Zoekresultaat: 10 artikelen

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Jaar 2016 x
Artikel

Rechercheren een vorm van street-level bureaucracy?

Een verkenning van de opsporingspraktijk naar georganiseerde misdaad

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 6 2016
Trefwoorden Street-level bureaucracy, Recherche, Georganiseerde misdaad
Auteurs Dr. Melvin Soudijn
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Academic researchers in the Netherlands working on organized crime often make use of police files. This produces a lot of knowledge and helps building and testing theories about organized crime. However, it is also known that police files have their limitations. This article uses the concept of ‘street-level bureaucracy’ to explain some of these limitations. For instance, routines and biases can influence the way an investigation is conducted, i.e. avoiding or not following up certain lines of enquiry. Researchers who make use of case file analysis should therefore keep in mind the extent to which an investigation team functioned as a street-level bureaucracy.


Dr. Melvin Soudijn
Dr. Melvin R.J. Soudijn is senior onderzoeker bij de Landelijke Eenheid, Dienst Landelijke Informatievoorziening.
Artikel

De twitterende wijkagent en het veiligheidsgevoel van de burger

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2016
Trefwoorden Twitter, police, safety perceptions, communication, social media
Auteurs Imke Smulders, Wilbert Spooren en Emile Kolthoff
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article reports on a conceptual model that provides insight into the relationship between Twitter use by community policing officers and citizens’ safety perceptions. The model has been tested using data from a relatively large-scale survey study and these results are supporting the model. Furthermore, a small impact of Twitter use has been found on feelings of safety and judgments about the police. To confirm these findings, further research on a larger scale is necessary. To find out more about the exact positive and negative effects of Twitter use by community policing officers, a more experimental design is required.


Imke Smulders
Imke Smulders is als promovenda/onderzoeker verbonden aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen en het Expertisecentrum Veiligheid van Avans Hogeschool. Ook is zij docent taal- en communicatievaardigheden aan de Juridische Hogeschool Avans-Fon‍tys. i.smulders@fontys.nl

Wilbert Spooren
Wilbert Spooren is hoogleraar Taalbeheersing van het Nederlands en verbonden aan het Centre for Language Studies (CLS) van de Faculteit der Letteren van de Radboud Universiteit. w.spooren@let.ru.nl

Emile Kolthoff
Emile Kolthoff is hoogleraar criminologie aan de Open Universiteit, en doet onderzoek bij Avans University en de VU Amsterdam. emile.kolthoff@ou.nl

mr. J. Rijsdijk
Mr. J. Rijsdijk is als jurist werkzaam bij het Bureau van de KBvG.
Artikel

Empirisch-juridisch onderzoek – toekomstmuziek of werkelijkheid?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2016
Trefwoorden empirical legal studies, law in action, law in the real world, evidence-based law
Auteurs Dr. N.A. Elbers
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Empirical Legal Studies (ELS) are studies investigating the law in the real world, using empirical methods. Internationally, ELS is on the rise. However, not much is known about what is being done around ELS in the Netherlands. This article describes the results of a systematic review, investigating how many PhD researchers who defended their thesis at a Dutch law faculty in 2015 have collected empirical data, what topic they investigated, which method they used and what background they have. The findings are that 33% of the PhD theses could be labelled as ELS. The majority of ELS were conducted by researchers who have a social science degree. Some of the (only few) lawyers collecting empirical data did not aim to conduct ELS, even though their research questions were very empirical. It is concluded that more empirical education and research funding are needed to stimulate lawyers to conduct more ELS.


Dr. N.A. Elbers
Dr. Nieke Elbers is postdoc-onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) en projectleider voor de stimuleringsactie Empirical Legal Studies. Zij is als sociale wetenschapper (MSc (neuro)psychologie) gepromoveerd bij de rechtenfaculteit van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam (afdeling privaatrecht).
Artikel

Technologie voor opsporing en handhaving

Kansen, ervaringen en knelpunten

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden technology in policing, effectiveness, promising technologies, legal obstacles, success stories
Auteurs Mr. dr. ir. B. Custers en B. Vergouw MSc.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Police forces and law enforcement agencies in many countries are continuously trying to optimize the use of technologies in policing and law enforcement. Efforts are being made to remove existing technological, legal and organizational obstacles to create more opportunities of promising technologies, both existing and new. This contribution describes the results of a survey among 46 police forces and other law enforcement agencies in eleven countries. Their experiences with policing technologies and their needs and preferences in this regard are described. The prevalence and satisfaction of existing technologies, including wiretapping, fingerprints, DNA research, database coupling, data mining and profiling, camera surveillance and network analyses were investigated. Legal, technological and organizational obstacles for the use of technology in policing were mapped and the extent to which policing technologies are evaluated and yield success stories was investigated. The main obstacles, according to the respondents, are insufficient financial resources and insufficient availability of technology. One in four organizations is lacking any clear, appealing success stories and half of the respondents indicated they were not performing any evaluations on the effectiveness of using particular technologies in policing. As a result, the information available on whether technologies in policing are actually working is very limited.


Mr. dr. ir. B. Custers
Mr. dr. ir. Bart Custers is universitair hoofddocent en hoofd onderzoek bij eLaw, het Centrum voor Recht en Digitale Technologie van de Universiteit Leiden. Eerder was hij hoofd van de onderzoeksafdeling Criminaliteit, Rechtshandhaving en Sancties van het WODC.

B. Vergouw MSc.
Bas Vergouw MSc. is werkzaam als digitaal onderzoeker bij de Autoriteit Consument en Markt (ACM) en houdt zich voornamelijk bezig met open source intelligence.
Artikel

Datagestuurde stedelijke planning en ‘smart cities’

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden Big Data, data analytics, governance, smart cities, urban science
Auteurs Prof. R. Kitchin
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The article provides a critical overview of data-driven urbanism and smart cities focusing in particular on the relationship between data and the city, and critically examines a number of urban data issues, including: the politics of urban data; data ownership and control, data protection and privacy, dataveillance, and data uses such as social sorting and anticipatory governance; and technical data issues such as data quality and veracity of data models and data analytics. Whilst data-driven urbanism provides a set of solutions for urban problems, it does so within limitations and in the service of particular interests.


Prof. R. Kitchin
Prof. Rob Kitchin is als hoogleraar verbonden aan het National Institute of Regional and Spatial Analysis van Maynooth University in Ierland.
Artikel

Slachtoffer van arbeidsuitbuiting?

Een kwalitatieve studie naar ideaaltypische trajecten die leiden tot zelfidentificatie als slachtoffer van mensenhandel

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2016
Trefwoorden self-identification, labour exploitation, human trafficking, victimology, grounded theory
Auteurs Niki Tielbaard MSc., Dr. Masja van Meeteren en Xenia Commandeur MA
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Although the Netherlands criminalised some forms of labour exploitation as human trafficking, many cases remain undetected. This is probably due to low self-identification among victims. Whereas research revealed factors obstructing self-identification among victims, it remains unclear how some victims do arrive at self-identification. Drawing on in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with victims and professionals, this qualitative study identifies two ideal-typical pathways to self-identification. In the first trajectory self-identification is gradually formed through information gathering and deteriorating working conditions. In the second trajectory self-identification is triggered by a sudden vital event.


Niki Tielbaard MSc.
N.M Tielbaard is masterstudent Opsporingscriminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en was stagiaire bij FairWork te Amsterdam en masterstudent Veiligheidsbeleid en Rechtshandhaving aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Dr. Masja van Meeteren
Dr. M.J. van Meeteren is Universitair Hoofddocent Criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Xenia Commandeur MA
Drs. X.D. Commandeur is onderzoeker mensenhandel

Dr. Ben Vollaard
Dr. B.A. Vollaard is universitair docent economie aan de Universiteit Tilburg.

Bas van Stokkom
Bas van Stokkom is verbonden aan de vaksectie Strafrecht & Criminologie, Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen. Hij verricht onderzoek op het grensvlak van ethiek, criminologie en de sociale wetenschappen. www.basvanstokkom.nl
Artikel

Ideologische vertekeningen binnen straf- en herstelrecht

Oorsprongsverhalen en de dwaling van zelfbeschadiging

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden Oorsprongsverhalen, Zelfbeschadiging, Chaos, Harmonie
Auteurs Vincent Geeraets
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Adherents to restorative justice are to be commended for systematically questioning whether the manner in which criminal law is currently organised is a good thing. The debate about criminal justice and restorative justice is therefore an important one. It is also a debate which is occasionally marred by a reliance on ideology. In this article, a number of ideological claims are identified and discussed. First, both adherents to criminal law and supporters of restorative justice invoke an ‘origin story’ to defend their view. The origin story of criminal law consists of the idea that without criminal law the world would be a chaos, i.e. the world would resemble the state of nature as depicted by Hobbes. In contrast: the origin story of restorative justice revolves around the idea that without central authority people tend to resolve their conflicts harmoniously. I argue that neither types of origin story can withstand scrutiny. Secondly, in both the context of criminal law (e.g. Antony Duff) and restorative justice (e.g. Jacques Claessen), it is claimed that an individual by violating the rules harms himself as a person. The point of punishment (criminal justice) respectively reparation (restorative justice) therefore is to enable the offender to restore himself and to once again take up his role of citizen. I argue that the claim of self-harm may be based on a primitive worldview. Moreover, I show that this claim can be used to describe criminal law respectively restorative justice in terms that are too harmonious. In this way we lose sight of the coercion and violence that is involved in both contexts.


Vincent Geeraets
Vincent Geeraets is docent rechtstheorie aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, VU Amsterdam.
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