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Aflevering 4, 2020 Alle samenvattingen uitklappen
Editorial

One size fits all?

    This article focuses on the posting of workers in the aviation industry. The main problem is that it is not clear in which situations the Posting of Workers Directive should be applied to aircrew (i.e. cabin crew and pilots). The aviation sector is characterised by a very mobile workforce in which it is possible for employees to provide services from different countries in a very short timeframe. This makes it, to a certain extent, easier for employers to choose the applicable social legislation, which can lead to detrimental working conditions for their aircrew. This article looks into how the Posting of Workers Directive can prevent some air carriers from unilaterally determining the applicable social legislation and makes some suggestions to end unfair social competition in the sector. This article is based on a research report which the authors drafted in 2019 with funding from the European Commission (hereafter the ‘Report’)


Gautier Busschaert
Gautier Busschaert (PhD) is senior associate at the Brussels law firm Van Olmen & Wynant.

Pieter Pecinovsky
Pieter Pecinovsky (PhD) is counsel at the Brussels law firm Van Olmen & Wynant.

    In a summary proceeding, the Court of Rotterdam has held that it is not clear whether the Non-Seafarers Work Clause, prohibiting lashing work on board of container ships being carried out by the crew, does indeed contribute to better employment and/or working conditions of seafarers. As a result of which the Clause – at this time – cannot be held to be outside the scope of competition law and the claim for compliance with the provision has been rejected. In the media, unions have stated that they will continue to enforce compliance with the Non-Seafarers Work Clause. It remains to be seen whether a court in main proceedings will reach a similar verdict.


Erick Hagendoorn
Erick Hagendoorn is an attorney-at-law at HerikVerhulst N.V., Rotterdam.

    This case involved an employee who claimed that he was unfairly dismissed for using a trade union to bring a grievance over measures his employer had taken on account of the coronavirus pandemic. The Employment Tribunal (ET) found that he was likely to be able to show at the full hearing of the case that this was an automatically unfair dismissal on grounds of his trade union membership or activities. It awarded the remedy of ‘interim relief’, ordering the employer immediately to reinstate him pending the full trial of the matter. The ET’s decision might signal a potential rise in claims for interim relief in future cases.


David Hopper
David Hopper is a Managing Associate at Lewis Silkin LLP.
Case Reports

2020/47 The Danish Supreme Court decides on reversed burden of proof (DK)

Trefwoorden Gender Discrimination
Auteurs Christian K. Clasen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Danish Supreme Court recently held that an employer had discharged the reversed burden of proof in a case concerning a physiotherapist who was dismissed shortly after her return from maternity leave.


Christian K. Clasen
Christian K. Clasen is a partner at Norrbom Vinding, Copenhagen.
Case Reports

2020/48 Norwegian parental benefits provisions disadvantaging men found outside the scope of Equal Treatment Directive (NO)

Trefwoorden Parental Leave, Gender Discrimination
Auteurs Jonas Thorsdalen Wik en Dag Sørlie Lund
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    On 13 December 2019 the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) Court held that a national provision that renders a father’s entitlement to parental benefits during a shared period of leave dependent on the mother’s situation, but not vice versa, fell outside the scope of Directive 2006/54/EC (the Equal Treatment Directive) since it did not concern “employment and working conditions” within the meaning of Article 14(1)(c) of that Directive. The action brought by the EFTA Surveillance Authority (ESA) was thus dismissed. The Court consequently did not consider whether the Norwegian rules amounted to unlawful discrimination under the Directive. Furthermore, no assessment was made as to the potential breach with the general principle of equality of gender under EEA law, as this had not been pleaded by ESA.


Jonas Thorsdalen Wik
Jonas Thorsdalen Wik is an attorneys-at-law at Hjort Law Firm (Oslo, Norway).

Dag Sørlie Lund
Dag Sørlie Lund is an attorneys-at-law at Hjort Law Firm (Oslo, Norway).
Case Reports

2020/49 Employing the former employees of a former service provider represents transfer of undertakings (RO)

Trefwoorden Transfer of Undertakings
Auteurs Andreea Suciu en Teodora Manaila
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie


Andreea Suciu
Andreea Suciu is Managing Partner at Suciu | The Employment Law Firm in Bucharest, Romania.

Teodora Manaila
Teodora Manaila is a Senior Associate at Suciu | The Employment Law Firm in Bucharest, Romania.
Case Reports

2020/50 Transfer-related contractual changes void even if beneficial for employees (UK)

Trefwoorden Transfer of Undertakings, Employment Terms
Auteurs Lisa Dafydd
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Employment Appeal Tribunal (EAT) has ruled that the provision under the Transfer of Undertakings (Protection of Employment) Regulations 2006 (TUPE) which renders changes to employees’ terms and conditions void if they are made because of the transfer applies to changes that are advantageous as well as detrimental to employees. On the facts of the case, this meant that owner-directors who had made significant improvements to their own employment terms before a TUPE transfer could not enforce these against the transferee employer.


Lisa Dafydd
Lisa Dafydd is an associate at Lewis Silkin LLP.

    The Austrian Supreme Court has asked preliminary questions about the lawfulness of Section 10(2) of the Austrian Law on Annual Leave which stipulates that an employee is not entitled to an allowance in lieu of annual leave in respect to the current (last) working year if they terminate the employment relationship prematurely without good cause.


Maria Schedle
Maria Schedle is a partner at ENGELBRECHT Rechtsanwalts GmbH.


Claire Toumieux
Claire Toumieux and Susan Ekrami is partner at Allen & Overy LLP in Paris, www.allenovery.com.

Susan Ekrami
Susan Ekrami is a senior associate with Allen & Overy LLP in Paris, www.allenovery.com.
Rulings

ECJ 23 September 2020, Case C-777/18 (Vas Megyei Kormányhivatal (Soins de santé transfrontaliers)), Free Movement, Social Insurance

WO – v – Vas Megyei Kormányhivatal, Hungarian case

Trefwoorden Free Movement, Social Insurance
Samenvatting

    In principle, healthcare received on initiative of an insured person, in another Member State than the Member State of residence, constitutes ‘scheduled treatment’ within the meaning of Article 20 of Regulation 883/04/EC, the reimbursement of which is subject to prior authorization. This can be different in ‘individual circumstances’.

Rulings

ECtHR 3 September 2020, application no. 57462/19 (Mahi), Freedom of Expression

Yacob Mahi – v – Belgium

Trefwoorden Freedom of Expression
Samenvatting

    It was not contrary to Article 10 of the Charter to disciplinary transfer an Islamic teacher to another school 50 kilometres away, for sending an open letter concerning inter alia the Charlie Hebdo attacks in January 2015. His remarks were incompatible with the duty of discretion incumbent upon him as a teacher.

Rulings

ECtHR 20 October 2020, application no. 33139/13 (Napotnik – v – Romania), Gender Discrimination

Ms Oana-Cornelia Napotnik – v – Romania

Trefwoorden Gender Discrimination
Samenvatting

    No breach of diplomat’s rights when she was recalled from a post abroad because she was pregnant.

Rulings

ECJ 24 September 2020, Case C-223/19 (YS (Pensions d’entreprise de personnel cadre)), Discrimination General, Gender Discrimination, Pension

YS – v – NK AG, Austrian case

Trefwoorden Age Discrimination, Gender Discrimination, Pension
Samenvatting

    Deductions from pensions larger than a certain threshold do not necessarily constitute gender and/or age discrimination.

Rulings

ECJ 1 October 2020, Case C-612/19 P (CC/Parliament), Miscellaneous

CC – v – European Parliament, EU case

Trefwoorden Miscellaneous
Samenvatting

    Claim for (further) damages following an inadequate recruitment procedure denied.

Rulings

ECJ 6 October 2020, Case C-181/19 (Job Center Krefeld), Social Insurance

Jobcenter Krefeld – Widerspruchsstelle – v – NK AG, Austrian case

Trefwoorden Social Insurance
Samenvatting

    Regulation 492/2011 precludes legislation based on which a Member State denies a citizen from another EU member state his social benefits when his children still go to school in the (first) Member State. Unfortunately, no English translation is available yet.

Rulings

ECJ 8 October 2020, Case C-644/19 (Universitatea „Lucian Blaga” Sibiu and Others), Age Discrimination, Fixed-Term Work

FT – v – Universitatea « Lucian Blaga » Sibiu and Others, Romanian case

Trefwoorden Age Discrimination, Fixed-Term Work
Samenvatting

    Difference in treatment of teaching staff not found to be age discriminatory, but may be in breach of the fixed-term work directive.

    Article 5(5) of Directive 2008/104 does not impose specific measures on Member States, but it does require that they take certain measures to reach its aim.

Rulings

ECJ 29 October 2000, Case C-243/19 (Veselības ministrija), Social Insurance, Miscellaneous

A – v – Veselības ministrija, Latvian case

Trefwoorden Social Insurance, Miscellaneous
Samenvatting

    Article 20(2) of Regulation No 883/2004 does not preclude the insured person’s Member State of residence from refusing to grant that person the authorisation provided for in Article 20(1) of that regulation, where hospital care is available in that Member State but the treatment used is contrary to that person’s religious beliefs.

Rulings

ECJ 11 November 2020, Case C-300/19 (Marclean Technologies SLU), Collective Redundancies

UQ – v – Marclean Technologies SLU, Spanish case

Trefwoorden Collective Redundancies
Samenvatting

    The reference period determining whether a collective dismissal took place, can be any 30-/90-day period in which the largest numbers of relevant dismissals took place.

Rulings

ECJ 12 November 2020, Case C-382/19 P (Pethke – v – EUIPO), Miscellaneous

Ralph Pethke – v – EUIPO, EU Case

Trefwoorden Miscellaneous
Samenvatting

    Internal disciplinary case, claims rejected.

Rulings

ECJ 12 November 2020, Case C-446/19 P (Fleig – v – EEAS), Miscellaneous

Stephan Fleig – v – EEAS, EU Case

Trefwoorden Miscellaneous
Samenvatting

    Internal dismissal case, claims rejected. Unfortunately, no English translation is available.

Rulings

ECJ 18 November 2020, Case C-463/19 (Syndicat CFTC), Gender Discrimination

Syndicat CFTC du personnel de la Caisse primaire d’assurance maladie de la Moselle – v – Caisse primaire d’assurance maladie de la Moselle, French case

Trefwoorden Gender Discrimination
Samenvatting

    A national collective agreement may reserve to mothers alone an additional maternity leave, as long as it seeks to protect them from the effects of pregnancy and motherhood.

Rulings

ECJ 19 November 2020, Case C-93/19 P (EEAS – v – Hebberecht), Gender Discrimination, Miscellaneous

European External Action Service (EEAS) – v – Chantal Hebberecht, EU case

Trefwoorden Gender Discrimination, Miscellaneous
Samenvatting

    In its consideration of Ms Hebberecht’s request to extend her posting, EEAS could not exclude equal treatment aspects from the consideration on grounds that they were not deemed relevant in the interests of the service.

Rulings

ECJ 25 November 2020, case C-799/19 (Sociálna poisťovňa), Insolvency

NI, OJ, PK – v – Sociálna poisťovňa, Slovak case

Trefwoorden Insolvency
Samenvatting

    An employer cannot be deemed to be in a ‘state of insolvency’ where an action for enforcement has been brought against him in connection with a judicially recognised claim for compensation, but the claim is deemed irrecoverable in the enforcement proceedings on account of that employer’s informal insolvency.

Rulings

ECJ 1 December 2020, Case C-815/18 (Federatie Nederlandse Vakbeweging), Applicable Law, Posting of Workers and Expatriates

Federatie Nederlandse Vakbeweging – v – Van den Bosch Transporten BV, Van den Bosch Transporte GmbH, Silo-Tank Kft, Dutch case

Trefwoorden Applicable Law, Posting of Workers and Expatriates
Samenvatting

    Posting of Workers: Directive 96/71/EC applies to the road transport sector. A worker is posted if his/her work has a sufficient connection with the host country.The ECJ’s summary of the case is available on: https://curia.europa.eu/jcms/jcms/p1_3345527/en/

Pending Cases

Case C-344/20, Religious Discrimination

L.F. – v – S.C.R.L., reference lodged by Tribunal du travail francophone de Bruxelles (Belgium) on 27 July 2020

Trefwoorden Religious Discrimination
Pending Cases

Case C-372/20, Social Insurance, Gender Discrimination

QE – v – Finanzamt Wien für den 8., 16. und 17. Bezirk, reference lodged by the Bundesfinanzgericht (Austria) on 6 August 2020

Trefwoorden Social Insurance, Gender Discrimination
Pending Cases

Case C-350/20, Social Insurance

O.D. and Others – v – Istituto nazionale della previdenza sociale (INPS), reference lodged by Corte costituzionale (Italy) on 30 July 2020

Trefwoorden Social Insurance
Pending Cases

Case C-389/20, Gender Discrimination

CJ – v – Tesorería General de la Seguridad Social, reference lodged by the Juzgado de lo Contencioso-Administrativo n.º 2 de Vigo (Spain) \ on 14 August 2020

Trefwoorden Gender Discrimination
Pending Cases

C-405/20, Gender Discrimination, Pension

EB and Others – v – Versicherungsanstalt öffentlich Bediensteter, Eisenbahnen und Bergbau (BVAEB), reference lodged by the Verwaltungsgerichtshof (Austria) on 28 August 2020

Trefwoorden Gender Discrimination, Pension
Pending Cases

Case C-426/20, Temporary Agency Work

GD and ES – v – Luso Temp – Empresa de Trabalho Temporário, S. A., reference lodged by the Tribunal Judicial da Comarca de Braga – Juízo do Trabalho de Barcelos (Portugal) on 10 September 2020

Trefwoorden Temporary Agency Work
Pending Cases

Case C-411/20, Free Movement, Social Insurance

S – v – Familienkasse Niedersachsen-Bremen der Bundesagentur für Arbeit, reference lodged by the Finanzgericht Bremen (Germany) on 2 September 2020

Trefwoorden Free Movement, Social Insurance
Pending Cases

Case C-485/20, Disability Discrimination

X – v – HR Rail, SA de droit public, reference lodged by Conseil d’État (Belgium) on 29 September 2020

Trefwoorden Disability Discrimination
Pending Cases

Case C-514/20, Paid Leave

DS – v – Koch Personaldienstleistungen GmbH, reference lodged by the Bundesarbeitsgericht (Germany) on 13 October 2020

Trefwoorden Paid Leave
Pending Cases

Case C-518/20, Paid Leave

XP – v – St. Vincenz-Krankenhaus GmbH, reference lodged by the Bundesarbeitsgericht (Germany) on 16 October 2020

Trefwoorden Paid Leave
Pending Cases

Case C-502/20, Free Movement, Work and Residence Permit

TP – v – Institut des experts en automobiles, reference lodged by the Cour d’appel de Mons (Belgium) on 5 October 2020

Trefwoorden Free Movement, Work and Residence Permit

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