophical education. I argue that integrating play and playfulness in legal education engages students and prepares them for dealing with the perpetual uncertainty of late modernity that they will face as future legal professionals. This article therefore aims to outline the first contours of a useful concept of play and playfulness in legal education. Drawing on the work of leading play-theorists Huizinga, Caillois, Lieberman and Csikszentmihalyi, play within legal education can be described as a (1) partly voluntary activity that (2) enables achievement of learning goals, (3) is consciously separate from everyday life by rules and/or make believe, (4) has its own boundaries in time and space, (5) entails possibility, tension and uncertainty and (6) promotes the formation of social grouping. Playfulness is a lighthearted state of mind associated with curiosity, creativity, spontaneity and humor. Being playful also entails being able to cope with uncertainty. The integration of these concepts of play and playfulness in courses on jurisprudence will be illustrated by the detailed description of three play and playful activities integrated in the course ‘Introduction to Legal Philosophy’ at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.


Hedwig van Rossum
Mr. H.E van Rossum, LL.M., is a lecturer-researcher in the Department of Legal Theory at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam and has been teaching the freshman course ‘Introduction to Legal Philosophy’ since 2011.

    Jurisprudence is a domain related to terms such as rules, morality, principles, equality, justice, etc. Legal scholars have to teach the meaning of these terms. However, these are not terms, one can comprehend by just reading their standard definition. These are terms one must digest and learn to use. My argument is that literature or the law and literature movement can be used as a tool in order to explain and discuss these terms. For instance, beyond simply explaining or teaching legal positivism and natural law, Antigone helps students reflect upon the distinction between them. To cite another example, reading Nana can help students think about sex-workers in a way they would never think before. Moreover, the literature can be a useful means in teaching critical movements in law, such as critical legal studies, feminist legal theory and critical race theory. Finally, the terms I stated at the beginning are not only terms of jurisprudence, they are terms we should use properly in order to construct a healthy legal environment. Therefore, to get students comprehend these terms is a crucially important aim. I argue that literature can be a tool in order to achieve this aim.


E. Irem Aki
Dr. E.I. Aki was a research assistant at Ankara University Faculty of Law until 2017; iremaki@gmail.com.
Case Reports

2018/22 What is a collective agreement? Part two (DK)

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden Collective agreements
Auteurs Christian K. Clasen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Danish Supreme Court has upheld the decision from the Danish Eastern High Court (reported in EELC 2017/26) on the implementation of the Working Time Directive to the effect that an ‘intervention act’ can be deemed to be a collective agreement within the meaning of Article 18 of the Working Time Directive.


Christian K. Clasen
Christian K. Clasen is a partner at Norrbom Vinding, Copenhagen.
Rulings

ECJ 19 September 2018, case C-312/17 (Bedi), Collective agreements, disability discrimination

Surjit Singh Bedi – v – Bundesrepublik Deutschland, Bundesrepublik Deutschland in Prozessstandschaft für das Vereinigte Königreich von Großbritannien und Nordirland, German case

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden Gender discrimination, Working time
Samenvatting

    Bridging assistance paid to a worker who loses his or her job by reason of redundancy, but ceasing once the worker becomes eligible to receive retirement benefits, is discriminatory under Directive 2000/78 if this moment comes earlier for disabled than non-disabled workers.

    In 2017, the ECJ delivered its judgment in the Socha case (C-149/16). This judgment, about the Collective Redundancy Directive (98/59/EC), highlights the contradictions between the Directive and Polish law and demonstrates some of consequences such a judgment can lead to.


Andrzej Marian Swiatkowski
Andrzej Marian Swiatkowski is a Professor of European Labor Law and Social Security, Jesuit University Ignatianum, Krakow, Poland.
Artikel

EU Smart borders, from strategic consideration to operational execution: an effective counter-terrorism strategy or discriminatory system control?

Tijdschrift Crimmigratie & Recht, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden EU Smart borders, Schengen Area, Biometric matching system, Terrorism
Auteurs Dr. Daniela Rodríguez Bautista
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The inclusion of biometric data in EU border controls reflects a shift from immigration management as an original purpose by making control and identification of individuals a top priority. It also shows a preference for biometrical data as part of the European security strategy. This article elaborates on these so-called ‘EU Smart borders’ and focusses on the different existing central information systems including these data.


Dr. Daniela Rodríguez Bautista
Dr. D. Rodríguez Bautista works as a legal officer (administrateur) at the Court of Justice of the European Union.
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