Zoekresultaat: 12 artikelen

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Jaar 2016 x
Artikel

De relatie tussen racisme en criminaliteit in Nederland

Een verkennende studie onder Surinaamse en Caribische Nederlanders

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 6 2016
Trefwoorden Surinaamse en Caribische migranten, Racisme, Huidskleur, Criminaliteit
Auteurs Dr. Katharina J. Joosen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Surinamese and Dutch Caribbean migrants have been overrepresented in (official) Dutch crime statistics for years. From Hirschi’s Social Control Theory and the Theory of African-American Offending, this study investigates to what degree racism based on skin color is related to self-reported offending among Surinam and Dutch Caribbean migrants in The Netherlands. A total of 91 online questionnaires were filled out regarding skin color, experiences with racism, and offending. Results show that darker-skinned respondents experienced more racism and that more racism was reported by the respondents who committed more offenses; especially regarding violent and drug-related offenses.


Dr. Katharina J. Joosen
Dr. Katharina Joosen is postdoctoraal onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving.
Artikel

Weerbaarder door reflectie

Ervaringen in PI Vught

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 6 2016
Trefwoorden Gevangenispersoneel, Werkstress, Weerbaarheid, Reflectie
Auteurs Marie-José Geenen, Frank Stolzenbach, Diana Tedeschi e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article discusses the importance of reflection for prison staff. Their work is both physical and emotionally incriminating. That increases risk on turnover, burn-out, psychosomatic diseases and negative experiences with prisoners. To render all challenges in their work it’s important to build up resiliency. One of the means to stimulate resilience is organized reflection. It is described how guided by experts, reflecting on own experiences can contribute to resilience of prison employees and strengthen their learning capacity. That is done by literature study and a description of experiences with organized reflection in PI Vught.


Marie-José Geenen
Marie-José Geenen is docent-onderzoeker aan de Hogeschool Utrecht.

Frank Stolzenbach
Frank Stolzenbach is supervisor bij de PI Vught.

Diana Tedeschi
Diana Tedeschi is supervisor bij de PI Vught.

Camiel van der Roest
Camiel van der Roest is supervisor bij de PI Vught.

Dr. Janine Jansen
Dr. Janine Jansen is lector Veiligheid in Afhankelijkheidsrelaties aan het Expertisecentrum Veiligheid van de Avans Hogeschool. Tevens is zij voorzitter van de redactie van PROCES.

Prof. dr. Emile Kolthoff
Prof. dr. Emile Kolthoff is lector Veiligheid, Openbare orde en Recht aan het Expertisecentrum Veiligheid van de Avans Hogeschool.
Article

Access_open Legal Constraints on the Indeterminate Control of ‘Dangerous’ Sex Offenders in the Community: The Spanish Perspective

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 2 2016
Trefwoorden Supervised release, supervision, sex offenders, dangerousness, safety measures, societal upheaval, proportionality
Auteurs Lucía Martínez Garay en Jorge Correcher Mira
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article presents an overview of the legal regime provided in the Spanish system of criminal sanctions regarding the control of dangerous sex offenders in the community. It focuses on the introduction, in 2010, of a post-prison safety measure named supervised release. We describe the context of its introduction in the Spanish Criminal Code, considering the influence of societal upheaval concerning dangerous sex offenders in its development, and also the historical and theoretical features of the Spanish system of criminal sanctions. We also analyse the legal framework of supervised release, the existing case law about it and how the legal doctrine has until now assessed this measure. After this analysis, the main aim of this article consists in evaluating the effectiveness and the proportionality of the measure, according to the principle of minimal constraints and the rehabilitative function of the criminal sanctions in Spanish law, stated in Article 25.2 of the Spanish Constitution.


Lucía Martínez Garay
Lucía Martínez Garay is a Senior Lecturer at the University of Valencia, Department of Criminal Law.

Jorge Correcher Mira
Jorge Correcher Mira, Ph.D., is an Assistant Lecturer at the University of Valencia, Department of Criminal Law.
Artikel

De discretionaire ruimte bij het gebruik van geweld: hoe kleiner, hoe beter?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2016
Trefwoorden discretionary space, use of force, Training, Survey, hypothetical cases
Auteurs Jannie Noppe
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    First line police officers need a certain amount of discretion as they have to deal with various and complex situations on a daily basis. In this article the author examines the extent to which police officers have room for discretion in their use of force. We start from Mastrofski’s proposition that in case of decisions to use deadly force (use of firearm) police officers’ discretionary space must be restricted as much as possible. In case of less intrusive use of force, police officers may have more room for discretion. We used data from a small survey in three local police forces in Belgium to examine whether police officers have similar opinions on the decision to use their firearm – in comparison with the decision to use lower levels of force (non-firearm/non-lethal). Furthermore, we compare police officers who are highly trained in the use of force, with less trained police officers. Our results indicate that police officers are indeed more univocal when it comes to decisions to use their firearm, especially in case of more trained police officers.


Jannie Noppe
J. Noppe is doctoraatstudente bij de onderzoeksgroep IRCP, Vakgroep Criminologie, Strafrecht en Sociaal Recht, Universiteit Gent.
Article

Access_open A Theoretical Framework to Study Variations in Workplace Violence Experienced by Emergency Responders

Integrating Opportunity and Vulnerability Perspectives

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden Workplace aggression, workplace violence, emergency responders, blaming the victim, victimology
Auteurs Lisa van Reemst
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Emergency responders are often sent to the front line and are often confronted with aggression and violence in interaction with citizens. According to previous studies, some professionals experience more workplace violence than others. In this article, the theoretical framework to study variations in workplace violence against emergency responders is described. According to criminal opportunity theories, which integrate the routine activity theory and lifestyle/exposure theory, victimisation is largely dependent on the lifestyle and routine activities of persons. Situational characteristics that could be related to workplace violence are organisational or task characteristics, such as having more contact with citizens or working at night. However, they do not provide insight in all aspects of influence, and their usefulness to reduce victimisation is limited. Therefore, it is important to consider the role of personal characteristics of the emergency responders that may be more or less ‘attractive’, which is elaborated upon by the victim precipitation theory. Psychological and behavioural characteristics of emergency responders may be relevant to reduce external workplace violence. The author argues that, despite the risk of being considered as blaming the victim, studying characteristics that might prevent victimisation is needed. Directions for future studies about workplace violence are discussed. These future studies should address a combination of victim and situation characteristics, use a longitudinal design and focus on emergency responders. In addition, differences between professions in relationships between characteristics and workplace violence should be explored.


Lisa van Reemst
Lisa van Reemst, M.Sc., is a Ph.D. candidate at the Erasmus University Rotterdam.
Artikel

Opinio juris as epistème: A constructivist approach to the use of contested concepts in legal doctrine

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden Opinio juris, Interpretive concepts, Customary law, Constructivism, Pierre Bourdieu, Peter Berger & Thomas Luckmann
Auteurs Associate Professor Olaf Tans
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Seeing that the role of opinio juris in the identification of customary international law is essentially contested, this contribution seeks to explain how this concept plays a fruitful role in legal doctrine despite of, or perhaps even due to, this essential contestedness. To that effect the paper adopts a constructivist perspective, primarily drawing from Bourdieu’s theory of practice and Berger & Luckmann’s ideas about institutionalization. In this perspective, contested concepts such as opinio juris are conceived of as multifaceted tools of knowledge production in the hands of members of epistemic communities.


Associate Professor Olaf Tans
Olaf Tans works as legal philosopher and political scientist at Amsterdam University College and the Centre for the Politics of Transnational Law. His contribution to this special issue is part of a research line focusing on the social construction of normativity in legal doctrine. He has also published about constitutionalism, citizenship, democracy, and most recently (e.g. in Ratio Juris and Law & Literature) about the use of foundational narratives in public deliberation and law-finding.
Artikel

Access_open What Does it Mean to Justify Basic Rights?

Reply to Düwell, Newey, Rummens and Valentini

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 3 2016
Auteurs Rainer Forst
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this paper, I reply to the four comments on my paper ‘The Justification of Basic Rights: A Discourse-Theoretical Approach’ given by Laura Valentini, Marcus Düwell, Stefan Rummens and Glen Newey.


Rainer Forst
Professor of Political Theory and Philosophy at the Goethe Universität, Frankfurt am Main.
Artikel

Continuïteit en verandering in het Nederlandse gezinsleven

Gezinsvormen, arbeidsmarktparticipatie en tijdsbesteding

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2016
Trefwoorden divorce, father involvement, female labor force participation, nuclear family, parent-child time
Auteurs Dr. A. Roeters en Dr. F. Bucx
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article analyses continuity and change in family life in the Netherlands over the last decades. The authors consider three characteristics of families: (1) family types, (2) maternal employment, and (3) parent-child time. Analyses are based on data from the Central Bureau of Statistics and the Dutch Time Use Study. The results indicate that there is both continuity and change. Although two married individuals giving care to their children is still the most common family type, alternative family forms have become more popular, including unmarried cohabiting parents and single-parent families. Furthermore, the division of labor is still strongly gendered: Dutch mothers’ participation on the labor market is limited and they still hold the main responsibility for children. Moreover, children are still most likely to grow up in a household with both a father and mother. There are also indicators of change. Maternal employment is much more prevalent than in the 1970s and fathers’ involvement with children increases.


Dr. A. Roeters
Dr. Anne Roeters is wetenschappelijk onderzoeker bij het Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau. Haar expertise ligt op het gebied van tijdsbestedingsonderzoek en de combinatie van arbeid en zorg.

Dr. F. Bucx
Dr. Freek Bucx is wetenschappelijk onderzoeker bij het Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau. Hij doet daar onderzoek naar jeugd en gezin.

    In this article I develop a political realist notion of public reason. It may be thought that a notion of public reason is simply incompatible with the position of the political realist. But this article claims that a realist notion of public reason, different from the familiar political liberal idea of public reason, can be reconstructed from ancient texts on rhetoric and dialectic, particularly Aristotle's. The specification of this notion helps us understand the differences between contemporary liberal and realist positions.


Bertjan Wolthuis
Bertjan Wolthuis is Assistant Professor of Legal Theory at Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

    Legal novices are generally not very well educated in the do’s and don’ts of empirical legal research. This article lays out the general principles and discusses the most important stumbling blocks on the way forward. The presentation starts at the formulation of a research question. Next, the methodology of descriptive research (operationalization and measurement, sampling and selection bias) is briefly addressed. The main part of the article discusses the methodology of explanatory research (causal inference, experimental and quasi-experimental research designs, statistical significance, effect size). Medical malpractice law is used as a central source of illustration.


Ben C.J. van Velthoven
Associate professor of Law and Economics at Leiden Law School. I wish to thank Nienke van der Linden, Ali Mohammad and Charlotte Vrendenbargh from Leiden Law School and two anonymous reviewers and the editors of this journal for helpful comments on earlier drafts.
Artikel

Access_open On Experiments in Empirical Legal Research

Tijdschrift Law and Method, maart 2016
Auteurs Prof. dr. Kees van den Bos en Mr. Liesbeth Hulst B.Sc., M.Sc.
Samenvatting

    The current paper presents some observations on experiments in empirical legal research. The paper notes some strengths and weakness of the experimental method. The paper distinguishes between experiments run in controlled laboratory settings and experiments conducted in field settings and notes the different goals the different types of experiments generally have. The paper identifies important stumbling blocks that legal researchers who are new to setting up experiments may face and proposes that focusing the research in a constructive and independent way is important to overcome these problems. The necessity of running multiple studies to overcome other problems are discussed as well. When conducted in this way, experiments may serve an important role in the field of empirical legal studies and may help to further explore the exciting issues of law, society, and human behavior.


Prof. dr. Kees van den Bos

Mr. Liesbeth Hulst B.Sc., M.Sc.
Artikel

Othering refugees: exclusion, containment and spaces of hope

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden refugee camp, space, foreigner dispositif, fieldwork
Auteurs Lynn Musiol MA
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The article examines mechanisms of othering the refugees illustrated on one refugee camp in Germany. Based on the theoretical strand of the foreigner dispositif, I analyze spatial and architectural compositions of the camp to outline the differentiation of ‘we’ (nation state) and ‘others’ (refugees). In the process of othering space excludes, controls and identifies refugees as ‘others’. However, being identified as the other, space can also be conceived as a specific space of hope. The findings shed some light on the link between othering, space and identity.


Lynn Musiol MA
Lynn Musiol is a master student Interna­tional Criminology at the University of Hamburg.
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