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Justitiële verkenningen

Meer op het gebied van Criminologie en veiligheid

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Aflevering 2, 2020 Alle samenvattingen uitklappen
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Inleiding

Auteurs Dr. Marleen Weulen Kranenbarg en Mr. drs. Marit Scheepmaker
Auteursinformatie

Dr. Marleen Weulen Kranenbarg
Gastredacteur dr. M. Weulen Kranenbarg is als universitair docent Criminologie verbonden aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Mr. drs. Marit Scheepmaker
Mr. drs. M.P.C. Scheepmaker is hoofdredacteur van Justitiële verkenningen.
Artikel

Access_open Coronacrisis en fraude: vier mogelijke relaties

Trefwoorden Corona crisis, crime opportunities, fraud, scenarios, future development
Auteurs Dr. Clarissa Meerts en Dr. Wim Huisman
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution contains several concrete examples of ‘Corona crime’ thereby showing how the current crisis is creating new opportunities for committing crimes. The authors revert to an analysis framework that was previously used to interpret new forms of crime during the banking crisis. It consists of four scenarios that are briefly described. The future will have to show what effects the corona pandemic has had on fraud and other financial and economic crime.


Dr. Clarissa Meerts
Dr. C. Meerts is als universitair docent Criminologie verbonden aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Dr. Wim Huisman
Dr. W. Huisman is hoogleraar Criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

Vissen met een nieuwe hengel: een onderzoek naar betaalverzoekfraude

Trefwoorden payment request fraud, online advertisement platforms, modus operandi, cybercrime, spearphishing
Auteurs Joke Rooyakkers MSc. en Dr. Marleen Weulen Kranenbarg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Online fraudsters seem to adapt to new digital opportunities. While the academic literature about phishing mainly focuses on phishing through emails, fraudsters also appear to use new means of communication and platforms to find and deceive their victims. Based on analysis of 728 police reports from the period from June 20th to August 20th 2019, this article provides a descriptive study on the new phenomenon of payment request fraud on the Dutch advertisement platform Marktplaats.nl (similar to eBay). The article will provide a thorough description of the crime script and its success factors. As fraudsters now use new means of communication, it will also be assessed to what extent they use new persuasion techniques, and to what extent victims may have different characteristics. The research, therefore, focuses on the modus operandi, persuasion techniques used by the fraudsters, and victim characteristics.


Joke Rooyakkers MSc.
I.J.M. Rooyakkers MSc. is analist cybercrime bij de Nationale Politie, eenheid Limburg.

Dr. Marleen Weulen Kranenbarg
Dr. M. Weulen Kranenbarg is universitair docent Criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. Persoonlijke pagina: https://research.vu.nl/en/persons/marleen-weulen-kranenbarg.
Artikel

F-gamers die ‘mapsen’, ‘swipen’ en ‘bonken’: een netnografisch onderzoek naar fraude en oplichting op Telegram Messenger

Trefwoorden cybercrime, phishing, Telegram, netnography, fraud
Auteurs Dr. Robby Roks en Nahom Monshouwer MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article, the authors draw on a netnographic study conducted between May and July 2019 on phishing on Telegram Messenger. The results indicate that Telegram, just like cryptomarkets and online forums, seems to function as a criminal marketplace. In the groups analyzed the authors see users who both offer and are looking for specific goods and services related to the crime script of phishing. Furthermore, the information on Telegram contains specific modi operandi that are offering comprehensive and step-by-step guides to successfully complete specific financial cybercrimes. Therefore, based on this explorative study the authors argue that Telegram can be seen as a digital offender convergence setting.


Dr. Robby Roks
Dr. R.A. Roks is als universitair docent verbonden aan de sectie Criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

Nahom Monshouwer MSc
R.N. Monshouwer MSc is CCD Analist bij Rabobank.
Artikel

Helpdeskfraude in Nederland

Auteurs Jildau Borwell MSc
Auteursinformatie

Jildau Borwell MSc
J. Borwell MSc werkt binnen de politie als senior cybercrimeanalist bij het cybercrimeteam van de Eenheid Noord-Nederland. Vanuit een landelijke themaverdeling heeft zij zich gespecialiseerd in helpdeskfraude, waarbij zij onder andere de rapportages schreef waarop deze kadertekst gebaseerd is. Daarnaast doet zij vanuit het lectoraat Cybersafety van de NHL Stenden Hogeschool in Leeuwarden promotieonderzoek naar de impact van cybercrime op slachtoffers.
Artikel

Het verlies van geld, geluk en gezicht

Romance scams, datingfraude en ‘sweetheart swindles’

Trefwoorden cybercrime, victimization, romance scam, dating fraud, cybervictimology
Auteurs Raoul Notté MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Romance scams have seen a worldwide increase and are one of the most financially damaging forms of cybercrime. In addition, victims suffer strong emotional impact and are confronted with victim blaming. Research shows how the combination of various emotional and financial impact can induce a ‘double-hit’ on victims. Knowledge and possibilities for law enforcement are insufficient, which leads to a lack of financial compensation and support for victims.


Raoul Notté MSc
R.J. Notté MSc is als researcher/lecturer verbonden aan The Hague University of Applied Sciences (Faculteit IT & Design/Centre of Expertise Cyber Security). Hij is tevens promovendus bij het International Victimology Institute (INTERVICT) van Tilburg University.
Artikel

Wie krijgt zijn geld terug?

Acties van slachtoffers tot schadevergoeding bij bankfraude

Trefwoorden banking fraud, victimization, crime reporting, reimbursement, capability to act
Auteurs Dr. Johan van Wilsem, Dr. Take Sipma en Dr. Esther Meijer-van Leijsen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the Internet era, banking fraud has become a common way of stealing money. According to victim surveys, this offense has already led to significant numbers of victims. In this article, the authors focus on illegal bank account withdrawals, which are an indication of identity fraud. For this they use data on 636 victims who were surveyed in the LISS panel. Using the concept of ‘capability to act’, as used in the WRR report Why knowing what to do is not enough (2017), the authors model which type of victim takes action to get the stolen amount reimbursed and which type of victim succeeds in doing so. They expect that the less educated and people with low self-control more often refrain from contact with authorities (bank, police) and therefore more often receive no compensation and remain with higher residual damage. The results show that approximately four in five victims of unauthorized bank debits are fully compensated. For the group of victims for whom this is not the case – remaining with residual damage – most of the hypotheses are confirmed.


Dr. Johan van Wilsem
Dr. J. van Wilsem is strateeg-onderzoeker bij de Algemene Rekenkamer.

Dr. Take Sipma
Dr. T. Sipma is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het WODC.

Dr. Esther Meijer-van Leijsen
Dr. E. Meijer-van Leijsen is als onderzoeker werkzaam bij de Algemene Rekenkamer.

Dieke Miltenburg MSc
D. Miltenburg MSc behaalde recent haar wo-master Opsporingscriminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

Social engineering: digitale fraude en misleiding

Een meta-analyse van studies naar de effectiviteit van interventies

Trefwoorden awareness, cybercrime, intervention, meta-analysis, social engineering
Auteurs Dr. Jan-Willem Bullée en Prof. dr. Marianne Junger
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The prevalence of online crime increases. Social engineering, such as email phishing, is often an important element in an attack. Several interventions have been developed to reduce the success of these types of attacks. The current study investigates whether interventions can help reduce vulnerability to social engineering attacks. The authors investigate which types of interventions and specific elements are most successful. They selected studies with an experimental design that tested at least one intervention. A total of 19 studies with 37 effect sizes, based on a total sample of N=23,146 subjects, were found. The available training courses, intervention materials and effect sizes were analysed. Overall, positive effects of interventions were found. However, there are substantial differences in effect for the different types of interventions. Effective interventions are relatively intensive and have a specific focus. The authors conclude with the design of the best possible intervention given the results of their research.


Dr. Jan-Willem Bullée
Dr. J.-W. Bullée is werkzaam bij Awareways, Computer & Network Security. Hij promoveerde in 2017 op het proefschrift Experimental social engineering aan de Universiteit Twente.

Prof. dr. Marianne Junger
Prof. dr. M. Junger is hoogleraar Cyber Security en Business Continuity aan de Universiteit Twente.

Anouk van de Beek MSc
A. van de Beek MSc behaalde recent haar wo-master Opsporingscriminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

Ons cybergedrag is veel onveiliger dan we zelf denken

Implicaties voor effectief beïnvloedingsbeleid door de overheid

Trefwoorden cyber hygiene, security behavior, human vulnerability, COM-B, policy implications
Auteurs Dr. Rick van der Kleij, Dr. Susanne van ’t Hoff-de Goede, Dr. Steve van de Weijer e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The aim of this research was to examine how Dutch citizens behave online and to explain their online behavior. The results of an experimental survey (N=2,426) show that unsafe behavior is highly prevalent. For example, nearly 40% of the respondents use a weak password. However, it appears that there are major differences between self-reported behavior and objective behavior. The objective measurements in the survey show that people behave more unsafely than they self-report. The research further shows that there is no silver bullet for promoting more safe online behavior. Different online behaviors seem to stem from different sources. Nevertheless, the authors do see a lot of value in interventions that focus on adaptations to the technology that people use for online activities, such that the possibility of unsafe behavior is reduced and the possibility of safe behavior is increased – also known as security by design. There is a role here for policy measures encouraging technology manufacturers to make these adjustments.


Dr. Rick van der Kleij
Dr. R. van der Kleij werkt als senior onderzoeker bij het lectoraat Cybersecurity in het mkb aan de Haagse Hogeschool en als senior onderzoeker bij TNO.

Dr. Susanne van ’t Hoff-de Goede
Dr. S. van ’t Hoff-de Goede is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het lectoraat Cybersecurity in het mkb aan de Haagse Hogeschool.

Dr. Steve van de Weijer
Dr. S. van de Weijer is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het NSCR.

Dr. Rutger Leukfeldt
Dr. E.R. Leukfeldt werkt als lector Cybersecurity in het mkb aan de Haagse Hogeschool en als senior onderzoeker bij het NSCR.