Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid

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Aflevering 3, 2010 Alle samenvattingen uitklappen

Access_open Religie, een veelzijdig fenomeen

Auteurs Sophie van Bijsterveld

Sophie van Bijsterveld
Prof. dr. S.C. van Bijsterveld is hoogleraar Religie, Rechtsstaat en Samenleving aan de Faculteit Geesteswetenschappen van de Universiteit van Tilburg en redactielid van Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid.

Access_open Over het verbod op het dragen van een gezichtssluier en van andere gelaatsbedekkende kleding

Trefwoorden gelaatsbedekkende kleding, boerka, godsdienstvrijheid, wetgeving
Auteurs Paul van Sasse van Ysselt

    The last decade the wearing of face hiding clothes has come up as a rather new phenomenon in the Netherlands and surrounding countries. Although not that many people wear them, a rather wide aversion exists against this phenomenon and is directed especially against the Islamic burqa. A rather intensive public and political debat is going on concerning the allowance of those clothes. In different countries, among which the Netherlands, France and Belgium, the legislator is drafting laws which aim to forbid the wearing of these clothes. This article gives an overview of the debate on this issue in especially the aforementioned countries and reflects upon it, with a special focus on the freedom of belief and religion.

Paul van Sasse van Ysselt
Mr. P.B.C.D.F. van Sasse van Ysselt is werkzaam bij de directie Constitutionele Zaken en Wetgeving van het ministerie van Binnenlandse Zaken en Koninkrijksrelaties en tevens verbonden aan de afdeling Staats- en bestuursrecht van de VU Amsterdam.

Access_open Het belang van de religieuze binding in sociale statistieken

Trefwoorden sociale statistiek, religieuze betrokkenheid, enquêtes, sociale samenhang
Auteurs Hans Schmeets

    A vast majority of 58% of the Dutch population belongs to a Christian or other denomination. However, if the question is phrased differently this figure drops to some 40%. Religion is an important characteristic in social statistics, and for defining social cohesion in particular. Overall, it reveals that Protestants show higher levels of social, civic and political participation, as well as social, institutional and political trust than Catholics, non-religious, and in particular Muslims. However, within the Protestants, there is a clear divide: the Calvinists and in particular the members of the Protestant Church in the Netherlands formed in 2004 show the highest levels of participation and trust, whereas the Dutch reformed only slightly differ from the Catholics and non-religious.

Hans Schmeets
Prof. dr. J.J.G. Schmeets is werkzaam bij het Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek. Hij is programmamanager van de speerpunten sociale samenhang, welzijn en belevingen. Tevens is hij bijzonder hoogleraar Sociale statistiek, in het bijzonder de empirische bestudering van sociale samenhang, aan de faculteit van Cultuur- en Maatschappijwetenschappen van de Universiteit Maastricht. Daarnaast is hij betrokken bij het beoordelen van verkiezingen in landen die behoren bij de Organisatie voor Veiligheid en Samenwerking in Europa (OVSE). Naast onderzoek naar verkiezingen liggen zijn interessegebieden bij religie, vertrouwen, vrijwilligerswerk, sociaal kapitaal, survey methodologie, en onderzoek naar specifieke bevolkingsgroepen zoals allochtonen en daklozen.

Access_open Scheiding van kerk en staat in het onderwijsrecht

Het aanhoudende debat over het beleid van de staat ten opzichte van het openbaar en bijzonder onderwijs

Trefwoorden scheiding kerk en staat, schoolstrijd, openbaar onderwijs, bijzonder onderwijs
Auteurs Dick Mentink

    From the beginning of the 19th century until today, education in the Netherlands has been a prime battleground in the search for the right balance of church and state. This article discusses five parliamentary debates regarding the position of public and private (particularly religious) education. Although two of these debates took place a long time ago, they are anything but mere history: they laid the foundation for the current dual educational system of public and private education (in 1857) and the unique constitutional provision on the financial equality of public and private schools (in 1917). The three other debates concerned the religious neutrality of public schools and the freedom of education, and these topics are recurring topics of parliamentary debate. This debate is fed by changing societal circumstances and governmental principles regarding the quality of education. This is no surprise, concludes the author. These issues concern essential questions regarding educational policy on pluralism in education. Every time such a question arises, the legislator must justify its political explanation based on what the constitutional provision regarding education (Article 23) requires and allows on the separation of church and state.

Dick Mentink
Prof. dr. mr. D. Mentink is emeritus hoogleraar Onderwijsrecht aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam en voorzitter van de Nederlandse Vereniging voor Onderwijsrecht.

Access_open Een mijlpaal op weg naar maatschappelijke uitsluiting

Over het SGP-arrest van de Hoge Raad van 9 april 2010

Trefwoorden discriminatie, godsdienstvrijheid, sociale uitsluiting
Auteurs Matthijs de Blois

    The exclusion of women from being elected for an orthodox Christian political party (SGP) is declared discriminatory by the Supreme Court. It overlooked however the importance of the freedom of religion in a pluralistic society. Furthermore, not any woman concerned was prepared to start proceedings. The party was moreover not inspired by an idea of inferiority, but by religious views on the roles of men and women. The Court ignored the importance of a representation of non-dominant social currents.

Matthijs de Blois
Dr. M. de Blois is als universitair hoofddocent verbonden aan de afdeling Rechtstheorie van het Department Rechtsgeleerdheid aan de Universiteit Utrecht.

Access_open Heilige velden

Panorama van ritueel-religieuze presenties in het publieke domein

Trefwoorden religie in het publieke domein, rituelen, religieuze manifestaties, Inburgeringsriten
Auteurs Paul Post

    Religion in the public domain has been a theme of remarkably current interest for a long time in our country as well as elsewhere in Europe. Not only in dialogue and debate, but primarily also via specific occasions, practices, and situations. One can think here of the position of the many redundant church buildings, the granting of permits for public religious manifestations, the ringing of church bells or public calls to prayer, the role (or abandonment of the role) of governments in rituals following disasters and accidents, the structure of citizenship rites and other forms of civic/civil ritual, the involvement of governments in religious celebrations in the public domain such as processions or Iftar meals, et cetera. This contribution explores the place of religion in the public domain in a specific way, i.e. on the basis of practices: its starting point lies in traceable manifestations of religion in our culture and society, in practices and rituals. After some conceptual orientation, this approach takes the form of a general panorama of religious-ritual presences and manifestations in that public domain and a further exploration of those via a model of so-called ritual-sacred fields.

Paul Post
Prof. dr. P. Post studeerde theologie, liturgiewetenschap en christelijke kunst in Utrecht en Rome. Momenteel is hij hoogleraar Liturgische en Rituele Studies aan de Faculteit Geesteswetenschappen van de Universiteit van Tilburg en directeur van het aldaar gevestigde interuniversitaire Instituut voor Liturgische en Rituele Studies. Hij is tevens vicedecaan Onderzoek van de Faculteit Geesteswetenschappen. Hij doet onderzoek naar en publiceert over actuele rituele dynamiek. Zijn onderzoek concentreert zich al enige tijd op plaats, ritueel en religie.

Access_open Trambestuurder en kruisbeeld

Trefwoorden tramconducteur, ketting met kruis, AWGB, indirect onderscheid
Auteurs Carla Zoethout

    Mister Aziz, orginally coming from Egypt, is a Coptic Christian who wears a long chain with a crucifix of about 5 centimeters high, in order to express his religion. He is chauffeur on an electric tram and has for some years been allowed to wear his chain at work. With the introduction of a new uniform however, Aziz is no longer allowed to do this. He claims this to be a discriminatory treatment, which he considers unjustified given the fact that Islamic women chauffeurs are allowed to wear headscarves, since (as his employer states) these have been incorporated into the uniform. According to the court of appeal, there is no unjustified discrimination of religion in this case. The regulation that chains may not be worn on top of the uniform is legitimate, appropriate and necessary. The headscarf has been incorporated into the uniform and is thus part of the ‘professional look’ of the employer. In the comment, some critical remarks about the case are being made. Are not different religions being treated differently, here?

Carla Zoethout
Dr. C.M. Zoethout is universitair hoofddocent Staatsrecht aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam en is redactielid van Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid.

    France has recently introduced legislation prohibiting wearing the face-covering veil in public places. Similar legislative initiatives have been undertaken in Belgium, Netherlands and Spain, but have not resulted in law. This article presents an overview of the variety of arguments that are being used in the legislative proposals and bills why the face-covering veil ought to be prohibited in the public domain. It shows that the arguments are quite diverse, and not always consistent. In addition, an overview will be presented of the arguments made by the French and Dutch State Councils in their advise against such legislation.

Maurits Berger
Prof. dr. mr. M.S. Berger is hoogleraar Islam in het hedendaagse Westen aan de Universiteit Leiden en is hoofdredacteur van Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid.

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