Zoekresultaat: 18 artikelen

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Jaar 2014 x

    In this article the Think-Aloud Method, a method used in problem solving research in Psychology, is used in legal research to gather data on how novices, expert beginners and experts read, structure and analyse legal decisions. In the Dutch legal system decisions by judges are a major source of law. So it is important that law students learn to read, structure and analyse legal decisions. However, reading and understanding a decision does not go without saying, it has to be learned. The data we gather using the Think-Aloud Method are used to improve instruction to support the effective and efficient learning of comprehending legal decisions. We describe the Think-Aloud Method, our experimental design and our approach for analysing the protocols.


Dr. Antoinette Muntjewerff
Dr. A. Muntjewerff is Assistant Professor of Legal Theory at the Faculty of Law at the University of Amsterdam. She has a Masters in Social Science, a Masters in Law, and a PhD in Computer Science & Law; she studied Computer Science (more specifically Artificial Intelligence).
Artikel

‘Trots’, ‘eer’ en ‘medeplichtigheid’: de Vrije Universiteit en Zuid-Afrika

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 6 2014
Trefwoorden Zuid-Afrika, Medeplichtigheid, trots, Vrije Universiteit
Auteurs Harry Wels
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    ‘Pride’ and ‘honour’ are two concepts that are closely related and in the context of South Africa, are often based on a history of violent battles between various groups in society. VU University Amsterdam has lifelong relations with the historically Afrikaner universities in South Africa. During the Apartheid years the Afrikaner universities scientifically legitimized many of the apartheid policies and practices. In that sense VU University Amsterdam, through its relations to South African counterparts, may be considered complicit with the policies and practices of the Apartheid regime. Consequently, there seems little reason for pride and honour, but rather shame about having sided with academic partners who have at least passively supported the regime? Starting with an explicit acknowledgement of this complicity, the oeuvre of former Archbishop Desmond Tutu may open a path of hope for VUA to contribute to mending past injustices and by, together with its South African academic partners, working towards equality and building new relations in the present South African society.


Harry Wels
Harry Wels is universitair hoofddocent aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, en is werkzaam bij het Afrika Studiecentrum in Leiden en aan de University of the Western Cape, Zuid-Afrika.
Artikel

Tussen eigenheid en aanpassing

Over cultuur en integratie van Nederlandse Roma en Sinti

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2014
Trefwoorden Dutch Roma and Sinti, Culture, Sokaša, Integration, Dutch Roma and Sinti policies
Auteurs P. Jorna
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article focuses on ‘culture’ as a concept currently dominating the approach towards Roma and Sinti, in policies and public opinion in the Netherlands and probably in Europe too. The author argues that a culture-sensitive approach is useful indeed, but a fixation on culture leads into a dead end street – especially in the static way in which it is (implicitly) conceptualised. Explaining some traditional Roma habits and values, the author describes examples of everyday life in Roman communities, as well as some lively debates among Roma and Sinti insiders. It is important that the complexity and dynamics of Roma culture are recognised and that outsiders stop defining what Roma culture ‘is’. Instead, recognising the differences between communities as well as the reality of changing norms and values will provide a breeding ground for finding a healthy balance between authenticity and adjustment.


P. Jorna
Peter Jorna is consultant social inclusion inzake Roma- en Sinti-issues.
Diversen

Over de eigen grenzen heen kijken

Een interview met drs. Frans Hiddema

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Toezicht, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden innovatie, veiligheid, zorg, cultuurverandering, continuïteit van management
Auteurs Dr. Karin van Wingerde
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Innoveren betekent lang niet altijd dat we het wiel opnieuw moeten uitvinden. Er valt veel te leren van de manier waarop andere disciplines of branches omgaan met veiligheid en toezicht. Maar hoe realiseren we dat lessen uit andere velden ook daadwerkelijk de weg naar het eigen beleid vinden? Daarover sprak Karin van Wingerde namens de redactie van Tijdschrift voor Toezicht met de heer Frans Hiddema. Frans Hiddema was tussen 1990 en eind 2013 voorzitter van de raad van bestuur van het Oogziekenhuis Rotterdam. Door inzichten uit het bedrijfsleven te vertalen naar de veiligheid in het ziekenhuis, groeide het Oogziekenhuis uit tot een internationaal centre of excellence. Cultuurverandering, continuïteit van het management en het veilig kunnen melden van fouten en afwijkingen blijken daarvoor belangrijke ingrediënten.


Dr. Karin van Wingerde
Dr. C.G. van Wingerde is universitair docent criminologie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. Zij is tevens lid van de redactie van TvT.

    For the occasion of the 40 th anniversary of the Netherlands’ Society of Criminology the author has analysed the Society’s archive and related the development of this professional organisation to the development of Dutch criminology in the period between 1974 and 2014. He distinguishes five turning points in this respect: between 1965 and 1974 we witnessed the emancipation of criminology as an autonomous discipline; the period 1978-1985 is characterised by a downfall of criminology at the universities; between 1992 and 1995 a period of restoration started, that is characterised by a focus on criminology’s policy-relevance; from 1999 to 2010 we can witness a recovery, in which academic criminology raised like a phoenix from its ashes; and from that time on we see the discipline broadening up again, in which the dominance of positivist research agendas is countered by a cultural criminology and a more critical attitude towards the production-oriented research policy in general. The bottom line is that the Society followed these trends imperceptibly: it was active when criminology did well and was ‘in rest’ when it did not. The article concludes with the question whether the Society has an active role to play in the public debate about the role of science and crime and punishment.


René van Swaaningen
René van Swaaningen is hoogleraar internationaal comparatieve criminologie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam en voorzitter van de Nederlandse Vereniging voor Criminologie.
Artikel

Een terughoudende praktijk

Over de praktische vraagtekens bij het bestrijden van onveiligheidsgevoelens

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden reducing fear of crime, reflective practitioners
Auteurs Remco Spithoven
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Despite the international scientific inconclusiveness about the nature of the fear of crime, the strategic layer of the Dutch government aims to reduce the fear of crime in general by 2017. But their policy-goals were not accompanied with a plan how to realize them. Meanwhile, local practitioners claim to be in search of practical tools and substantive support how to fight back the public’s fear of crime. This study was aimed to feed the discussion with a constructive and realistic input from both the practitioners and the scientific view. The research question was: ‘What do local practitioners do against the public’s fear of crime and how can these activities be improved?’ 36 local practitioners from Dutch local municipalities, the police force and the public prosecutor were interviewed. Schön’s idea of the ‘reflective practitioner’ (1983) was the underlying argument to make practical knowledge about reducing the fear of crime explicit. The respondents from both institutional layers of local ‘policy advise’ and ‘policy implementation’ were quite reluctant about fighting back the public’s fear of crime. They aim to reduce the fear of crime in a doubtful and indirect way. Because many sources of the public’s fear of crime were unknown to them or were not in the reach of their professional activities. In this way, the interviewed local practitioners approach strongly aligned with the advice of international scientists to be reluctant and realistic about fighting back the public’s fear of crime. We advised an approach of ‘local fear of and worry about crime’ in dialog between international science and the interviewed local Dutch practitioners. The results of it will probably not contribute to quantitative policy goals at the national level, but rather to custom fit, qualitative improvements on the local level. This will probably be the most effective way to fight back the few tractable elements that make up the fear of crime.


Remco Spithoven
Remco Spithoven is promovendus bij de leerstoel Burgerschap en Veiligheid aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam in samenwerking met het lectoraat Participatie en Maatschappelijke Ontwikkeling aan de Hogeschool Utrecht en docent Integrale Veiligheidskunde bij het Instituut voor Veiligheid aan de Hogeschool Utrecht.

    In 2005 and 2006 three state-funded Islam- and imam training programs started at Amsterdam Free University, Leiden University and Hogeschool Inholland, after more than two decades of political and public debate. These confessional programs were to educate a Dutch ‘polder imam’. Recently however, the closure of two programs was announced.
    This article places the establishment as well as the closure of these programs in a historical perspective. It explores two striking parallels between the motivations in favor of an imam training and the ways the Dutch state has dealt with the institutionalization of religious plurality in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.


Dr. Welmoet Boender
Dr. W. Boender is universitair docent Islamstudies en religiewetenschap aan de Universiteit Utrecht, faculteit Geesteswetenschappen, departement Filosofie en Religiewetenschap.
Artikel

De geest als aangrijpingspunt

De betekenis van gedragssturing in veiligheid, gezondheid en onderwijs

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2014
Trefwoorden mind politics, nudging, security, public health, social policy
Auteurs Dr. R. Peeters en Dr. mr. M. Schuilenburg
Auteursinformatie

Dr. R. Peeters
Dr. Rik Peeters is werkzaam als adviseur bij de Kafkabrigade (www.kafkabrigade.nl) en als onderzoeker en docent bij de Tilburgse School voor Politiek en Bestuur.

Dr. mr. M. Schuilenburg
Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg is verbonden aan de vakgroep Criminologie van de Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.

Willem Witteveen PhD
Artikel

Access_open The Public Conscience of the Law

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2014
Trefwoorden Hobbes, reciprocity, rule of Law, conscience, legality, liberty
Auteurs David Dyzenhaus PhD
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    I focus on Hobbes’s claim that the law is ’the publique Conscience, by which [the individual] (…) hath already undertaken to be guided.’ This claim is not authoritarian once it is set in the context of his complex account, which involves three different relationships of reciprocity: the contractarian idea that individuals in the state of nature agree with one another to institute a sovereign whose prescriptions they shall regard as binding; the vertical, reciprocal relationship between ruler and ruled; and the horizontal relationship between individuals in the civil condition, made possible by the existence of the sovereign who through enacting laws dictates the terms of interaction between his subjects. The interaction of these three relationships has the result that subjects relate to each other on terms that reflect their status as free and equal individuals who find that the law enables them to pursue their own conceptions of the good.


David Dyzenhaus PhD
David Dyzenhaus is a Professor of Law and Philosophy at the University of Toronto, and a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada. His books include Hard Cases in Wicked Legal Systems: South African Law in the Perspective of Legal Philosophy (now in its second edition) and Legality and Legitimacy: Carl Schmitt, Hans Kelsen, and Hermann Heller in Weimar.
Artikel

From graffiti to pixação

Urban protest in Brazil

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2014
Trefwoorden Brazilian graffiti, pichação, pixação, criminalization, resistance
Auteurs Paula Gil Larruscahim
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This paper explores the hypothesis that the process of rupture in Brazilian graffiti writer’s subculture resulting in different groups - pichadores, pixadores and grafiteiros - took place in two different, though complementary, stages. The first stage is the commodification of graffiti by successive media campaigns and its penal control by the state. The second stage - which may be considered as a side effect of the first one - consists of the emergence of a new transgressive pixação movement. Instead of merely writing or tagging their signatures and messages on the walls of the city, they claim the freedom of usage of the urban space and contest the importance that property has in the late modernity context.


Paula Gil Larruscahim
Paula Gil Larruscahim is promovenda binnen het Erasmus Mundus Doctoral Programme on Cultural and Global Criminology aan de Universiteit Utrecht en de University of Kent: www.dcgc.eu.
Artikel

Access_open Source-usage within doctrinal legal inquiry: choices, problems, and challenges

Tijdschrift Law and Method, juni 2014
Trefwoorden methodological challenges, doctrinal legal inquiry, source-usage, methodology, method
Auteurs Mr. Marnix Vincent Roderick Snel LLM, MA
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article provides an overview of the methodological challenges that scholars are confronted with in relation to use of legislation, case law and literature commentaries within doctrinal legal inquiry. Therefore it employs a systematic literature review and a supplementary explorative expert-consultation among legal scholars of Tilburg University. Although the scope of the research is still limited, it shows that doctrinal legal inquiry is subjected to more and other methodological challenges surrounding the source-usage than one might expect. This insight may contribute to the further development of the meta-discipline ’law and methodology’ and simultaneously allows for more methodological awareness among doctrinal legal scholars.


Mr. Marnix Vincent Roderick Snel LLM, MA
Marnix Snel is a PhD researcher at the Research Group ‘Methodology of law and legal scholarship’ at Tilburg University. I thank prof. Rob van Gestel, prof. Jan Vranken and Dr. Arie-Jan Kwak for their comments on earlier draft version of this article.

    Victims of violent crime who suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can request financial compensation from the Dutch Violent Offences Compensation Fund (VOCF). Problematic with this is that PTSD is amenable for malingering. Malingering involves the invention or exaggeration of psychological symptoms or the attribution of such symptoms to wrong causes. If malingered PTSD remains undetected, the VOCF will run the risk of compensating damages which do not exist. The literature suggests that malingering can be detected by focusing on extreme scores on symptom screeners. The results of the current study, however, seem to suggest that this may not be an adequate strategy.


Dr. Maarten Kunst
Dr. Maarten Kunst is universitair docent Criminologie bij het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

    Vrijwel alle rechtenstudenten krijgen vroeg of laat in hun studie de opdracht om eens een kijkje te nemen bij de rechtbank. Er is echter niet of nauwelijks literatuur over hoe ze dat zouden kunnen aanpakken. Dit artikel beoogt in die leemte te voorzien. Het doel is om studenten methodologische bagage mee te geven, waarmee een observatieopdracht op een hoger niveau kan worden getild. Promovendi of andere onderzoekers die observatieonderzoek willen verrichten, kunnen daar ook hun voordeel mee doen.


Nienke Doornbos
Met dank aan Nina Holvast, Antoinette Muntjewerff en Rob Schwitters voor hun suggesties ter verbetering van een eerdere versie van dit artikel.
Artikel

Hoe uniform is uniform?

Tijdschrift Arbeidsrechtelijke Annotaties, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden bijzondere arbeidsverhoudingen, rol wetgever, rol jurist, afwijkingen en aanvullingen, proefschriftthema’s
Auteurs R.A.A. Duk
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Het Nederlandse arbeidsrecht kent naast de regeling in Boek 7 Titel 10 van het Burgerlijk Wetboek tal van bepalingen voor zogenaamde bijzondere arbeidsverhoudingen. Aandacht wordt besteed aan de verschillende bijzondere bepalingen en de mate waarin en de wijze waarop daarmee van het commune recht wordt afgeweken. Bezien wordt wat in dat verband de relatieve rol van de wetgever en van de (praktijk)jurist, ook de rechter, is.


R.A.A. Duk
Prof. mr. Duk is advocaat te ’s-Gravenhage en hoogleraar bijzondere arbeidsverhoudingen aan de Erasmus School of Law.
Artikel

Commodifying compliance? UK urban music and the new mediascape

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden street culture, Grime, frustration, defiance, resistance
Auteurs Dr. Jonathan Ilan
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Subcultural theory and cultural criminology have traditionally viewed ‘underground’ youth movements as providing images of deviance/resistance which the cultural industries harvest to turn a profit. The logic follows that street and sub cultures imbue products with a ‘transgressive edge’ that increases their appeal within youth markets. This paper uses the example of UK ‘grime’ music to demonstrate how this dynamic cannot be viewed as applying universally in contemporary times. Where their street orientated content is censured, many grime artistes express a desire for commercial success which would ultimately emerge through muting their rhetorical links to crime and violence and explicitly championing ‘mainstream’ values. This case is used as an empirical cue to explore the use and critique of the concept of ‘resistance’ within cultural criminology and subcultural theory. The paper problematizes commodification of resistance discourses as they apply to the rugged culture of the streets and indeed its supposed ‘oppositional’ character where disadvantaged urban youth clearly embody and practice the logic of neoliberalism. It furthermore suggests that certain critiques of cultural criminology go too far in denying any meaning to criminality and subcultural practice beyond consumer desire. Ultimately, the concept of ‘defiance’ is suggested as a useful tool to understand the norms of and behaviours of the excluded.


Dr. Jonathan Ilan
Dr. Jonathan Ilan is universitair docent bij de School of Social Policy, Sociology and Social Research, University of Kent (UK). E-mail: j.ilan@kent.ac.uk
Artikel

To resist = to create? Some thoughts on the concept of resistance in cultural criminology

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden resistance, create, revolution, cultural criminology, transformation
Auteurs Dr. Keith Hayward en Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article provides a theoretical analysis of the label ‘resistance’. It sets out from the premise that the notion of resistance, although it has been current in criminology for some time, is still vaguely defined. We argue that resistance is not just a negative term, but can also be seen as a positive and creative force in society. As such, the primary function of resistance is to serve as a solvent of doxa, to continuously question obviousness and common sense. In the process of resistance we distinguish three processes: invention, imitation and transformation. The third stage warrants deeper investigation within cultural criminology.


Dr. Keith Hayward
Dr. Keith Hayward is hoogleraar criminologie aan de School of Social Policy, Sociology and Social Research, University of Kent (UK). E-mail: k.j.hayward@kent.ac.uk

Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg
Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg is als universitair docent verbonden aan de sectie Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam. E-mail: m.b.schuilenburg@vu.nl
Artikelen

Wetsvoorstel Herziening strafbaarstelling faillissementsfraude

Een stimulans tot schending van de administratieplicht

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Bijzonder Strafrecht & Handhaving, Aflevering 1 2014
Auteurs mr. A. Verbruggen en mr. L.M.A.M. Hoeks
Samenvatting

    Eind juli 2013 legde de minister van Veiligheid en Justitie het voorstel van ‘Wet herziening strafbaarstelling faillissementsfraude’ ter consultatie voor. Het concept wetsvoorstel is een onderdeel van de door het kabinet voorgestane intensivering van de bestrijding van faillissementsfraude. Het wetsvoorstel beoogt bij te dragen aan een effectievere bestrijding van faillissementsfraude. Buiten kijf staat dat faillissementsfraude economisch ontwrichtend werkt en te voorkomen of te repareren financiële schade aan derden berokkent. Bij de handhaving van de regels rond een financiële deconfiture, kan het strafrecht een bijdrage leveren – zij het dat het in de rede ligt dat civiele handhaving hier het primaat heeft.


mr. A. Verbruggen

mr. L.M.A.M. Hoeks
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